Restoration of monuments


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  • Under the guidance of ::Kumthekar M.B.Head of Civil Dept,Govt. College of Engg.,Karad.
  • Chemical Problems ::
  • Restoration materials ::
  • Mechanical/Structural problems ::
  • Inflow of waste water
  • Images of Humayun’s Tomb Repair Work
  • THANK YOU !!!
  • Restoration of monuments

    4. 4. INTRODUCTION Need of repair,restoration or rehabilitation of monuments :: A way to preserve our history and maintain the beauty and value of a place Preserve our traditions and culture & conserve our cultural heritage Very important in order to maintain the beauty and grace of the older monuments Monuments are designed to endure, but time and exposure to the elements takes a toll
    5. 5. PRE-RESTORATION WORKS Legislations :: The main legislations in India that deals with the subject of conservation and protection of our cultural heritage and monuments, within it’s ambit are as follows: The Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878 The Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904 The Antiquities (Export Control) Act, 1947 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 ( No 24 of 1958) The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act 1972
    6. 6.  Surveys :: Photogrammetric survey from the air Preparation of photogrammetric survey maps Field survey Preparation of the final drawings of the site Comprehensive ground survey Analytical studies
    7. 7.  MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR SURVEYING OF RESTORATION :: VIRTUAL MODEL TECHNOLOGY ::1. Acoustical identification and evaluationObjective identification and evaluation (measurements, calculations)Subjective identification and evaluation (psycho-acoustical surveys)2. Creation of the Virtual EnvironmentVisual simulation (simulation of the spaces, simulation of the humans)Acoustical simulationCombined 3D real time simulation3. Virtual revival and recovery
    8. 8.  DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO AS A TOOL FOR THE RESTORATION OFMONUMENTS :: Advantages of digital over manual processing lie in the possibility ofmeasuring a very large number of points without fatigue and with a highlevel of productivity A digital orthophoto is an orthographic photograph of objects whichreproduces the photo-texture, colours or grey tones of the originalphotographs It is derived from conventional perspective photographs by simple ordifferential rectification Each pixel of the image is transformed by means of an orthogonalprojection with scaling onto a horizontal plane which represent anelement of or the entire digital surface model of the object; imageresampling is carried out using different kinds of transformations
    9. 9.  Orthophoto has the advantage of combining image metric quality withthe possibility of obtaining information about the type of material, stateof conservation and deterioration (for example, the presence ofhumidity, wall surface erosion, etc.) DSM generated requires accurate editing in order to correct errors,sometimes particularly large, which are introduced by automaticmatching An accurate photogrammetric survey, by using digital processingtechniques and with integrated manual-automatic vectorisingprocedures, can constitute a valid support for decision-makingprocedures and the operative stages of restoration the generation of digital Orthophotos opens the way to new methods for approachingphotogrammetric data, considered an open archive whichcan be accessed to directly carry out metric surveys
    10. 10. Problems in Heritage Structures HUMAN NEGLIGENCE – Unintentional HUMAN VANDALISM – Intentional Overloading of roof Rising of ground level Wrong Choice of stone Structural Problems Climatic Problems
    11. 11. REPAIR PROBLEMS The major repair problems ::
    12. 12. METHODOLOGY Physical & Chemical Problems ::Salt damage of weak pointing material Damage through salt Crystallization
    13. 13.  Lack of compatibility between repair material and the existingfabric is often Porosity and moisture transport characteristics are often moreimportant than strength properties Compatibility and retreatability important - conceptual as well aspractical notions for the choice of repair materials Example : bond between old & new material Applied repair material should be such that to protect the adjacentmaterial from premature decay Also be durable taking into considerations physical & chemicalbehavior between old & new repair material
    14. 14.  Examples of incompatibility ::Dense repointing leading to frost damage Subflorescence caused by water repellents
    15. 15.  Repair Practices :: Raking out of joints mechanically Repointing Periodical chemical preservation of the Vimana (58.96 m tall)
    17. 17.  Restoration materials :: Repointing practices such as raking (manual & machine) expansiongroove, mortar joint section repointing Mineral grout, polymer injection, anti staining coating andtechniques Portland cement mortars and grouts lime cement mortars and grouts Pozzolanic mortars and grouts Epoxy resin mortars and grouts
