Guideline for Calculating
CO2 Emission from Ready
Mixed Concrete Production
and
Its Case Studies
Piti Sukontasukkul
Associ...
Environmental Issues in Concrete
Construction Sector
 CO2 Emission (use of fossil fuels)
 Manufacturing of cement and co...
Global Warming
Over the last 400,000
years, the atmospheric CO2
concentrations is
fluctuated up and down
with the upper an...
Previous Actions to Environmental Issues
The National Trust (1895), UK
•A non-profit or charitable organizations
created t...
Previous Actions to Environmental Issues
Brundtland Report
(1987)
•A report mandated ‘reexamine,
create action plans, prom...
International and National Standards
Japan
•JSCE
Environmental
Performance
Verification for
Concrete
Structures
FIB
•FIB-T...
TCA Manual for calculating CO2 emission
from concrete production (2011)
TCA recognizes the importance of concrete sustaina...
Scope of the manual
Determine CO2 emission from the production process of
concrete. Calculation extent to cover 3 main par...
System Boundary : Concrete Production
System Boundary
Concrete Mixing
Process
Concrete
Raw
Materials
tran
Energies :
Fuel,...
Inventory data: Raw Materials
a Anna Korre and Sevket Durucan, EVA025-Final Report: Aggregates Industry Life Cycle Assessm...
Inventory data: Production type
Mixers Type
Energy
(J/m3)
Electricity
(kW/m3)
Unit
CO2Emission
(kg-CO2/unit)
0.1 m3 Typea ...
Inventory data: Transportation
Type
Capacity
Fuel Consumption
EF CO2Emission
unit
kg-CO2/
litre
kg-CO2/
km
kg-CO2/
(km.uni...
Additional Inventory: Transportation
Vehicle Type Unit (*)
CO2 emission
(kg-CO2 /*)
10 Wheel Truck (16 t)A km.ton 0.053
Pi...
Inventory data: Energies
Energy Type Specific Heat or Energy per Litre Spec. CO2 Emission
Factor
btu/L Kcal/L kJ/L kWh/L k...
Case Study 1:
CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed
Concrete Production and
Transportation of Single House Real-
Estate Project
General Information
Housing project
• Project Name: Perfect Place, Property Perfect Co., Ltd.
• Number of Houses: 1119 Uni...
Project
Plan
Case Study
Const.
System
House Type
Number Quantity (m3)
Unit per house Total
Cast-in-place A 1 28.50 28.5
B 19 32.00 608
...
Results: Concrete
Production
Materials Quantity EF Emission
kg/m3-
concrete kg-CO2/t (kg-CO2)
Cement 389 847 329.5
Coarse
...
Case Study 2:
CO2 Emission from Construction
of a Single House using
Prefabricating System
General Information
Total area 112.65 sq.m
1st floor 65.75 sq.m
2nd floor 46.91 sq.m
Scope and Category
• Impact Categories: CO2 Emission from Energy
Usage involved in Construction Process
• Functional Unit:...
Construction Process
Prefabrication Factory
PresentationforW.R.GRACE Seminar 2013
System Boundary: Prefabrication Factory
Ready mixed
concrete
Steel
Installing template
Welding steel
Curing
Wastes
Prefabr...
Additional Inventory: Prefabrication Equipments
Equipments Energy Type Unit(*)
CO2
emission
(kg-CO2/*)
Rebar Cutter Electr...
Construction Process
Installation Process
System Boundary: Installation Process
Installing
Welding
components Wastes
Concrete
structure
Electricity Fuels
CO2
System...
Bill of
Quantity
Type Component Concrete Quantity (m3) Type Component
Concrete Quantity
(m3)
1st Fl. Beam GB21 0.895 2nd F...
Prefabricating Process
Category Task
EF
kg-CO2/(*)
Unit (*)
Quantity kg-CO2
Ready mixed
Concrete
Materials Ready mixed Con...
Delivery and Installation
Floor Task Equipment
EF
kg-CO2/(*)
Unit
(*)
Quantity kg-CO2
All floor Delivery 18 Wheeler (15 km...
Summary
Conclusion
• Based on the three main categories: materials,
process, and transportation, it could be seen that
the CO2 Emi...
