Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 4 4



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies Piti Sukontasukkul Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, KMUTNB Member of ACF-Sustainability Forum ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  • 2. Environmental Issues in Concrete Construction Sector  CO2 Emission (use of fossil fuels)  Manufacturing of cement and concrete  Construction activities  Transportation  Natural resources depletion  Wastes generation  Soil and water contamination
  • 3. Global Warming Over the last 400,000 years, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations is fluctuated up and down with the upper and lower limit about 300 and 200 ppm, respectively. (from the ice core data). Today, CO2 concentrations worldwide is average about 380 ppm. ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  • 4. Previous Actions to Environmental Issues The National Trust (1895), UK •A non-profit or charitable organizations created to preserve “the benefit of the Nation of lands and tenements of beauty or historic interest and, as regards lands, for the preservation of their natural aspect, features and animal and plant life……” The Limits to Growth (1971): A book with a purpose to explore how exponential growth interacts with finite resources. UN Conference on Human Environment (1972) •A Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development. •“……23. Each nation must establish its own standards 24. There must be cooperation on international issues 25. International organizations should help to improve the environment…..” ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  • 5. Previous Actions to Environmental Issues Brundtland Report (1987) •A report mandated ‘reexamine, create action plans, promote international corporation and rise level on understanding on environmental issues. Earth Summit: UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992) •..Alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change….. Kyoto Protocol (1997) •A protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) that set binding obligations on the industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. IPCC Assessment Reports (90, 95, 01, 07) •"most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations." ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  • 6. International and National Standards Japan •JSCE Environmental Performance Verification for Concrete Structures FIB •FIB-TG 3.6 Guideline for Environmental Design of Concrete Structures •FIB-TG. 3.8 Guideline of Green Concrete Structures ISO •ISO/TC 71/SC 8 ISO/FDIs 13315-1:2011 (E) Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures Part 1: General principle •ISO/TC 71/SC 8 ISO/CD 13315- 2 Part 2: system boundary and inventory data USA •LEEDS for Green Building* TCA •Guideline for Calculation CO2 Emission in Concrete Production* ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  • 7. TCA Manual for calculating CO2 emission from concrete production (2011) TCA recognizes the importance of concrete sustainability. TCA- TG4 is established in 2010. Launch in 2011, the manual provides a simple and easy to use tool for engineers to calculate CO2 emission from the production process of concrete used in their construction site. Employing similar approach to ISO 13315 using LCI and LCIA to calculate CO2 from concrete production process. The manual is applied for both local (on-site) and ready mixed concrete productions.
  • 8. Scope of the manual Determine CO2 emission from the production process of concrete. Calculation extent to cover 3 main parts: Materials Manufacturing, Concrete Production Process, and Transportation. Production processes include: hand mixing, small (drum) mixer, and ready-mixing process. Transportation include ready mixed truck. Impact Category: Global Warming Impact Indicator: CO2 emission Functional unit: kg of CO2 per 1 m3 of concrete.
