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Nutrition - Chapter 6 Notes

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    Nutrition - Chapter 6 Notes Nutrition - Chapter 6 Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
    • Overview of Protein
      • Body is made up of thousands of proteins
      • Contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
      • Functions
        • Regulates and maintains body functions
        • Provides essential form of nitrogen (in the form of amino acids)
    • Amino Acid
      • R group Acid group
      • Nitrogen group
      NH2 O R C C OH H
    • Relationship of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids
      • Example:
      • Phenylalanine    tyrosine
      • (essential non-essential)
      • But in PKU diagnosed individuals:
      • Phenylalanine    tyrosine
      • (essential NOW essential)
    • Classification of Amino Acids
    • Protein Synthesis
      • DNA contains coded instructions
      • Copies of codes
        • Transferred to the cytoplasm (via mRNA)
      • Amino acids added one at a time
        • With aid of transfer RNA (tRNA)
      • Requires energy
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Protein Organization
      • Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape
      • Protein’s final shape determines its function in the body
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Denaturation of Proteins
      • Heat/acid/alkaline/enzymes
      • Results in alteration of the protein’s
      • three-dimensional structure
    • Protein in Foods
    • Animal Protein
      • Contribution to our diet
        • ~70% of our protein intake
      • Top 5 contributors of protein in U.S. diet:
        • Beef
        • Poultry
        • Milk
        • White bread
        • Cheese
      • Worldwide, 35% comes from animal sources
    • Dietary Protein
      • High-quality
        • Complete
      • Low-quality
        • Incomplete
      • All-or-none principle in protein synthesis
      • Limiting amino acids
      • Complementary proteins
    • Health and Plant Proteins
      • Heart healthy
      • Cancer-fighting
      • Bone health
      • Better glucose control
      • Soy and menopausal symptoms
    • Plant Sources
      • Provide protein, minerals, and dietary fiber
      • Contain no cholesterol
      • Limited saturated fats
      • High fiber
        • Time needed to adjust to the higher fiber load
    • Complementary Protein
        • Food 1 Food 2 Combined
      • CC CCCC
      • AAAA AA CAR CAR CAR
      • RRR RRR CAR CAR CAR
    • Digestion of Protein in the Stomach
      • Denatured
        • By cooking and acid in the stomach
      • Gastrin
        • Stimulates the release of acid and pepsin
      • Pepsin
        • Breaks down proteins
    •  
    • Digestion of Protein in the Small Intestine
      • Release of CCK
      • Pancreatic enzymes:
        • Trypsin, among others, into the duodenum
      • Peptones  peptides  amino acids
      • Small peptides and amino acids
        • Ready for absorption
    • Protein Turnover
      • Breakdown and synthesis
      • Responds to change
      • Amino acids can be recycled
    • Fluid Balance
    • Protein Absorption
      • Site of digestion
        • Microvilli surface and within absorptive cells
      • Many different amino acid transport mechanisms
      • Active absorption
      • Amino acids are sent to the liver
        • Via portal vein
    • Metabolism of Amino Acids
    • Functions of Proteins
      • Building blocks of body components
      • Fluid balance maintenance
      • Acid/base balance (contribute to)
      • Building blocks of hormones and enzymes
      • Immune function
      • Gluconeogenesis
      • Energy yielding (non-preferred source)
    • RDA for Protein
      • Promotes equilibrium
      • 0.8 gm of protein / kg of healthy body weight
      • 154 lb. = 70 kg
      • 2.2 kg/lb.
      • 70 kg x 0.8 g protein = 56 g protein
      • kg healthy body weight
    • Protein Balance
    • RDA for Protein
      • Increased by ~10-15 gm /day for pregnancy
      • Endurance athletes
        • May need 1.2 – 1.7 gm/kg healthy weight
      • Provide about 8-10% of total kcal
      • Most of us eat more than the RDA for protein
      • Excess protein cannot be stored as protein
    • Is a High-Protein Diet Harmful?
      • Low in plant foods (fiber), vitamins, phytochemicals
      • High in saturated fat and cholesterol
      • Excessive intake of processed red meat is linked with colon cancer
      • Burden on the kidney
      • May increase calcium loss in the urine
    • Malnutrition
      • Protein-Energy Malnutrition
      • Marasmus
        • Seen in hospitalized patients
      • Kwashiorkor
    • Protein Calorie Malnutrition
    • Vegetarian Diets
      • Why become a vegetarian?
      • Vegans
      • Fruitarians
      • Lactovegetarians
      • Lactoovovegetarians
      • Concerns for infants and children
    •