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    Section11 Section11 Presentation Transcript

    • Classification to the Fungi Biology I Factoids
    • Factoid 188
      • Section 11
      • Taxonomy is the branch of biology that specializes in classifying organisms into taxa (or groups)
    • Factoid 189
      • The 7 levels of classification in order from largest to smallest is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
    • Factoid 190
      • Scientific names are made up of the genus name plus the species name.
    • Factoid 191
      • The genus name is always capitalized and the species name is always lower case.
      • Scientific names are always either underlined or in italics.
    • Factoid 192
      • Organisms are named using a system created by Carolus Von Linnaeus called binomial nomenclature which means “two part name.”
    • Factoid 193
      • Common names are not used because of differences in languages. They are also not specific. People call the same organism various common names.
    • Factoid 194
      • Scientific names are written in Latin because all educated people during Linnaeus’ time spoke Latin.
    • Factoid 195
      • 2000 years ago Aristotle created the first system of classification with two kingdoms: Plant and Animal.
    • Factoid 196
      • Aristotle’s system remain in place until the invention of the microscope. They discovered microscopic organisms that looked like animals but acted like plants. This led to the creation of Kingdom Protista.
    • Factoid 197
      • A dichotomous key is a tool used in classification. One is given a set of questions to be answered. The answer leads you to the organisms classification.
    • Factoid 198
      • Since viruses are not alive they are not classified into any kingdom.
        • They do not satisfy the characteristics of life from the first chapter we discussed.
        • They do not grow, develop, or carry out respiration.
        • Examples include mumps, measles, chicken pox, the flu, or even a cold .
    • Factoid 199
      • The only way viruses are able to reproduce is inside a living cell called a host.
      • Viruses contain a core of nucleic acid that can either be DNA or RNA
      • Around the nucleic acid is a layer of protein called a capsid .
    • Factoid 200
      • Sometimes viruses have a lipid outer layer called an envelope.
      • Once inside a host cell, the viral DNA hijacks the cell and the cell makes viral genes and viral proteins.
      • Viruses are treated with antivirals NOT antibiotics.
    • Factoid 201
      • Kingdom Archaebacteria
      • They are prokaryotic – no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
      • Archaebacteria live in extreme environments. Their cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan.
    • Factoid 202
      • Kingdom Eubacteria
      • Most common bacteria
      • Prokaryotic
      • Have peptidoglycan
      • Bacterial Shapes
        • Three basic shapes are common:
          • Coccus – Round shaped
          • Baccillus – Rod shaped/cylindrical
          • Spiral
    • Factoid 203
      • Kingdom Protista
      • Animal-like Protists
        • They are heterotrophic which means they don’t make their own food.
        • Include amoeba
      • Plant-like Protists
        • They are autotrophic which means they make their own food.
        • Include euglena
      • Fungi-Like Protists
        • They absorb their food like fungi
        • Include slime molds
    • Factoid # 204 Kingdom Fungi
      • Characteristics of Fungi
        • Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize organic matter.
          • Saprobes get their nutrients from breaking down dead organic matter.
          • Parasitic thrive on tissues in living hosts
        • All fungi rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption
        • Cell walls of chitin
    • Factoid #205
      • Lichens
        • Symbiotic relationships between a fungus and an algae
        • Fungus protects the algae; the algae gives the fungus food.
        • 3 types
          • Crustose
          • Foliose
          • fruticose