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    Section7 Section7 Presentation Transcript

    • Cellular Energy Biology I Factoids
    • Factoid 75
      • Section 7
      • ATP is the cell’s energy and it is made up an adenine molecule, a ribose sugar molecule, and three phosphate groups.
    • Factoid 76
      • Energy is released when chemical bonds are broken
    • Factoid 77
      • ATP breaks down into ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy.
    • Factoid 78
      • ATP CYCLE
    • Factoid 79
      • Cellular respiration is the series of reactions that break down food into energy in the presence of oxygen.
    • Factoid 80
      • The three parts of cellular respiration are glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain.
    • Factoid 81
      • The mitochondria
    • Factoid 82
      • Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and breaks down glucose into 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 Pyruvic acids
    • Factoid 83
      • The Kreb’s cycle (sometimes called the citric acid cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and uses the 2 pyruvic acids to produce 2 FADH 2 , 6 NADH, and 2 ATP.
    • Factoid 84
      • NADH and FADH 2 are carrier molecules – they carry hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain
    • Factoid 85
      • The electron transport chain occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria (cristae) and uses the 2 NADH from glycolysis, the 6 NADH from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 2 FADH 2, from the Kreb’s cycle to produce 32 ATP
    • Factoid 86
      • When you add the 2 ATP from glycolysis, the 2 ATP from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 32 ATP from the electron transport chain, you get a total of 36 ATP produced from 1 glucose molecule.
    • Factoid 87
      • The overall summary equation for cellular respiration is:
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP
      • Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide +water+energy
    • Factoid 88
        • After glycolysis, if there is no oxygen present, some cells can perform anaerobic respiration. (ana=no; aerobic=air)
        • Occurs in the cytoplasm
        • Only produces 2 ATP from glycolysis.
    • Factoid 89
        • Lactic acid fermination
          • Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.
          • Muscle cells do this when they run out of oxygen. Results in muscle soreness because the lactic acid is poisonous.
    • Factoid 90
        • Alcoholic fermentation
          • Pyruvic acid is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
          • Makes bread rise
          • Responsible for beer and wine production
    • Factoid 91
      • Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs use sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into simple sugar and oxygen.
    • Factoid 92
      • The overall summary equation for photosynthesis is:
      • 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
      • carbon+water+energy  Glucose+oxygen
      • dioxide
    • Factoid 93
      • The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into the light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions.
    • Factoid 94
    • Factoid 95
      • In the light dependent reactions (which occurs on the thylakoid membrane), sunlight hits a chlorophyll molecule and water is split into H and O.
      • NADPH and ATP are produced
    • Factoid 96
      • In the light independent reactions (which occur in the stroma), the ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere combine to make glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
      • AKA – The Calvin Cycle
    • Factoid 97
      • C4 plants store extra carbon dioxide during cooler time, to be used in the Calvin Cycle when the hot weather makes them close their stomata (leaf pores).
      • Corn, grass, other tropical plants.
    • Factoid 98
      • CAM plants close their stomata during the day. They take in extra carbon dioxide at night and store it to be used in the Calvin cycle.
      • Cactus, aloe vera, other succulent and desert plants.
    • Factoid 99
      • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are basically the reverse of each other.
      • Photosynthesis is a building process and cellular respiration is a tearing down process.