Biochemistry Biology I Factoids
- Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds produced by living things.
- All organic molecules contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- Polymers are organic macromolecules made up of monomers.
- The 4 macromolecules in organic chemistry are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
- Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides.
- Carbohydrates include sugars (ends in –ose), starch (in plants), glycogen (in animals), and chitin (in fungus and insects).
- Lipids are made up of glycerol and fatty acids.
- Lipids include all oils, waxes, steroids, and fats.
- Proteins are made up of amino acids.
- Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides.
- Nucleic acids include DNA and RNA.
- Enzymes are proteins that lower the activation energy and speed up chemical reactions.
- The substance the enzyme works on is called the substrate.
- Most enzymes end with –ase such as polymerase or catalase.
- When catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide is the substrate of the reaction.
- The spot on the enzyme where the substrate binds is called the active site.
- Both pH and temperature will change the shape of the active site and the enzyme won’t work – this is called “denaturing” the enzyme.