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Section 8 - Cell Reproduction

Section 8 - Cell Reproduction






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    Section 8 - Cell Reproduction Section 8 - Cell Reproduction Presentation Transcript

    • Cellular Reproduction Biology I Factoids
    • Factoid 100
      • Section 8
      • Diagram of a Chromosome:
      Sister chromatids centromere
    • Factoid 101
      • The Cell Cycle is made up of the G1 phase, the S phase, the G2 phase, and the M phase.
    • Factoid 102
      • The cell grows during the G1 phase.
    • Factoid 103
      • DNA replication occurs during the S phase.
    • Factoid 104
      • The organelles duplication and the cell prepares for mitosis during the G2 phase.
    • Factoid 105
      • The M phase (M for Mitosis) is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
    • Factoid 106
      • During prophase
        • The chromosomes become visible
        • The nuclear membrane disappears
        • The spindle forms
    • Factoid 107
      • During Metaphase
        • Chrmosomes line up along the equator of the cell
    • Factoid 108
      • During Anaphase
        • spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart to opposite poles.
    • Factoid 109
      • During telophase
        • Everything done during prophase is “undone”
    • Factoid 110
      • During cytokinesis the cell splits.
    • Factoid 111
      • Cytokinesis forms by a cleavage furrow in animal cells and by a cell plate in plant cells.
    • Factoid 112
      • Organisms have two basic types of cells: somatic cells are body cells and gametes are sex cells
    • Factoid 113
      • Sex cells (gametes) are produced by meiosis. Somatic cells are produced by mitosis.
    • Factoid 114
      • Male sex cells are called sperm and female sex cells are called eggs.
    • Factoid 115
      • Somatic cells are diploid (2n). Sex cells are haploid (n). Meiosis divides the chromosome number in half.
      • Diploid cells  meiosis  haploid cells  fertilization  diploid cells again.
    • Factoid 116
      • Humans have 46 chromosomes. Sperm have 23 chromosomes and eggs have 23 chromosomes. Sperm (23) + egg (23) = baby (46).
    • Factoid 117
      • Meiosis adds genetic variation. This means that it allows for different shapes, colors, and forms of organisms.
    • Factoid 118
      • Meiosis is divided into two parts: meiosis I and meiosis II.
    • Factoid 119
      • Each part of meiosis has 4 parts: Meiosis I has Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I. Meiosis II has Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II.
    • Factoid 120
      • An organism is only successful if it successfully spreads its genes to the next generation. This is the driving force behind most evolution.
    • Factoid 121
      • External fertilization occurs outside the body (frogs and fish). Internal fertilization occurs inside the body (higher animals and humans).
    • Factoid 122
      • Asexual reproduction is the production of an offspring involving only 1 parent, produces genetically identical clones, and without splitting the chromosomes.
    • Factoid 123
      • Three types of asexual reproduction
        • Binary fission – a single cells splits in half. Common in bacteria and some protists.
        • Budding – small area of cells grow into a new organism. Used by fungi and simple animals.
        • Vegetative propagation – plants send out runners that grow into a new plant or a cutting can be made.