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Nutrition - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes
 

Nutrition - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

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    Nutrition - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Nutrition - Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
    • Photosynthesis
    • Monosaccharides
      • Structure
      • Glucose
      • Fructose
      • Galactose
    • Glucose
      • Major monosaccharide in the body
      • Also known as dextrose
      • In bloodstream called blood sugar
      • Breakdown of starches and sucrose
      • Source of fuel for cells
    • Fructose (fruit sugar)
      • In sucrose
      • In fruit, honey, and high-fructose corn syrup
      • Converted into glucose in the liver
    • Galactose
      • In lactose
      • Converted to glucose in the liver
    •  
    • Disaccharides
      • “ Simple sugars”
      • Sucrose (Gluc + Fruc)
        • Sugar
      • Lactose (Galactose + Gluc)
        • Milk products
      • Maltose (Glyc + Gluc)
        • Fermentation
        • Alcohol production
    • Complex Carbohydrates
      • Polysaccharides: Starch & Glycogen
      • Amylose
      • Amylopectin
      • Dietary fiber
    •  
    • Oligosaccharides
      • 3-10 monosaccharides
      • In beans and legumes
      • Not digested
      • Metabolized by bacteria in the large intestine
      • Effect of Beano ®
    • Polysaccharides: Starch
      • 3,000 or more monosaccharides
      • Starch
        • Amylose--straight chain polymer
        • Amylopectin--highly branched polymer
    • Common Starches
    • Glycogen
      • Storage form of carbohydrate for animals and human
      • Structure similar to amylopectin
      • More sites for enzyme action
      • Found in the liver and muscles
    • Dietary Fiber
      • Undigested starch
      • Body cannot break the bonds
      • Insoluble fiber
        • Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin
        • Not fermented by the bacteria in the colon
      • Soluble fiber
        • Gum, pectin, mucilage
        • Fruit, vegetable, rice bran, psyllium seed
    • Soluble and Insoluble Fiber
    • Benefits of Dietary Fiber
    • Carbohydrates in Foods
    • Sweeteners
    • High-fructose Corn Syrup
      • 55% fructose
      • Cornstarch mixed with acid and enzymes
      • Starch is broken down to glucose
      • Some glucose is converted to fructose
      • Cheaper than sucrose
      • Does not form crystals
    • Other Types of Sweeteners
      • Brown sugar
      • Turbinado sugar (raw sugar)
      • Maple syrup
      • Honey
      • Sugar alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol)
        • ~2.6 kcal/g
        • Absorbed and metabolized slower
        • “ Excess consumption may have a laxative effect”
    • Sugar Substitutes
    • Sugar Alcohols
      • Sorbitol, Xylitol
      • ~2.6 kcals/gram
      • Large quantities can cause diarrhea
      • Do not promote tooth decay
    • Saccharin
      • First produced in 1879
      • 180-200x sweeter than sucrose
      • No potential risk in humans
    • Aspartame (Equal  , NutraSweet  )
      • Composed of phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol
      • 180-200x sweeter than sucrose
      • 4 kcal/gm
      • Not heat stable
      • Complaints of sensitivity
        • Headaches, dizziness, seizures, nausea, etc.
      • Acceptable daily intake: 50 mg per kg body weight (FDA) (~14 cans of diet soda for average adult per day)
      • Warning label for Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Sucralose (Splenda  )
      • 600x sweeter than sucrose
      • Substitutes chlorines for hydroxyl groups on sucrose
      • Heat stable
      • Tiny amount digested
      • Excreted in the feces
    • Neotame
      • FDA approved for general-purpose sweetener
      • Similar structure to Aspartame
      • Is not broken down in the body
      • 7,000-13,000x sweeter than sucrose
      • Heat stable
      • Safe for use
    • Acesulfame-K (Sunette  )
      • Approved by FAD
      • 200x sweeter than sucrose
      • Not digested by the body
      • Heat stable
      • Diabetisweet used in baking
    • Tagatose
      • Altered form of fructose
      • 1.5 kcals/gram
      • Does not increase glucose level
      • Does not cause tooth decay
      • Is fermented by large intestine
    • Carbohydrate Digestion
    • Effects of Cooking
      • Softens fibrous tissues
      • Easier to chew and swallow
    • Digestion of Carbohydrate in the Mouth
      • Salivary amylase
        • Breaks starch to shorter saccharides
        • Prolonged chewing
      • Short duration in the mouth
    • Digestion of Carbohydrate in the Stomach
      • Acidic environment
      • No further starch digestion
    • Digestion of Carbohydrate in the Small Intestine
      • Pancreas releases enzymes
        • Pancreatic amylase
      • Absorptive cells release
        • Maltase
        • Sucrase
        • Lactase
      • Monosaccharides are absorbed
    • Carbohydrate Digestion
    • Lactose Maldigestion
      • Reduction in lactase
        • Lactose is undigested and not absorbed
        • Lactose is metabolized by large intestinal bacteria
          • Causes gas, bloating, cramping, discomfort
      • Primary lactose maldigestion