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Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies

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Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies

  1. 1. Guideline for Calculating CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Its Case Studies Piti Sukontasukkul Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, KMUTNB Member of ACF-Sustainability Forum ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  2. 2. Environmental Issues in Concrete Construction Sector  CO2 Emission (use of fossil fuels)  Manufacturing of cement and concrete  Construction activities  Transportation  Natural resources depletion  Wastes generation  Soil and water contamination
  3. 3. Global Warming Over the last 400,000 years, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations is fluctuated up and down with the upper and lower limit about 300 and 200 ppm, respectively. (from the ice core data). Today, CO2 concentrations worldwide is average about 380 ppm. ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  4. 4. Previous Actions to Environmental Issues The National Trust (1895), UK •A non-profit or charitable organizations created to preserve “the benefit of the Nation of lands and tenements of beauty or historic interest and, as regards lands, for the preservation of their natural aspect, features and animal and plant life……” The Limits to Growth (1971): A book with a purpose to explore how exponential growth interacts with finite resources. UN Conference on Human Environment (1972) •A Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development. •“……23. Each nation must establish its own standards 24. There must be cooperation on international issues 25. International organizations should help to improve the environment…..” ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  5. 5. Previous Actions to Environmental Issues Brundtland Report (1987) •A report mandated ‘reexamine, create action plans, promote international corporation and rise level on understanding on environmental issues. Earth Summit: UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992) •..Alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change….. Kyoto Protocol (1997) •A protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) that set binding obligations on the industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. IPCC Assessment Reports (90, 95, 01, 07) •"most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations." ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  6. 6. International and National Standards Japan •JSCE Environmental Performance Verification for Concrete Structures FIB •FIB-TG 3.6 Guideline for Environmental Design of Concrete Structures •FIB-TG. 3.8 Guideline of Green Concrete Structures ISO •ISO/TC 71/SC 8 ISO/FDIs 13315-1:2011 (E) Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures Part 1: General principle •ISO/TC 71/SC 8 ISO/CD 13315- 2 Part 2: system boundary and inventory data USA •LEEDS for Green Building* TCA •Guideline for Calculation CO2 Emission in Concrete Production* ‘Sustainability in Concrete Technology and Construction’ Petra Christian University, 18 September 2013
  7. 7. TCA Manual for calculating CO2 emission from concrete production (2011) TCA recognizes the importance of concrete sustainability. TCA- TG4 is established in 2010. Launch in 2011, the manual provides a simple and easy to use tool for engineers to calculate CO2 emission from the production process of concrete used in their construction site. Employing similar approach to ISO 13315 using LCI and LCIA to calculate CO2 from concrete production process. The manual is applied for both local (on-site) and ready mixed concrete productions.
  8. 8. Scope of the manual Determine CO2 emission from the production process of concrete. Calculation extent to cover 3 main parts: Materials Manufacturing, Concrete Production Process, and Transportation. Production processes include: hand mixing, small (drum) mixer, and ready-mixing process. Transportation include ready mixed truck. Impact Category: Global Warming Impact Indicator: CO2 emission Functional unit: kg of CO2 per 1 m3 of concrete.
