Nutrition - Chapter 6 Notes

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • 2. Overview of Protein
    • Body is made up of thousands of proteins
    • Contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    • Functions
      • Regulates and maintains body functions
      • Provides essential form of nitrogen (in the form of amino acids)
  • 3. Amino Acid
    • R group Acid group
    • Nitrogen group
    NH2 O R C C OH H
  • 4. Relationship of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids
    • Example:
    • Phenylalanine    tyrosine
    • (essential non-essential)
    • But in PKU diagnosed individuals:
    • Phenylalanine    tyrosine
    • (essential NOW essential)
  • 5. Classification of Amino Acids
  • 6. Protein Synthesis
    • DNA contains coded instructions
    • Copies of codes
      • Transferred to the cytoplasm (via mRNA)
    • Amino acids added one at a time
      • With aid of transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • Requires energy
  • 7. Protein Synthesis
  • 8. Protein Organization
    • Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape
    • Protein’s final shape determines its function in the body
  • 9. Sickle Cell Anemia
  • 10. Denaturation of Proteins
    • Heat/acid/alkaline/enzymes
    • Results in alteration of the protein’s
    • three-dimensional structure
  • 11. Protein in Foods
  • 12. Animal Protein
    • Contribution to our diet
      • ~70% of our protein intake
    • Top 5 contributors of protein in U.S. diet:
      • Beef
      • Poultry
      • Milk
      • White bread
      • Cheese
    • Worldwide, 35% comes from animal sources
  • 13. Dietary Protein
    • High-quality
      • Complete
    • Low-quality
      • Incomplete
    • All-or-none principle in protein synthesis
    • Limiting amino acids
    • Complementary proteins
  • 14. Health and Plant Proteins
    • Heart healthy
    • Cancer-fighting
    • Bone health
    • Better glucose control
    • Soy and menopausal symptoms
  • 15. Plant Sources
    • Provide protein, minerals, and dietary fiber
    • Contain no cholesterol
    • Limited saturated fats
    • High fiber
      • Time needed to adjust to the higher fiber load
  • 16. Complementary Protein
      • Food 1 Food 2 Combined
    • CC CCCC
    • AAAA AA CAR CAR CAR
    • RRR RRR CAR CAR CAR
  • 17. Digestion of Protein in the Stomach
    • Denatured
      • By cooking and acid in the stomach
    • Gastrin
      • Stimulates the release of acid and pepsin
    • Pepsin
      • Breaks down proteins
  • 18.  
  • 19. Digestion of Protein in the Small Intestine
    • Release of CCK
    • Pancreatic enzymes:
      • Trypsin, among others, into the duodenum
    • Peptones  peptides  amino acids
    • Small peptides and amino acids
      • Ready for absorption
  • 20. Protein Turnover
    • Breakdown and synthesis
    • Responds to change
    • Amino acids can be recycled
  • 21. Fluid Balance
  • 22. Protein Absorption
    • Site of digestion
      • Microvilli surface and within absorptive cells
    • Many different amino acid transport mechanisms
    • Active absorption
    • Amino acids are sent to the liver
      • Via portal vein
  • 23. Metabolism of Amino Acids
  • 24. Functions of Proteins
    • Building blocks of body components
    • Fluid balance maintenance
    • Acid/base balance (contribute to)
    • Building blocks of hormones and enzymes
    • Immune function
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Energy yielding (non-preferred source)
  • 25. RDA for Protein
    • Promotes equilibrium
    • 0.8 gm of protein / kg of healthy body weight
    • 154 lb. = 70 kg
    • 2.2 kg/lb.
    • 70 kg x 0.8 g protein = 56 g protein
    • kg healthy body weight
  • 26. Protein Balance
  • 27. RDA for Protein
    • Increased by ~10-15 gm /day for pregnancy
    • Endurance athletes
      • May need 1.2 – 1.7 gm/kg healthy weight
    • Provide about 8-10% of total kcal
    • Most of us eat more than the RDA for protein
    • Excess protein cannot be stored as protein
  • 28. Is a High-Protein Diet Harmful?
    • Low in plant foods (fiber), vitamins, phytochemicals
    • High in saturated fat and cholesterol
    • Excessive intake of processed red meat is linked with colon cancer
    • Burden on the kidney
    • May increase calcium loss in the urine
  • 29. Malnutrition
    • Protein-Energy Malnutrition
    • Marasmus
      • Seen in hospitalized patients
    • Kwashiorkor
  • 30. Protein Calorie Malnutrition
  • 31. Vegetarian Diets
    • Why become a vegetarian?
    • Vegans
    • Fruitarians
    • Lactovegetarians
    • Lactoovovegetarians
    • Concerns for infants and children
  • 32.