    18. 18.  Moisture Protection in Preservation and Restoration :: Moisture protection often takes the back seat in most restorationprojects They are practically all non-drainable wall systems; every joint andtransition should be perfectly watertight Most of the exterior components are very porous; the result is notonly interior water damage but also biological growth and mildew The mortar joints are mostly responsible for preventing the waterintrusion; they do not last forever Our forefathers had a tendency to marry materials that do not want tobe married; they joined masonry with wood without adequatetransition joints
    19. 19.  Addressing these challenges :: The non-drainable wall systems-adopt one or two principles ofmoisture protection: barrier – drainage – diversion Porous substrates-With the exception of marble and limestone,it is impossible to reduce the porosity by honing & clear water repellentssuch as silanes and siloxanes are a valid solution to this problem Mortar joints- Use of different pointing methods and materialsincluding parging is very much suitable for preventing water intrusion Marriage of incompatible materials – Proper flashing and installing aproper transition joint between the different materials with a suitablesealant will solve this problem
    20. 20.  Mechanical/Structural problems ::
    21. 21. STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS(a) crushing of brackets (b) deterioration of Brick (c) moisture stains and biological colonization
    22. 22.  STRUCTURAL AND SEISMIC WEAKENING OF THE MONUMENTS :: The existence of joints affects the behaviour of the monument whensubjected to seismic force The discontinuity - articulations determine the distribution of stressessuch as the size and distribution of seismic force The articulated elements of the monument (columns, pilasters, walls)can oscillate or they can slide, thus either absorbing the force, orconcentrating these stresses at the ends of the blocks so that the edgesbreak The basic principle of planning interventions on the architecturalmembers is the restoration of the bearing capacity of each member sothat it can withstand the greatest possible load In case of overload, the joining elements are planned to absorb theseismic force without damage to the material
    23. 23.  White cement and titanium reinforcements are used for thestructural restoration of the stones The reinforcements are threaded titanium rods which are inserted intoholes in the material like marble mass and secured by an inorganicplaster made of white cement The holes do not penetrate to the outer surfaces of the architecturalmembers nor do they reach the coarsely worked interior surfaces, sothat they are not visible Fragments that do not belong together, that is that do not come fromthe same architectural member, are never joined together Rusting and expansion of the iron elements causes a material likemarble to break and architectural members to shift
    24. 24. The way of construction of a marble wall
    25. 25. Structural restoration drawing of a marble beam
    26. 26.  The dimensioning of the bending members is done for the total actionthey are expected to undergo after their reconstruction The actions include structural vertical loading and strong – seismicvertical and horizontal loads Calculated also are the actions during transportation, storage and re-setting In order to check the strength of the join, developed stresses in theplace of the mended crack are compared with the allowable stresses ofthe materials, compressive strength of the marble and tensile strengthof the reinforcement The amount of reinforcement needed, using this method, is indeedvery small (1-2%) and as a result there is little damage to the ancientmaterial
    27. 27. Joining of fragments of a beam by means of titanium bars
    28. 28. Preparation for the joining of the beam fragments
    29. 29. Binding of the beam fragments after the joining
    30. 30.  Joining architectural members with titanium clamps and dowels :: The elements used for joining (clamps and dowels/rods) are designedto begin with in accordance with the positions and measurements of thecuttings and sockets in the ancient members In designing the clamps and dowels, the aim is that the weakerelement of the join be the metal clamp or dowel, so that in case of greatstress the join can withstand permanent deformation and, if deemednecessary, there can be a new intervention, limited to replacing themetal clamps/dowels Double-T clamp is designed so as to have the greatest possiblestrength and ductility
    31. 31. Different types of titanium clamps
    32. 32.  Restoration materials :: Coated steels with zinc coating, lead coating, resin coating Stainless steels or austenetic steels with chromium,nicelium andmolybdenum (Ch-No-Ni type ) Titanium bars – relatively light metal and exceptionally goodcorrosion resistance Modern materials such as organic or inorganic fiber compositecables is a new promising approach Retrofitting methods such as Timber, Iron and steel, Fiber reinforcedplastic and Reinforced concrete may be selected White cement base used as a glue for joining fragments
