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  • 1. Section 16 Biology I Factoids
  • 2. Factoid 279
    • Section 16
    • Land biomes are called terrestrial biomes.
  • 3. Factoid 280
    • Tundra (next to the poles – North Canada)
    • Climate – Cold winters, short cool summers. Ground is permanently frozen.
    • Dominant Plants – Mosses, small grasses
    • Dominant Animals – Small rodents, caribou, some birds – no reptiles.
  • 4. Factoid 281
    • Coniferous Forest (Northern US)
    • Climate – Cold winters, mild summers. Lots of precipitation.
    • Dominant Plants – Cone bearing plants
    • Dominant Animals – bears, deer, elk, bobcats.
  • 5. Factoid 282
    • Deciduous Forest (Mississippi!!!)
    • Climate – Cool winters, warm summers.
    • Dominant Plants – Deciduous plants (this means they lose their leaves in the fall)
    • Dominant Animals – Animals you are familiar with in Mississippi – Deer, bears, skunk, turkeys, raccoons.
  • 6. Factoid 283
    • Grassland (The mid-west)
    • Climate – Fertile soils, moderate precipitation, cold winders and hot summers. Fires are common.
    • Dominant Plants – grasses, low rain prevents large trees.
    • Dominant Animals – prairie dogs, buffalo, large herbivores.
  • 7. Factoid 284
    • Chaparral – (Pacific coast)
    • Climate – hot, dry summers; mild, cool, rainy winters
    • Dominant Plants – woody shrubs
    • Dominant Animals – insects, lizards, snakes, chipmunks, mice, rabbits, fox, coyotes, mountain lion, owls, birds
  • 8. Factoid 285
    • Desert (Mexico, North Africa, SW US)
    • Climate – Hot days and cold nights
    • Dominant Plants – cacti and succulents
    • Dominant Animals – bobcats, mountain lions, owls, hawks, antelopes, sheep, rats, lizards, rattlesnakes
  • 9. Factoid 286
    • Savanna (Africa)
    • Climate – Warm with seasonal rainfall
    • Dominant Plants – grasses, small clusters of trees and shrubs
    • Dominant Animals – elephants, rhinos, antelope, zebra, giraffe, insects, ostrich, eagles, lions, leopards.
  • 10. Factoid 287
    • Tropical Rainforest (Near equator, South America)
    • Climate – year-around high temperatures; high rainfall
    • Dominant Plants – broad leaf evergreen trees, ferns, large variety. LOTS of diversity.
    • Dominant Animals – all types of animals in a large variety; most biodiversity.
  • 11. Factoid 288
    • Rivers and steams
    • Freshwater; flowing water; may be fast or slow moving
    • Colder and cleaner than standing water.
  • 12. Factoid 289
    • Lakes and Ponds
    • Freshwater; standing water;
    • Warmer and more turbid
  • 13. Factoid 290
    • Aphotic zone
    • Deep in the water where it is dark and no sunlight reaches.
  • 14. Factoid 291
    • Photic zone
    • Area of water where light does penetrate.
    • Lots of photosynthetic organism live here which attract other animals to this area.
  • 15. Factoid 292
    • Costal ocean
    • Saltwater; area from the outer continental shelf to the low-tide mark
  • 16. Factoid 293
    • Intertidal zone
    • Saltwater; area between low tide and high tide; subject to tidal changes
    • Organisms live here that can stand to be out of the water.
  • 17. Factoid 294
    • Coral Reefs
    • Made of calcium carbonate formed by corals (cnidarians); warm saltwater; usually no deeper than 40 meters.
  • 18. Factoid 295
    • Estuaries
    • Where freshwater rivers and streams merge with the oceans; varying salt concentrations
    • Brackish water
  • 19. Factoid 296
    • A predator hunts, kills, and eats prey. Prey is what the predator eats.
  • 20. Factoid 297
    • Competition results from two or more organisms trying to use the same resource.
    • Can include food, water, shelter, or even a a mate.
  • 21. Factoid 298
    • Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms.
  • 22. Factoid 299
    • Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from living together.
  • 23. Factoid 300
    • Commensalism is a type of symbiosis in which one organism gets the benefit of the relationship and the other organism is neither benefited or harmed.
  • 24. Factoid 301
    • Parasitism is a type of symbiosis in which one organism gets the benefit and the other member gets harmed.
    • Parasites weaken, but do not kill the host.
  • 25. Factoid 302
    • The carrying capacity refers to the largest number of organisms of a species that can be supported by the environment.
  • 26. Factoid 303
    • Population growth is limited by factors such as the birth/death rate, the number of organisms entering and leaving the population, and the amount of available resources. These are called limited factors.
  • 27. Factoid 304
    • Ecological succession is a series of predictable changes in an ecosystem.
  • 28. Factoid 305
    • Primary succession starts on the earth’s surface where there is no soil. Occurs after a major disturbance like a volcano eruption and all the soil is removed.
  • 29. Factoid 306
    • Secondary succession occurs when plants have been removed leaving the soil. Secondary succession is the replacement of plant species in an area that has been disturbed.
  • 30. Factoid 307
    • Typically in Mississippi succession happens in this order:
    • Grasses  weeds and wild flowers  shrubs  pine trees  hard wood trees
  • 31. Factoid 308
    • When runoff from fields washes fertilizer into pond, algae can grow out of control. This is called algal bloom.
  • 32. Factoid 309
    • When a poison is not excreted from the tissues of an organism, but build up in them instead, it is known as biological magnification.
  • 33. Factoid 310
    • A natural resources can be classified as renewable or non-renewable resources.
    • Non-renewable resources (coal, oil, natural gas) take millions of years to form.
    • Renewable resources (water, trees) can be replaced quickly.
  • 34. Factoid 311
    • If something is biodegradable, then it can be broken down quickly by microorganisms.
  • 35. Factoid 312
    • Urban development refers to the destruction of natural areas for human use such as shopping malls and houses.
  • 36. Factoid 313
    • The ozone layer protects the earth’s surface from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Some chemicals made used by humans can destroy ozone. Decreased ozone could be a cause for global warming.
  • 37. Factoid 314
    • Global warming refers to the rise of global temperatures. Increased levels of carbon dioxide can increase global temperatures.