Section7

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  • 1. Cellular Energy Biology I Factoids
  • 2. Factoid 75
    • Section 7
    • ATP is the cell’s energy and it is made up an adenine molecule, a ribose sugar molecule, and three phosphate groups.
  • 3. Factoid 76
    • Energy is released when chemical bonds are broken
  • 4. Factoid 77
    • ATP breaks down into ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy.
  • 5. Factoid 78
    • ATP CYCLE
  • 6. Factoid 79
    • Cellular respiration is the series of reactions that break down food into energy in the presence of oxygen.
  • 7. Factoid 80
    • The three parts of cellular respiration are glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain.
  • 8. Factoid 81
    • The mitochondria
  • 9. Factoid 82
    • Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and breaks down glucose into 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 Pyruvic acids
  • 10. Factoid 83
    • The Kreb’s cycle (sometimes called the citric acid cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and uses the 2 pyruvic acids to produce 2 FADH 2 , 6 NADH, and 2 ATP.
  • 11. Factoid 84
    • NADH and FADH 2 are carrier molecules – they carry hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain
  • 12. Factoid 85
    • The electron transport chain occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria (cristae) and uses the 2 NADH from glycolysis, the 6 NADH from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 2 FADH 2, from the Kreb’s cycle to produce 32 ATP
  • 13. Factoid 86
    • When you add the 2 ATP from glycolysis, the 2 ATP from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 32 ATP from the electron transport chain, you get a total of 36 ATP produced from 1 glucose molecule.
  • 14. Factoid 87
    • The overall summary equation for cellular respiration is:
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP
    • Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide +water+energy
  • 15. Factoid 88
      • After glycolysis, if there is no oxygen present, some cells can perform anaerobic respiration. (ana=no; aerobic=air)
      • Occurs in the cytoplasm
      • Only produces 2 ATP from glycolysis.
  • 16. Factoid 89
      • Lactic acid fermination
        • Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.
        • Muscle cells do this when they run out of oxygen. Results in muscle soreness because the lactic acid is poisonous.
  • 17. Factoid 90
      • Alcoholic fermentation
        • Pyruvic acid is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
        • Makes bread rise
        • Responsible for beer and wine production
  • 18. Factoid 91
    • Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs use sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into simple sugar and oxygen.
  • 19. Factoid 92
    • The overall summary equation for photosynthesis is:
    • 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • carbon+water+energy  Glucose+oxygen
    • dioxide
  • 20. Factoid 93
    • The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into the light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions.
  • 21. Factoid 94
  • 22. Factoid 95
    • In the light dependent reactions (which occurs on the thylakoid membrane), sunlight hits a chlorophyll molecule and water is split into H and O.
    • NADPH and ATP are produced
  • 23. Factoid 96
    • In the light independent reactions (which occur in the stroma), the ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere combine to make glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
    • AKA – The Calvin Cycle
  • 24. Factoid 97
    • C4 plants store extra carbon dioxide during cooler time, to be used in the Calvin Cycle when the hot weather makes them close their stomata (leaf pores).
    • Corn, grass, other tropical plants.
  • 25. Factoid 98
    • CAM plants close their stomata during the day. They take in extra carbon dioxide at night and store it to be used in the Calvin cycle.
    • Cactus, aloe vera, other succulent and desert plants.
  • 26. Factoid 99
    • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are basically the reverse of each other.
    • Photosynthesis is a building process and cellular respiration is a tearing down process.