    33. 33. TESTS CONDUCTEDfoundation pits boroscopic observations flat-jack testing coring
    34. 34. Repair Practices
    35. 35. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA The Archaeological Survey of India was founded in 1861 under British colonial administration by Sir Alexander Cunningham The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI Major works done – Jantar Mantar,Humayun’s tomb, Mahabalipuram, Ajanta & Ellora, Bibi-ka-Maqbara , Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
    36. 36. MAJOR ACTIVITIES Conducting archaeological explorations and excavations; Maintenance, conservation and preservation ofprotected monuments and archaeological sites and remains ofnational importance; Chemical preservation of monuments and antiquarian remains; Architectural survey of monuments; Epigraphical and numismatic studies; Setting up and re-organization of Site Museums; Training in Archaeology; Bringing out archaeological publications; Archaeological expeditions outside India ; Horticulture operation in and around ancient monuments and sites. Implementation and regulation of - The Ancient Monuments andArchaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958; The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, etc
    37. 37. CASE STUDIES MANSAGAR LAKE,JAL MAHAL :: Jal Mahal is an 18th century pleasure palace located in the middle of the Mansagar Lake Mansagar Lake is a 300 acre lake surrounded by the Nahargarh hills The lake and the project area was an ecological disaster, with the dumping of untreated sewage from the city and poor upkeep The Mahal is a five story palace with four floors submerged below water Jain and Associates, a heritage restoration firm will restore the architectural beauty of the monument A consultancy firm, Belt Collins, will develop the landscaping gardens designed by leading American landscape architect Mitch Crites A city museum will be developed within the Jal Mahal to be designed and conceptualized by architect Vibhuti Sachdev and historian Giles Tillotson
    38. 38.  IMPLEMENTATION :: Arrangement of funds for lake restoration : Rejuvenation of the Lake cost about Rs. 50 crore Jal Mahal Resorts have taken up this project to run it on a 99 yearlease from the Rajasthan State government against a payment of Rs 2.52crore per annum Implementation of the lake restoration program :
    39. 39.  Issues related to lake pollution :: Inflow of waste water Sewage Treatment Plant Eutrophication Siltation Water balance of the lake Lake water quality Migratory birds Restoration plan :: Realignment drains Desilting of lake STP & wetland construction Insitu bioremediation Afforestation of lake Nesting island Checkdam
    40. 40.  Procurement of Private Sector Developer :: Recreation Facilities provided-(i) Convention Centre and Art Gallery(ii) Multiplex and Entertainment Centre(iii) Craft Bazaar(iv) Arts and Craft Village(v) Resort Hotels(vi) Restaurants and Food Court(vii) Public park and gardens
    41. 41.  Impact Assessment :: Tourism Community Improvement of ground water Migratory birds Indirect Beneficiaries
    42. 42.  Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri, Orissa Lord Jagannath temple at Puri was constructed in the first quarter ofthe 12th century The monument is standing on a high platform connected with theground level by flight of 22 steps (believed to be part of it’s foundation) The height of temple is over 66 metres It is only 2 Km away from the sea
    43. 43.  The construction of Lord Jagannath Temple has been done in ashlarstone masonry with blocks of Khandolite (a local sand stone) laid incourses For the construction, no mortar has been used instead the stones havebeen jointed with help of wrought iron U-shaped cramps or dowels andhave been supported one over another resulting fascinating wall andcorbelled roof, in the shape of frustum of pyramid The geometrical arrangements of the stones perfectly match with theproven thesis of arches, where all the elements are primarily subjectedto compressive forces The wall thickness of the main temple is about 5.5 metre and the maintemple has three floors, i.e. three corbelled roofs inside, which arebeing supported by huge wrought iron beams (about 25 cm. x 25 cm.solid section), spanning over 9 metre of length The wall face externally has been plastered with 45 cm. thick coat oflime plaster, applied in nine distinct layers, while the inside wall has athin coat of plaster up to a height of 3 metre
    44. 44.  The maximum damage to the temple was caused by the rusting ofthese clamps Apart from this the stone expanded due to seepage, generatingpressure and causing chunks to fall The outer faces which was covered with lime plaster (about 45cm) hadfailed to control saline induced deterioration and leakage besidesputting extra pressure on the fabric of the temple and hiding thebeautiful carvings It was found that the condition of the inner walls and corbels requiredattention Similarly, on the southern side of the temple major structuralweakness were detected in the form of multiple cracks, missingarchitectural pieces etc
