Section 16 Biology I Factoids
Land biomes are called terrestrial biomes.
Factoid 280 Tundra (next to the poles – North Canada) Climate – Cold winters, short cool summers. Ground is permanently frozen. Dominant Plants – Mosses, small grasses
Dominant Animals – Small rodents, caribou, some birds – no reptiles.
Factoid 281 Coniferous Forest (Northern US) Climate – Cold winters, mild summers. Lots of precipitation. Dominant Plants – Cone bearing plants
Dominant Animals – bears, deer, elk, bobcats.
Factoid 282 Deciduous Forest (Mississippi!!!) Climate – Cool winters, warm summers. Dominant Plants – Deciduous plants (this means they lose their leaves in the fall)
Dominant Animals – Animals you are familiar with in Mississippi – Deer, bears, skunk, turkeys, raccoons.
Factoid 283 Climate – Fertile soils, moderate precipitation, cold winders and hot summers. Fires are common. Dominant Plants – grasses, low rain prevents large trees.
Dominant Animals – prairie dogs, buffalo, large herbivores.
Factoid 284 Chaparral – (Pacific coast) Climate – hot, dry summers; mild, cool, rainy winters Dominant Plants – woody shrubs
Dominant Animals – insects, lizards, snakes, chipmunks, mice, rabbits, fox, coyotes, mountain lion, owls, birds
Factoid 285 Desert (Mexico, North Africa, SW US) Climate – Hot days and cold nights Dominant Plants – cacti and succulents
Dominant Animals – bobcats, mountain lions, owls, hawks, antelopes, sheep, rats, lizards, rattlesnakes
Factoid 286 Climate – Warm with seasonal rainfall Dominant Plants – grasses, small clusters of trees and shrubs
Dominant Animals – elephants, rhinos, antelope, zebra, giraffe, insects, ostrich, eagles, lions, leopards.
Factoid 287 Tropical Rainforest (Near equator, South America) Climate – year-around high temperatures; high rainfall Dominant Plants – broad leaf evergreen trees, ferns, large variety. LOTS of diversity.
Dominant Animals – all types of animals in a large variety; most biodiversity.
Factoid 288 Freshwater; flowing water; may be fast or slow moving
Colder and cleaner than standing water.
Freshwater; standing water;
Deep in the water where it is dark and no sunlight reaches.
Factoid 291 Area of water where light does penetrate.
Lots of photosynthetic organism live here which attract other animals to this area.
Saltwater; area from the outer continental shelf to the low-tide mark
Factoid 293 Saltwater; area between low tide and high tide; subject to tidal changes
Organisms live here that can stand to be out of the water.
Made of calcium carbonate formed by corals (cnidarians); warm saltwater; usually no deeper than 40 meters.
Where freshwater rivers and streams merge with the oceans; varying salt concentrations
A predator hunts, kills, and eats prey. Prey is what the predator eats.
Factoid 297 Competition results from two or more organisms trying to use the same resource.
Can include food, water, shelter, or even a a mate.
Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms.
Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from living together.
Commensalism is a type of symbiosis in which one organism gets the benefit of the relationship and the other organism is neither benefited or harmed.
Factoid 301 Parasitism is a type of symbiosis in which one organism gets the benefit and the other member gets harmed.
Parasites weaken, but do not kill the host.
The carrying capacity refers to the largest number of organisms of a species that can be supported by the environment.
Population growth is limited by factors such as the birth/death rate, the number of organisms entering and leaving the population, and the amount of available resources. These are called limited factors.
Ecological succession is a series of predictable changes in an ecosystem.
Primary succession starts on the earth’s surface where there is no soil. Occurs after a major disturbance like a volcano eruption and all the soil is removed.
Secondary succession occurs when plants have been removed leaving the soil. Secondary succession is the replacement of plant species in an area that has been disturbed.
Factoid 307 Typically in Mississippi succession happens in this order:
Grasses weeds and wild flowers shrubs pine trees hard wood trees
When runoff from fields washes fertilizer into pond, algae can grow out of control. This is called algal bloom.
When a poison is not excreted from the tissues of an organism, but build up in them instead, it is known as biological magnification.
Factoid 310 A natural resources can be classified as renewable or non-renewable resources. Non-renewable resources (coal, oil, natural gas) take millions of years to form.
Renewable resources (water, trees) can be replaced quickly.
If something is biodegradable, then it can be broken down quickly by microorganisms.
Urban development refers to the destruction of natural areas for human use such as shopping malls and houses.
The ozone layer protects the earth’s surface from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Some chemicals made used by humans can destroy ozone. Decreased ozone could be a cause for global warming.
Global warming refers to the rise of global temperatures. Increased levels of carbon dioxide can increase global temperatures.