  9. 9. System Boundary : Concrete Production System Boundary Concrete Mixing Process Concrete Raw Materials tran Energies : Fuel, Electricity tran Construction Site or Precast Factory Cement content Aggregate content Admixtures Supplementary materials CO2 Transpor tation Concrete Mix Selection
  10. 10. Inventory data: Raw Materials a Anna Korre and Sevket Durucan, EVA025-Final Report: Aggregates Industry Life Cycle Assessment Model: Modeling Tools and Case Studies, 2007[11] b MTEC, NSTDA c Tananan Panussupsuk, M.Eng. Thesis, KMUTNB Materials Unit (*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2/*) Portland Cement Ton 847 River Sand Ton 3.920 Limestone a Ton 2.43-4.14 Rebar b Ton 1760 Masonry Brick c Sq. m 3.803 Masonry Mortar (1:2.5)c Sq. m 6.728 Plastering Mortar (1:3)c Sq. m 10.305
  11. 11. Inventory data: Production type Mixers Type Energy (J/m3) Electricity (kW/m3) Unit CO2Emission (kg-CO2/unit) 0.1 m3 Typea 1.68x107 - m3 2.68 0.2m3 Type 1.25x107 - m3 2.01 Ready-mixed Type d - 2.15 m3 1.23 d Insee Concrete, co., ltd. (Thailand)
  12. 12. Inventory data: Transportation Type Capacity Fuel Consumption EF CO2Emission unit kg-CO2/ litre kg-CO2/ km kg-CO2/ (km.unit) Ready-mixed Trucka 5 m3 2.7 km/l 0.54 km/ (l.m3) 2.58 0.96 0.19 Ready-mixed Truckb 5 m3 2.9 km/l 0.58 km/ (l.m3) 2.58 0.89 0.18 Ready-mixed Truck (Idling mode) 5 m3 6 l/trip 1.20 l/(trip.m3) 2.58 15.48 kg-CO2/trip 3.10 kg- CO2/trip.m3 a Travel within Bangkok and vicinity (Ref. CPAC, Thailand 2012) b Travel outside Bangkok and vicinity (Ref. CPAC, Thailand 2012) c Allowable truck load capacity
  13. 13. Additional Inventory: Transportation Vehicle Type Unit (*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2 /*) 10 Wheel Truck (16 t)A km.ton 0.053 Pick-up Truck (7t)A km.ton 0.14 18 Wheeler A km.ton 0.014 8t Crane Truck (6w)C -Driving km. 0.683 25t Crane Truck (4w)C -Driving km. 1.206 25t Crane Truck (10w)C -Driving km. 0.992 8t Crane Truck (6w)C - Operating minute 0.629 25t Crane Truck (4w)C- Operating minute 0.198 25t Crane Truck (10w)C - Operating minute 1.563 Aอ้างอิงจาก MTEC: 2554[2] Bอ้างอิงจาก บริษัทผลิตภัณฑ์และ วัสดุก่อสร้าง (CPAC, Thailand 2012) Cอ้างอิงจาก ข้อมูลที่ทาการจัดเก็บ
  14. 14. Inventory data: Energies Energy Type Specific Heat or Energy per Litre Spec. CO2 Emission Factor btu/L Kcal/L kJ/L kWh/L kg-CO2/kWh kg-CO2/l High speed diesel 36722 9,277.45 38,743.7 10.76 0.24 2.58 Natural gas 35.32 8.92 37.26 0.0104 0.23 0.00238 Electricity - - - - 0.575 -
  15. 15. Case Study 1: CO2 Emission from Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Transportation of Single House Real- Estate Project
  16. 16. General Information Housing project • Project Name: Perfect Place, Property Perfect Co., Ltd. • Number of Houses: 1119 Units (Fig. 1) • Area: 397000 sq.m • Construction Systems: • Cast-in-place concrete structure 384 units • Prefabricated concrete structure 735 units (not included in this study) Concrete • Concrete strength: 24 MPa (28 days) • Mix Proportions: 389:1024:775:200 kg. (C:CA:FA:W)
  17. 17. Project Plan
  18. 18. Case Study Const. System House Type Number Quantity (m3) Unit per house Total Cast-in-place A 1 28.50 28.5 B 19 32.00 608 C 238 18.60 4426.8 D 1 16.60 16.6 E 30 15.50 465 F 7 32.00 224 G 84 20.60 1730.4 H 4 20.60 82.4 Sub Total 384 184.40 70809
  19. 19. Results: Concrete Production Materials Quantity EF Emission kg/m3- concrete kg-CO2/t (kg-CO2) Cement 389 847 329.5 Coarse Aggregate 1024 4.14 4.2 Fine Aggregate 775 3.92 3.0 Emission (kg-CO2 per m3-concrete) 336.7 Total Quantity of concrete (m3) 70,809.6 Total Emission from Concrete Production (t) 23,841.6 Total Quantity of concrete (m3) Emission Factor Mixing (kg-CO2/m3) Total Emission from Concrete Production (t) 70809.6 1.2 87.10 98.77% 0.32% 0.91% Material Production Transportation Total Quantity of Concrete Number of trip Distance (km) Total Distance EF for Ready mixed Truck CO2 Emission (t) 70809.6 14161.92 12 169943.04 0.96 163.14 70809.6 14161.92 6 kg/trip 84.97
  20. 20. Case Study 2: CO2 Emission from Construction of a Single House using Prefabricating System
  21. 21. General Information Total area 112.65 sq.m 1st floor 65.75 sq.m 2nd floor 46.91 sq.m
  22. 22. Scope and Category • Impact Categories: CO2 Emission from Energy Usage involved in Construction Process • Functional Unit: kg of CO2 Emission per Unit Work • Scope: – Determining CO2 emission based on energy usage involved in construction of super-structure of a single house using prefabrication system. Substructures are excluded from the study. – Consider only concrete work start from mixing, delivery, casting, delivering and installing.
