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1   What Is Chemistry
 

1 What Is Chemistry

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    1   What Is Chemistry 1 What Is Chemistry Presentation Transcript

    • What is Chemistry? Unit 1 – Introduction to Chemistry
    • What is Chemistry?
      • Chemistry is the study of matter
      • What is matter?
        • Matter is anything that has mass and volume
    • What is mass and volume?
      • Mass:
        • The amount of matter in an object
        • How much an object weighs
      • Volume:
        • The amount of space an object occupies
    • Are mass and weight the same thing? Changes with gravity Anywhere Gravity dependent Gravity independent Scale Balance
    • Now that we know what matter is…
      • Can you think of 5 examples of matter?
      • Can you think of the 4 examples of non-matter?
      • Brainstorm with your partner please.
    • Matter – further break down
      • What is the building block of matter?
        • Atom – the basic unit of matter
      • What is it called when two or more atoms are combined?
        • Molecule – two or more atoms that behave as a unit
          • They are chemically bonded
    • Classification of Matter (pg. 3)
      • Matter can be classified into two major groups:
        • Pure Substance
        • Mixture
    • Pure Substance
      • Definition:
        • Made up of only one kind of atom or molecule
        • Example: carbon
    • Mixture
      • Definition:
        • Matter that is made up of more than one kind of atom or molecule.
        • Two or more pure substances mixed
        • Example: salt water
      • Not chemically bonded
      • Can be separated by physical means
    • Further classification:
      • Pure substance and mixture can be further classified
        • Pure substance can be further classified into an element or compound
        • Mixture can be further classified into a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture
    • Element
      • Definition:
        • A pure substance that is made of only a single kind of atom
        • Cannot be broken down
        • Found on periodic table
        • Most basic form of matter
        • Example: Copper
    • Compound
      • Definition:
        • A pure substance that is made of more than one kind of atom
        • 2 or more elements chmically bonded
        • Example: water
    • Homogeneous mixture
      • Definition:
        • A mixture that has a uniform composition
        • Example: Soda
    • Heterogeneous mixture
      • Definition:
        • A mixture that is non-uniform
          • It has layers
        • Example: muddy water
    • homework
      • Read 1-1
      • Answer ?s 1-10 on page 23 (write down the question)
    • States of matter (page 3)
      • Also called the phases of matter
      • Solid
      • Liquid
      • Gas
    • Solid
      • Has both a definite shape and definite volume
      • At the molecular level, the particles that make up the solid are close together and many times are locked into a very regular framework called a crystal lattice
        • The atoms and molecules are held tightly in a rigid structure but vibrate slightly about their fixed positions
      • Cannot compress
    • Liquid
      • Definite volume, but variable shape
      • Cannot compress
      • It conforms to the container in which it is placed
      • Particles in the liquid are not held together in a rigid manner that is characteristic of solids
        • However, the distances between the particles are constant on average
      • Particles are moving much more than in the solid
      • There are usually clumps of particles moving relatively freely among other clumps
    • Gas
      • No fixed shape or volume
      • Expand to fill any container they occupy
      • The particles move rapidly with respect to each other and act basically independently of each other
    • Plasma
      • Sea of ions
      • Example: Sun
    • Changing phase
      • Solid
      • melting
      • freezing Sublimation
      • Liquid
      • boiling
      • condensing
      • Gas
      Deposition
    • States of matter
      • Identified using the following:
        • If an item is a solid, it is followed by (s)
          • Ice = H 2 O (s)
        • If an item is a liquid, it is followed by (l)
          • Tap water = H 2 O (l)
        • If an item is a gas, it is followed by (g)
          • Steam = H 2 O (g)
    • Methods of separating mixtures
      • Separate by physical means
        • Substances are not altered chemically
        • Examples: filtration, evaporation, centrifuge, decant, chromatography, distillation, density
    • Identification of matter
      • Matter can be identified by two types of properties
        • Physical
        • Chemical
    • State Functions
      • Intensive property
        • Any property of a system that does not depend on how the process
          • Density
          • Specific heat
      • Extensive Property
        • depends on amount of matter
          • Volume
          • Pressure
          • Temperature
          • Internal Energy
    • Physical properties
      • Can be observed without changing the composition of the matter
      • Appearance of physical state changes, but not the chemical composition shape
        • Examples: color, volume, shape, mass, length, odor, solubility, density, specific heat, melting point and boiling point
    • Chemical properties
      • Observed only when substances interact with one another
      • The original substance changes into something else
      • Different chemical substances are formed
      • Breaks chemical bonds
    • Examples of Chemical Properties
      • Rust
      • Burning
      • Fruit ripening
      • Baking
      • Souring
    • Physical vs. Chemical Changes
      • Physical – original substance still exists
        • Only the form or physical appearance changes
          • Example:
            • cutting in half
            • writing on paper
            • changing the phase of matter
    • Physical vs. Chemical Changes
      • Chemical - produces one or more new substances
        • Observed only when substances interact with one another
        • The original substance changes into something else
          • Example:
            • bubbles (production of a gas)
            • change in color
            • forms a precipitate (solid)
            • produces heat or light (explosions)