      • Secondary lactose maldigestion
      • Severe cases are called lactose intolerance
    • What To Do if You Have Lactose Maldigestion or Lactose Intolerance
      • Determine amount you can tolerate
      • Eat dairy with fat
      • Cheese & yogurt are usually well tolerated
      • Use Lact-Aid 
    • Absorption
      • Glucose and Galactose
        • Active absorption
        • Energy is expended
      • Fructose
        • Facilitated absorption using a carrier
        • No energy expended
    • After Absorption
      • Portal vein to the liver
      • Liver can:
        • Transform monosaccharide into glucose
        • Release glucose back into the bloodstream
        • Store as glycogen (or fat)
    • Undigested Carbohydrates
      • Only a minor amount escapes digestion
      • Travels to the colon
      • Fermentation by the bacteria
      • Acids and gases produced are absorbed
      • May promote health of the colon
    • Functions of Carbohydrate
      • Supplies energy
      • Protein sparing
      • Prevents ketosis
      • Sweetener
    • Regulation of Blood Glucose
      • Hyperglycemia
      • Hypoglycemia
    • Blood Glucose Control
      • Role of the liver
        • Regulates glucose that enters bloodstream
      • Role of the pancreas
        • Release of insulin
        • Release of glucagon
    • Functions of Insulin
      • Promotes glycogen synthesis
      • Increases glucose uptake by the cells
      • Reduces gluconeogenesis
      • Net effect: lowers blood glucose
    • Functions of Glucagon
      • Breakdown glycogen
      • Enhances gluconeogenesis
      • Net effect: raises blood glucose
    • Epinephrine / Norepinephrine
      • “Fight or flight” response
      • Breakdown glycogen
      • Raises blood glucose
    • Regulation of Blood Glucose
    • Glycemic Response
      • Glycemic Index
        • Ratio of blood glucose response to a given food
      • Glycemic Load
        • Grams of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that food
        • Divide result by 100
    • High Glycemic Load
      • Large release of insulin
        • Increase blood triglycerides level
        • Increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
        • Increase fat deposits
        • Increase clotting
        • Increase fat synthesis
        • Rapid return of hunger
      • Insulin resistance develops (Type 2 diabetes)
    • Dietary Fiber and Health
    • Hemorrhoids
      • Swelling of a large vein
      • Result from excessive straining
    • Diverticula
    • Weight Control and Fiber
      • Filling
      • Low in kcal
      • Satisfied after eating
    • Colon Cancer and Fiber
      • Controversial
      • Focus on fruits, vegetables, beans, and whole grains
      • Higher-fiber foods are more nutrient dense
    • Glucose Absorption and Fiber
      • Soluble fiber slows glucose absorption
      • Better blood glucose regulation
    • Cholesterol and (Soluble) Fiber
      • Absorption of cholesterol inhibited
      • Bile acid absorption reduced
      • Risk for cardiovascular disease and gallstones reduced
      • Insulin release decreased
        • Decrease cholesterol synthesis in the liver
      • Blood cholesterol lowered
    • Carbohydrate Needs
      • RDA is 130 grams/day for adults
      • Average U.S. intake is 180-330 grams
      • Recommendations vary
        • FNB: 45%-65% of total calories
        • Nutrition Facts panel: 60%
      • Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains
    • Recommended Dietary Fiber Intake
      • AI is 25 grams/day for women
      • AI is 38 grams/day for men
      • (Goal of 14 grams/1000 kcal)
      • DV is 25 grams for 2000 kcal diet
      • Average U.S. intake:
        • 14 grams/day for women
        • 17 grams/day for men
    • Too Much Fiber
      • > 60 grams/day
      • Extra fluid needed
      • May decrease availability of some minerals
      • Unmet energy needs in children
    • Recommendation for Simple Sugar Intake
      • Low nutrient density
      • Dental caries
      • Added to food and beverages
      • < 10% of total kcal/day with a maximum of 50 grams (12 tsp) per day--WHO
      • Average U.S. intake: 16% of total kcal/day
        • ~82 grams per day
    • Diabetes
      • Type 1 Diabetes
      • Type 2 Diabetes
      • Gestational Diabetes
    •  
    •  
    • Type 1 Diabetes
      • Occurs often in children
      • Genetic link
      • Body stops producing insulin
      • Treatment
        • Insulin Therapy
        • Diet Therapy
    • Type II Diabetes
      • Generally in people > 40 years of age
      • Increasing rates in younger individuals
      • Obesity
      • Treatment
        • Weight loss
        • Oral medications
        • Diet therapy
        • Insulin
    • Hypoglycemia
      • Reactive hypoglycemia
        • Occurs 2-4 hours after eating a meal
        • Possibly due to over-secretion of insulin
      • Fasting hypoglycemia
        • Usually caused by pancreatic cancer
        • Leads to overproduction of insulin
    • Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)
      • 25% of adults have it
      • High blood triglycerides
      • Poor blood glucose regulation
      • Hypertension
      • Risk factors
        • Obesity
        • Lack of physical activities
        • High simple/refined sugar intake
        • Low fiber intake