  • 9. System Boundary : Concrete Production System Boundary Concrete Mixing Process Concrete Raw Materials tran Energies : Fuel, Electricity tran Construction Site or Precast Factory Cement content Aggregate content Admixtures Supplementary materials CO2 Transpor tation Concrete Mix Selection
  • 10. Inventory data: Raw Materials a Anna Korre and Sevket Durucan, EVA025-Final Report: Aggregates Industry Life Cycle Assessment Model: Modeling Tools and Case Studies, 2007[11] b MTEC, NSTDA c Tananan Panussupsuk, M.Eng. Thesis, KMUTNB Materials Unit (*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2/*) Portland Cement Ton 847 River Sand Ton 3.920 Limestone a Ton 2.43-4.14 Rebar b Ton 1760 Masonry Brick c Sq. m 3.803 Masonry Mortar (1:2.5)c Sq. m 6.728 Plastering Mortar (1:3)c Sq. m 10.305
  • 11. Inventory data: Production type Mixers Type Energy (J/m3) Electricity (kW/m3) Unit CO2Emission (kg-CO2/unit) 0.1 m3 Typea 1.68x107 - m3 2.68 0.2m3 Type 1.25x107 - m3 2.01 Ready-mixed Type d - 2.15 m3 1.23 d Insee Concrete, co., ltd. (Thailand)
  • 12. Inventory data: Transportation Type Capacity Fuel Consumption EF CO2Emission unit kg-CO2/ litre kg-CO2/ km kg-CO2/ (km.unit) Ready-mixed Trucka 5 m3 2.7 km/l 0.54 km/ (l.m3) 2.58 0.96 0.19 Ready-mixed Truckb 5 m3 2.9 km/l 0.58 km/ (l.m3) 2.58 0.89 0.18 Ready-mixed Truck (Idling mode) 5 m3 6 l/trip 1.20 l/(trip.m3) 2.58 15.48 kg-CO2/trip 3.10 kg- CO2/trip.m3 a Travel within Bangkok and vicinity (Ref. CPAC, Thailand 2012) b Travel outside Bangkok and vicinity (Ref. CPAC, Thailand 2012) c Allowable truck load capacity
  • 13. Additional Inventory: Transportation Vehicle Type Unit (*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2 /*) 10 Wheel Truck (16 t)A km.ton 0.053 Pick-up Truck (7t)A km.ton 0.14 18 Wheeler A km.ton 0.014 8t Crane Truck (6w)C -Driving km. 0.683 25t Crane Truck (4w)C -Driving km. 1.206 25t Crane Truck (10w)C -Driving km. 0.992 8t Crane Truck (6w)C - Operating minute 0.629 25t Crane Truck (4w)C- Operating minute 0.198 25t Crane Truck (10w)C - Operating minute 1.563 Aอ้างอิงจาก MTEC: 2554[2] Bอ้างอิงจาก บริษัทผลิตภัณฑ์และ วัสดุก่อสร้าง (CPAC, Thailand 2012) Cอ้างอิงจาก ข้อมูลที่ทาการจัดเก็บ
  • 14. Inventory data: Energies Energy Type Specific Heat or Energy per Litre Spec. CO2 Emission Factor btu/L Kcal/L kJ/L kWh/L kg-CO2/kWh kg-CO2/l High speed diesel 36722 9,277.45 38,743.7 10.76 0.24 2.58 Natural gas 35.32 8.92 37.26 0.0104 0.23 0.00238 Electricity - - - - 0.575 -
  • 15. Case Study 1: CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Transportation of Single House Real- Estate Project
  • 16. General Information Housing project • Project Name: Perfect Place, Property Perfect Co., Ltd. • Number of Houses: 1119 Units (Fig. 1) • Area: 397000 sq.m • Construction Systems: • Cast-in-place concrete structure 384 units • Prefabricated concrete structure 735 units (not included in this study) Concrete • Concrete strength: 24 MPa (28 days) • Mix Proportions: 389:1024:775:200 kg. (C:CA:FA:W)
  • 17. Project Plan
  • 18. Case Study Const. System House Type Number Quantity (m3) Unit per house Total Cast-in-place A 1 28.50 28.5 B 19 32.00 608 C 238 18.60 4426.8 D 1 16.60 16.6 E 30 15.50 465 F 7 32.00 224 G 84 20.60 1730.4 H 4 20.60 82.4 Sub Total 384 184.40 70809
  • 19. Results: Concrete Production Materials Quantity EF Emission kg/m3- concrete kg-CO2/t (kg-CO2) Cement 389 847 329.5 Coarse Aggregate 1024 4.14 4.2 Fine Aggregate 775 3.92 3.0 Emission (kg-CO2 per m3-concrete) 336.7 Total Quantity of concrete (m3) 70,809.6 Total Emission from Concrete Production (t) 23,841.6 Total Quantity of concrete (m3) Emission Factor Mixing (kg-CO2/m3) Total Emission from Concrete Production (t) 70809.6 1.2 87.10 98.77% 0.32% 0.91% Material Production Transportation Total Quantity of Concrete Number of trip Distance (km) Total Distance EF for Ready mixed Truck CO2 Emission (t) 70809.6 14161.92 12 169943.04 0.96 163.14 70809.6 14161.92 6 kg/trip 84.97
  • 20. Case Study 2: CO2 Emission from Construction of a Single House using Prefabricating System
  • 21. General Information Total area 112.65 sq.m 1st floor 65.75 sq.m 2nd floor 46.91 sq.m
  • 22. Scope and Category • Impact Categories: CO2 Emission from Energy Usage involved in Construction Process • Functional Unit: kg of CO2 Emission per Unit Work • Scope: – Determining CO2 emission based on energy usage involved in construction of super-structure of a single house using prefabrication system. Substructures are excluded from the study. – Consider only concrete work start from mixing, delivery, casting, delivering and installing.
