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Section11

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  • 1. Classification to the Fungi Biology I Factoids
  • 2. Factoid 188
    • Section 11
    • Taxonomy is the branch of biology that specializes in classifying organisms into taxa (or groups)
  • 3. Factoid 189
    • The 7 levels of classification in order from largest to smallest is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
  • 4. Factoid 190
    • Scientific names are made up of the genus name plus the species name.
  • 5. Factoid 191
    • The genus name is always capitalized and the species name is always lower case.
    • Scientific names are always either underlined or in italics.
  • 6. Factoid 192
    • Organisms are named using a system created by Carolus Von Linnaeus called binomial nomenclature which means “two part name.”
  • 7. Factoid 193
    • Common names are not used because of differences in languages. They are also not specific. People call the same organism various common names.
  • 8. Factoid 194
    • Scientific names are written in Latin because all educated people during Linnaeus’ time spoke Latin.
  • 9. Factoid 195
    • 2000 years ago Aristotle created the first system of classification with two kingdoms: Plant and Animal.
  • 10. Factoid 196
    • Aristotle’s system remain in place until the invention of the microscope. They discovered microscopic organisms that looked like animals but acted like plants. This led to the creation of Kingdom Protista.
  • 11. Factoid 197
    • A dichotomous key is a tool used in classification. One is given a set of questions to be answered. The answer leads you to the organisms classification.
  • 12. Factoid 198
    • Since viruses are not alive they are not classified into any kingdom.
      • They do not satisfy the characteristics of life from the first chapter we discussed.
      • They do not grow, develop, or carry out respiration.
      • Examples include mumps, measles, chicken pox, the flu, or even a cold .
  • 13. Factoid 199
    • The only way viruses are able to reproduce is inside a living cell called a host.
    • Viruses contain a core of nucleic acid that can either be DNA or RNA
    • Around the nucleic acid is a layer of protein called a capsid .
  • 14. Factoid 200
    • Sometimes viruses have a lipid outer layer called an envelope.
    • Once inside a host cell, the viral DNA hijacks the cell and the cell makes viral genes and viral proteins.
    • Viruses are treated with antivirals NOT antibiotics.
  • 15. Factoid 201
    • Kingdom Archaebacteria
    • They are prokaryotic – no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
    • Archaebacteria live in extreme environments. Their cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan.
  • 16. Factoid 202
    • Kingdom Eubacteria
    • Most common bacteria
    • Prokaryotic
    • Have peptidoglycan
    • Bacterial Shapes
      • Three basic shapes are common:
        • Coccus – Round shaped
        • Baccillus – Rod shaped/cylindrical
        • Spiral
  • 17. Factoid 203
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Animal-like Protists
      • They are heterotrophic which means they don’t make their own food.
      • Include amoeba
    • Plant-like Protists
      • They are autotrophic which means they make their own food.
      • Include euglena
    • Fungi-Like Protists
      • They absorb their food like fungi
      • Include slime molds
  • 18. Factoid # 204 Kingdom Fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
      • Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize organic matter.
        • Saprobes get their nutrients from breaking down dead organic matter.
        • Parasitic thrive on tissues in living hosts
      • All fungi rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption
      • Cell walls of chitin
  • 19. Factoid #205
    • Lichens
      • Symbiotic relationships between a fungus and an algae
      • Fungus protects the algae; the algae gives the fungus food.
      • 3 types
        • Crustose
        • Foliose
        • fruticose

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