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  1. 1. DNA Science Biology I Factoids
  2. 2. Factoid 154 <ul><li>Section 10 </li></ul><ul><li>DNA controls the production of every protein in a cell. Proteins control all of the process in a cell. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factoid 153 <ul><li>DNA is made up of nucleotides. Nucleotides are made up of a sugar (either ribose for RNA or deoxiribose for DNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factoid 154 <ul><li>There are 5 nitrogen bases: </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine and Guanine are purines. </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil are Pyrimidines. </li></ul><ul><li>Uracil is only found in RNA not DNA. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factoid 155 <ul><li>In 1953 two scientists named James Watson and Francis Crick were the first people to determine the structure of DNA </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factoid 156 <ul><ul><li>DNA is like a twisted ladder (called a double helix) whereby the sugar and phosphate units make up the sides of the ladder and the nitrogen bases make up the steps of the ladder. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Factoid 157 <ul><li>The sequence of the nucleotides in DNA determines the information that is passed on by the genes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factoid 158 <ul><li>DNA replication (during the S phase of the cell cycle) makes a copy of the DNA. The DNA ladder splits and nucleotides join to form an extra copy of DNA. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factoid 159 <ul><li>Since DNA will contain one old strand and one new strand of DNA, the process is called semi-conservative. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Factoid 160 <ul><li>There are 3 ways DNA and RNA are different: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA has a ribose sugar unit instead of the deoxiribose sugar unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In RNA A pairs with U and not T. There is no Thymine in RNA. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Factoid 161 <ul><li>There are 3 types of RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries instruction from the DNA to the ribosomes. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Factoid 162 <ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA (tRNA) bring amino acids to the ribosomes. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Factoid 163 <ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bind with the ribosomes to help make proteins. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Factoid 165 <ul><li>Protein synthesis (the making of proteins) has two parts: Transcription and translation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factoid 165 <ul><li>To transcribe DNA means to make a copy of it. When DNA is transcribed, a copy of the nucleotide sequence is copied by RNA. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factoid 166 <ul><li>Transcription makes mRNA in the nucleus. The mRNA then leaves the nucleus. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Factoid 167 <ul><li>Nucleotides are “read” in groups of 3 (called a codon). Every 3 nucleotides code for 1 amino acid. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Factoid 168 <ul><li>During translation, the mRNA is bound to an rRNA and a ribosome. The ribosome makes the new protein. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factoid 169 <ul><li>The tRNA brings an amino acid to the ribosome to build the protein. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Factoid 170 <ul><li>Chargaff’s Rules </li></ul><ul><li>A always bonds with T and visa versa </li></ul><ul><li>C always bonds with G and visa versa </li></ul><ul><li>In RNA, A always bonds with U and visa versa. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factoid 171 <ul><li>The process of protein synthesis can be summarized: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  mRNA  ribosomes  protein </li></ul>
  22. 22. Factoid 172 <ul><li>The study of DNA molecules and making changes in DNA is called molecular genetics. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Factoid 173 <ul><li>A subfield of molecular genetics is called genetic engineering which involves changing an organism’s DNA </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factoid 174 <ul><li>The first step in examining an organisms DNA is DNA extraction or removing the DNA from the cell. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Factoid 175 <ul><li>DNA is very large. It must be cut into smaller pieces using restriction enzymes. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Factoid 176 <ul><li>Restriction enzymes cut DNA in very specific sequences. They will only work on a specific nucleotide sequence. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Factoid 177 <ul><ul><li>Once cut into pieces (called fragments) the DNA is separated using gel electrophoresis. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Factoid 178 <ul><li>DNA travels from the negative side of the DNA gel to the positive side of the gel. The smaller fragments travel farther and make a banding pattern on the gel. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Factoid 179 <ul><li>Patterns on a DNA gel can be used to prove or disprove paternity , guilt or innocence of a crime, determining evolutionary history, etc </li></ul>
  30. 30. Factoid 180 <ul><li>Taking short pieces of DNA from one organism and joining it to the DNA of another organism is called recombinant DNA. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Factoid 181 <ul><li>Transgenic organisms are organisms that contain genes from a different organism. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Factoid 182 <ul><li>Cloning refers to taking genetic information out of a donor cell and placing it into an egg, then implanting the egg in a female for birth. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Factoid 183 <ul><li>Mutations are mistakes in DNA that can be beneficial, harmful, or have no effect at all. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Factoid 184 <ul><li>There are two types of mutations gene mutations (or point mutations) or chromosome mutations. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Factoid 185 <ul><li>There are three types of gene mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insertion – A nucleotide is added and changes the codons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution – A different nucleotide is inserted instead of the intended one. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deletion – A nucleotide is left out. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Factoid 186 <ul><li>There are 4 types of chromosome mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deletion – A piece of chromosome is removed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication – Part of a chromosome is copied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inversion – Pieces of chromosomes switch places. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translocation – Pieces of one chromosome change places with pieces from another chromosome. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Factoid 187 <ul><li>Karyotype – A picture of chromosomes used to see if there are abnormal numbers of chromosomes </li></ul>