Taxonomy is the branch of biology that specializes in classifying organisms into taxa (or groups)
The 7 levels of classification in order from largest to smallest is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
Scientific names are made up of the genus name plus the species name.
The genus name is always capitalized and the species name is always lower case.
Scientific names are always either underlined or in italics.
Organisms are named using a system created by Carolus Von Linnaeus called binomial nomenclature which means “two part name.”
Common names are not used because of differences in languages. They are also not specific. People call the same organism various common names.
Scientific names are written in Latin because all educated people during Linnaeus’ time spoke Latin.
2000 years ago Aristotle created the first system of classification with two kingdoms: Plant and Animal.
Aristotle’s system remain in place until the invention of the microscope. They discovered microscopic organisms that looked like animals but acted like plants. This led to the creation of Kingdom Protista.
A dichotomous key is a tool used in classification. One is given a set of questions to be answered. The answer leads you to the organisms classification.
Since viruses are not alive they are not classified into any kingdom.
They do not satisfy the characteristics of life from the first chapter we discussed.
They do not grow, develop, or carry out respiration.
Examples include mumps, measles, chicken pox, the flu, or even a cold .
The only way viruses are able to reproduce is inside a living cell called a host.
Viruses contain a core of nucleic acid that can either be DNA or RNA
Around the nucleic acid is a layer of protein called a capsid .
Sometimes viruses have a lipid outer layer called an envelope.
Once inside a host cell, the viral DNA hijacks the cell and the cell makes viral genes and viral proteins.
Viruses are treated with antivirals NOT antibiotics.
They are prokaryotic – no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Archaebacteria live in extreme environments. Their cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan.
Most common bacteria
Three basic shapes are common:
Coccus – Round shaped
Baccillus – Rod shaped/cylindrical
They are heterotrophic which means they don’t make their own food.
They are autotrophic which means they make their own food.
They absorb their food like fungi
Include slime molds
Factoid # 204 Kingdom Fungi
Characteristics of Fungi
Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize organic matter.
Saprobes get their nutrients from breaking down dead organic matter.
Parasitic thrive on tissues in living hosts
All fungi rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption
Cell walls of chitin
Symbiotic relationships between a fungus and an algae
Fungus protects the algae; the algae gives the fungus food.