  23. 23. Construction Process Prefabrication Factory PresentationforW.R.GRACE Seminar 2013
  24. 24. System Boundary: Prefabrication Factory Ready mixed concrete Steel Installing template Welding steel Curing Wastes Prefabrication component Electricity Fuels CO2 System Boundary Precast Concrete Placing concrete Storage Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans.
  25. 25. Additional Inventory: Prefabrication Equipments Equipments Energy Type Unit(*) CO2 emission (kg-CO2/*) Rebar Cutter Electricity Time 0.061 Rebar Bender Electricity Time 0.0003 Concrete Vibrator Electricity m3 of concrete 0.0362 Moving Crane* Electricity m3 of concrete 0.0414 *ได้จากการคานวณจากข้อมูลที่จัดเก็บ (ระยะเคลื่อนที่ของเครนไฟฟ้าในการขนส่งเฉลี่ยที่ 30 เมตร) Eอ้างอิงจากสมาคมคอนกรีตแห่งประเทศไทย [3]
  26. 26. Construction Process Installation Process
  27. 27. System Boundary: Installation Process Installing Welding components Wastes Concrete structure Electricity Fuels CO2 System Boundary Beam , Slab , Wall Finishing Trans. Prefabrication component Trans. Trans.
  28. 28. Bill of Quantity Type Component Concrete Quantity (m3) Type Component Concrete Quantity (m3) 1st Fl. Beam GB21 0.895 2nd Fl Slab S3 1.420 GB22-1 0.312 RC 1.077 GB22-2 0.208 S2 0.660 GB23 0.113 S1A 1.716 GB24 0.336 S4 3.188 GB25 0.320 GB26 0.238 GB27 0.242 GB28 0.281 GB29 0.150 GB30 0.242 GB31 0.499 GB32 0.148 Total 3.984 Total 8.061 1st Fl. Wall W1-2 1.381 2nd Fl. Wall 2W3 0.373 W8 0.789 2W5 0.760 W9-1 0.450 2W4S 1.395 W5 1.025 2W1-1 0.825 W4-2 0.504 2W4 0.583 WB9 0.721 2W8 0.668 WB8 0.152 2W2 1.616 W1-1 0.800 2W10 0.844 W7 0.689 2W11 0.632 W6 0.661 2W1-2 1.331 W2 1.200 2W9 1.585 W3 0.539 2W6S 0.883 W4-1 0.836 Total 9.747 Total 11.495
  29. 29. Prefabricating Process Category Task EF kg-CO2/(*) Unit (*) Quantity kg-CO2 Ready mixed Concrete Materials Ready mixed Concrete(320 ksc.) 335.86 m3 33.29 11,179.64 Process Mixing and loading 1.23 m3 33.29 40.94 Delivery Delivery (10 km) 0.18 m3.km 33.29 31.91 Casting Process Placing and Compacting 0.03 m3 33.29 0.51 Stocking 1.71 hr.m3 33.29x3.95 3.75 (average moving distance 30 m and average operating time of 3.95 min/m3) Total 11,256.75
  30. 30. Delivery and Installation Floor Task Equipment EF kg-CO2/(*) Unit (*) Quantity kg-CO2 All floor Delivery 18 Wheeler (15 km) 0.014 km.t 44.3 117.69 1st floor Installation 4 Wheel Crane Truck (25 ton) - Operating Mode 0.198 min 264.1 52.3 2nd Floor Installation 4 Wheel Crane Truck (25 ton) - Operating Mode 0.198 min 259.0 51.3 Total 121.3
  31. 31. Summary
  32. 32. Conclusion • Based on the three main categories: materials, process, and transportation, it could be seen that the CO2 Emission of a single house concrete construction is mainly fell in the material category. • Cement is still a major contributor in the CO2 emission from the manufacturing stage to the construction stage. • This manual is still far from finished and research is needed to be carried out in order to fulfill the gap.

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