    45. 45.  INTERVENTION SCHEMES ::I. Replacement of missing corbels as per the originalII. Replacement of rusted wrought iron cramps by stainless steel crampsIII. Sealing of the stone joints by a joint sealant comprising stone dust,cement, polymer (acrylic type) and non-shrink additivesIV. Grouting the inner core with polymer modified, flexible, non-shrink,cement groutsV. Anchoring the loose cantilevers and corbel stones with help of 1.5mto 2.5m long, threaded stainless steel anchors, grouted with low viscousepoxy resinsVI. Providing a stainless steel anchors, grouted withlow viscous epoxy resins
    46. 46. VII. Providing a stainless steel space frame, as a secondary defense tosupport the ground floor corbelled roofVIII. Lateral confinement of the entrance corner walls of each floor bystainless steel flatsIX. Improvement to the existing ventilation system by drillingappropriate diameter holes through the ceiling of the first and secondfloor and provision of suitable ventilation duct in the top floor.X. Provision of temporary support to the ceiling of the first and secondfloor in the form of tubular scaffolding system to monitor corbelmovements and any associated deformation in those floorsXI. Desalination of the external fascia stones by paper pulp techniqueXII. Application of suitable chemical preservative to the fascia stones (inplace of methyl metha acrylate) and suitable biocide treatments
    47. 47.  The walls and corbels of the main temple had shown grossdeformations with weakening of interconnections of structuralelements, thereby endangering the very stability of these structures This is primarily due to the ingress of rain water through theweathered joints into the thick dry stone walls thereby leading to therusting of iron dowels / cramps It has been proved with success that injection of polymeric grout intothe pore structure of the masonry diminish the splitting forces and atthe same time increases the adhesion between the stones For structural stability and proper load distribution of the space frameand to prevent the water ingress into the core of the structure, it wasfelt necessary to take adequate conservation measures by sealing thejoints, surface cracks and grouting the walls with a material whichbesides meeting the general requirement, would also be compatiblewith the structural behaviour of the Ashlar masonry structures
    48. 48.  The materials used for the different grout mix formulations are :1. Ordinary Portland cement2. Modified Acrylic Resin Emulsion of Methyl Methacrylate withcopolymer of 2-ethyl hexaacrylate and butyl acrylate & has 40% of solidresin content3. A solid component material of expanding and plasticizing nature tohelp in low water / cement ratio, positive expansion for non shrinkinfilling and jointing4. Admixtures based on selected lingosulphonates which is adsorbed onto the cement particles and acts as a dispersing agent and breaks downagglomerates of cement particles and enables the water in the mix toperform more efficiently
    49. 49.  To evaluate the effect of polymer loadings in different proportion andother additives on the setting time and mechanical properties ofPolymer Modified Cement (PMC) mortars, cement sand were added inthe ratio of 1:3 by weightI. CementII. Cement : Polymer :: 4:0.5III. Cement : Polymer :: 4:1IV. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive :4:1:0.02V. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive :Plasticiser Cum Retarder :: 4:1:0.02:0.02
    50. 50.  Seismic Safety Assessment of the Temple :: The temple falls in seismic zone III according to the availablequantitative seismicity maps Instances of occurrence of earthquakes of magnitude around 5 onRichter scale have been recorded at about 100 to 150 kms South-east ofPuri The analytical study has been carried out by the Civil EngineeringDepartment of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur to check thestability of the block structure of the main temple against earth quakeforces The results of the analysis indicate that the temple structure will safelywithstand forces developed due to seismic excitation up to a Richterscale of 5.0 Loosely joined stone blocks as in case of massive structures built inashlar masonry are less vulnerable to earthquake induced vibrationsthan the solid structures, the grout materials using injection techniqueswill not solidify the structure fully & alter its structural behaviourcompletely thus, the use of PMC grouts was considered favourable
    51. 51. Renovation of outer face
