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  • 1. Cellular Reproduction Biology I Factoids
  • 2. Factoid 100
    • Section 8
    • Diagram of a Chromosome:
    Sister chromatids centromere
  • 3. Factoid 101
    • The Cell Cycle is made up of the G1 phase, the S phase, the G2 phase, and the M phase.
  • 4. Factoid 102
    • The cell grows during the G1 phase.
  • 5. Factoid 103
    • DNA replication occurs during the S phase.
  • 6. Factoid 104
    • The organelles duplication and the cell prepares for mitosis during the G2 phase.
  • 7. Factoid 105
    • The M phase (M for Mitosis) is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  • 8. Factoid 106
    • During prophase
      • The chromosomes become visible
      • The nuclear membrane disappears
      • The spindle forms
  • 9. Factoid 107
    • During Metaphase
      • Chrmosomes line up along the equator of the cell
  • 10. Factoid 108
    • During Anaphase
      • spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart to opposite poles.
  • 11. Factoid 109
    • During telophase
      • Everything done during prophase is “undone”
  • 12. Factoid 110
    • During cytokinesis the cell splits.
  • 13. Factoid 111
    • Cytokinesis forms by a cleavage furrow in animal cells and by a cell plate in plant cells.
  • 14. Factoid 112
    • Organisms have two basic types of cells: somatic cells are body cells and gametes are sex cells
  • 15. Factoid 113
    • Sex cells (gametes) are produced by meiosis. Somatic cells are produced by mitosis.
  • 16. Factoid 114
    • Male sex cells are called sperm and female sex cells are called eggs.
  • 17. Factoid 115
    • Somatic cells are diploid (2n). Sex cells are haploid (n). Meiosis divides the chromosome number in half.
    • Diploid cells  meiosis  haploid cells  fertilization  diploid cells again.
  • 18. Factoid 116
    • Humans have 46 chromosomes. Sperm have 23 chromosomes and eggs have 23 chromosomes. Sperm (23) + egg (23) = baby (46).
  • 19. Factoid 117
    • Meiosis adds genetic variation. This means that it allows for different shapes, colors, and forms of organisms.
  • 20. Factoid 118
    • Meiosis is divided into two parts: meiosis I and meiosis II.
  • 21. Factoid 119
    • Each part of meiosis has 4 parts: Meiosis I has Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I. Meiosis II has Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II.
  • 22. Factoid 120
    • An organism is only successful if it successfully spreads its genes to the next generation. This is the driving force behind most evolution.
  • 23. Factoid 121
    • External fertilization occurs outside the body (frogs and fish). Internal fertilization occurs inside the body (higher animals and humans).
  • 24. Factoid 122
    • Asexual reproduction is the production of an offspring involving only 1 parent, produces genetically identical clones, and without splitting the chromosomes.
  • 25. Factoid 123
    • Three types of asexual reproduction
      • Binary fission – a single cells splits in half. Common in bacteria and some protists.
      • Budding – small area of cells grow into a new organism. Used by fungi and simple animals.
      • Vegetative propagation – plants send out runners that grow into a new plant or a cutting can be made.