  • 23. Construction Process Prefabrication Factory PresentationforW.R.GRACE Seminar 2013
  • 24. System Boundary: Prefabrication Factory Ready mixed concrete Steel Installing template Welding steel Curing Wastes Prefabrication component Electricity Fuels CO2 System Boundary Precast Concrete Placing concrete Storage Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans.
  • 25. Additional Inventory: Prefabrication Equipments Equipments Energy Type Unit(*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2/*) Rebar Cutter Electricity Time 0.061 Rebar Bender Electricity Time 0.0003 Concrete Vibrator Electricity m3 of concrete 0.0362 Moving Crane* Electricity m3 of concrete 0.0414 *ได้จากการคานวณจากข้อมูลที่จัดเก็บ (ระยะเคลื่อนที่ของเครนไฟฟ้าในการขนส่งเฉลี่ยที่ 30 เมตร) Eอ้างอิงจากสมาคมคอนกรีตแห่งประเทศไทย [3]
  • 26. Construction Process Installation Process
  • 27. System Boundary: Installation Process Installing Welding components Wastes Concrete structure Electricity Fuels CO2 System Boundary Beam , Slab , Wall Finishing Trans. Prefabrication component Trans. Trans.
  • 28. Bill of Quantity Type Component Concrete Quantity (m3) Type Component Concrete Quantity (m3) 1st Fl. Beam GB21 0.895 2nd Fl Slab S3 1.420 GB22-1 0.312 RC 1.077 GB22-2 0.208 S2 0.660 GB23 0.113 S1A 1.716 GB24 0.336 S4 3.188 GB25 0.320 GB26 0.238 GB27 0.242 GB28 0.281 GB29 0.150 GB30 0.242 GB31 0.499 GB32 0.148 Total 3.984 Total 8.061 1st Fl. Wall W1-2 1.381 2nd Fl. Wall 2W3 0.373 W8 0.789 2W5 0.760 W9-1 0.450 2W4S 1.395 W5 1.025 2W1-1 0.825 W4-2 0.504 2W4 0.583 WB9 0.721 2W8 0.668 WB8 0.152 2W2 1.616 W1-1 0.800 2W10 0.844 W7 0.689 2W11 0.632 W6 0.661 2W1-2 1.331 W2 1.200 2W9 1.585 W3 0.539 2W6S 0.883 W4-1 0.836 Total 9.747 Total 11.495
  • 29. Prefabricating Process Category Task EF kg-CO2/(*) Unit (*) Quantity kg-CO2 Ready mixed Concrete Materials Ready mixed Concrete(320 ksc.) 335.86 m3 33.29 11,179.64 Process Mixing and loading 1.23 m3 33.29 40.94 Delivery Delivery (10 km) 0.18 33.29 31.91 Casting Process Placing and Compacting 0.03 m3 33.29 0.51 Stocking 1.71 hr.m3 33.29x3.95 3.75 (average moving distance 30 m and average operating time of 3.95 min/m3) Total 11,256.75
  • 30. Delivery and Installation Floor Task Equipment EF kg-CO2/(*) Unit (*) Quantity kg-CO2 All floor Delivery 18 Wheeler (15 km) 0.014 km.t 44.3 117.69 1st floor Installation 4 Wheel Crane Truck (25 ton) - Operating Mode 0.198 min 264.1 52.3 2nd Floor Installation 4 Wheel Crane Truck (25 ton) - Operating Mode 0.198 min 259.0 51.3 Total 121.3
  • 31. Summary
  • 32. Conclusion • Based on the three main categories: materials, process, and transportation, it could be seen that the CO2 Emission of a single house concrete construction is mainly fell in the material category. • Cement is still a major contributor in the CO2 emission from the manufacturing stage to the construction stage. • This manual is still far from finished and research is needed to be carried out in order to fulfill the gap.