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Section 4 - Biochemistry
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Section 4 - Biochemistry

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  • 1. Biochemistry Biology I Factoids
  • 2. Factoid #24
    • Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds produced by living things.
  • 3. Factoid #25
    • All organic molecules contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • 4. Factoid #26
    • Polymers are organic macromolecules made up of monomers.
  • 5. Factoid #27
    • The 4 macromolecules in organic chemistry are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  • 6. Factoid #28
    • Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides.
  • 7. Factoid #29
    • Carbohydrates include sugars (ends in –ose), starch (in plants), glycogen (in animals), and chitin (in fungus and insects).
  • 8. Factoid #30
    • Lipids are made up of glycerol and fatty acids.
  • 9. Factoid #31
    • Lipids include all oils, waxes, steroids, and fats.
  • 10. Factoid #32
    • Proteins are made up of amino acids.
  • 11. Factoid #33
    • Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides.
  • 12. Factoid #34
    • Nucleic acids include DNA and RNA.
  • 13. Factoid #35
    • Enzymes are proteins that lower the activation energy and speed up chemical reactions.
  • 14. Factoid #36
    • The substance the enzyme works on is called the substrate.
  • 15. Factoid #37
    • Most enzymes end with –ase such as polymerase or catalase.
  • 16. Factoid #38
    • When catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide is the substrate of the reaction.
  • 17. Factoid #39
    • The spot on the enzyme where the substrate binds is called the active site.
  • 18. Factoid #40
    • Both pH and temperature will change the shape of the active site and the enzyme won’t work – this is called “denaturing” the enzyme.