ATP is the cell’s energy and it is made up an adenine molecule, a ribose sugar molecule, and three phosphate groups.
Energy is released when chemical bonds are broken
ATP breaks down into ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy.
Cellular respiration is the series of reactions that break down food into energy in the presence of oxygen.
The three parts of cellular respiration are glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and breaks down glucose into 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 Pyruvic acids
The Kreb’s cycle (sometimes called the citric acid cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and uses the 2 pyruvic acids to produce 2 FADH 2 , 6 NADH, and 2 ATP.
NADH and FADH 2 are carrier molecules – they carry hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain
The electron transport chain occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria (cristae) and uses the 2 NADH from glycolysis, the 6 NADH from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 2 FADH 2, from the Kreb’s cycle to produce 32 ATP
When you add the 2 ATP from glycolysis, the 2 ATP from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 32 ATP from the electron transport chain, you get a total of 36 ATP produced from 1 glucose molecule.
The overall summary equation for cellular respiration is:
C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP
Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide +water+energy
After glycolysis, if there is no oxygen present, some cells can perform anaerobic respiration. (ana=no; aerobic=air)
Occurs in the cytoplasm
Only produces 2 ATP from glycolysis.
Lactic acid fermination
Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.
Muscle cells do this when they run out of oxygen. Results in muscle soreness because the lactic acid is poisonous.
Pyruvic acid is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Makes bread rise
Responsible for beer and wine production
Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs use sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into simple sugar and oxygen.
The overall summary equation for photosynthesis is:
6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into the light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions.
In the light dependent reactions (which occurs on the thylakoid membrane), sunlight hits a chlorophyll molecule and water is split into H and O.
NADPH and ATP are produced
In the light independent reactions (which occur in the stroma), the ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere combine to make glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
AKA – The Calvin Cycle
C4 plants store extra carbon dioxide during cooler time, to be used in the Calvin Cycle when the hot weather makes them close their stomata (leaf pores).
Corn, grass, other tropical plants.
CAM plants close their stomata during the day. They take in extra carbon dioxide at night and store it to be used in the Calvin cycle.
Cactus, aloe vera, other succulent and desert plants.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are basically the reverse of each other.
Photosynthesis is a building process and cellular respiration is a tearing down process.