    52. 52.  Treatment of The Distress Outer Fascia :: Tubular scaffolding were made for treatment of outer faces The treatment should be compatible with the basic stone in respect tochemical bond as also thermal expansion / contraction and moisturemovement The sealant or consolidant should not develop a tight and impervioussurface skin preventing access of moisture this tends to developpressure behind the treatment causing other kinds of damage caused bytrapped moisture drawn to the surface by temperature gradient,thesealant should discourage ingress of fluid but encourage transmissionof vapour Silicones, urethanes, acrylates were tried for limited sealing ofsandstone surfaces but the efficacy depends on the fluid vehicle, theemulsifier and the molecular size of the sealant Equally important are the characteristics of wettability and responseto UV radiation. The treatment should permit trapped salt to escape
    53. 53. Treatment being given at kalash
    54. 54. Temple after renovation
    55. 55.  Period of repair : 1992-1993 Owner : Sri Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri Repaired by : Archeological Survey of India and PWD Govt. ofOrissa Expert Committee: ASI, PWD, SERC, CBRI, IITK, RRL Bhubaneshwar
    56. 56.  HUMAYUN’S TOMB :: The first privately funded restoration was completed in March 2003through the joint efforts of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) andthe Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the National CultureFund The objective of the project was to revitalize the gardens, pathways,fountains and water channels The project’s implementation phase began when the Trust began workon the 12 hectare (30 acre) garden site in 2000 The tomb stands on a platform 120 metres square and reaches aheight of 47 metres Built of rubble masonry, the structure is theearliest example of the use of red sandstone and white marble
    57. 57. Images of Humayun’s Tomb Repair Work
    58. 58. The US$ 650,000 restoration project has featured: Removal of 3,000 truckloads of earth (12,000 cubic metres) Planting of 12 hectares (30 acres) of lawn Re-setting and alignment of over 3,500 kilometres of pathkerbstones Preparation by some 60 stonecutters of 3,000 metres of handdressedred sandstone slabs (to edge the channels) Creation of 128 ground-water recharge pits and the de-silting andcreation of other wells as part of the largest rainwater-harvestingsystem scheme in any heritage site in India Creation of a site exhibition Planning and installation of a new water-circulation system for thewalkway channels Planting of 2,500 trees and plants, including mango, lemon, neem,hibiscus and jasmine cuttings, according to Mughal texts Repair of fountains, wells and rainwater-harvesting systems Provision of wheelchair access to a significant part of the site
    59. 59. FORTHCOMING PROJECTS TAJ MAHAL,AGRA :: On June 21, National Culture Fund,Archaeological Survey of India and the Taj Group of Hotels signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for preservation and upgradation of Taj Mahal The MoU was signed in the presence of Minister of Tourism and Culture, Mr. Ananth Kumar and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Mr. Rajnath Singh and Mr. N Ratan Tata, Chairman of Tata Sons Ltd The group will be responsible for commissioning a professional agency to prepare a feasibility report on the conservation, beautification, restoration and upgradation of the monument and the surrounding areas
    60. 60.  The tasks include :: River water treatment Development of the garden and ambience Development of Mughal Garden Restructuring of the existing museum Conservation of the damaged stones at the Taj Mahal Conservation and preservation of the back wall of the Taj Mahal Conservation and preservation of the eastern side wall of the TajMahal Restoration of the missing inlay pieces in the Taj Mahal and themain entrance of the monument Conservation of the Mehman Khana and replacement of themissing fountains and muttakas Replacement of the broken pieces of jali and other decorativeitems
    61. 61.  PRATAPGAD FORT,MAHARASHTRA The fort was built by Chhatrapati Shivaji between 1656 and 1658 The monument is in need of urgent repair and a few locals had takenthe initiative to renovate it three years back A renovation proposal spread over 4 years and costing Rs 13 crorewas accepted by the government and Rs 1.31 crore wasimmediatelyreleased for its first phase Rs 1.31 crore has been released for the first phase. Rs 4.37 crore willbe released in the financial year 2011-12, Rs 3.56 crore in 2012-13 andthe final installment of Rs 3.76 crore will be released in 2013-14 Work done till date :- Lime mortar is used instead of cement mortar Cleaning & waste disposal of trees,shrubs is being carried out Plastic bottles & waste are collected and given for recycling regularly
    62. 62. CONCLUSION An "ancient monument" means any structure, erection or monument,or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture,inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artisticinterest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), State/Central bodies protectmonuments that are of national importance There are 3650 ancient monuments and archaeological sites andremains of national importance, which are protected by ASI The various techniques presented in this report to restore amonument to it’s original state prove to be very beneficial
    63. 63. REFERENCES
    64. 64. THANK YOU !!!