Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes
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Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes

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Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Body Organization
    • Cells form Tissues
    • Tissues form Organs
    • Organs form Systems (e.g., digestive)
  •  
  • Cell Processes
    • Constant turnover of substances
    • Require energy, adenosine triphosphate
    • Require nutrients
  • Cell Membrane
    • Double layers of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein
    • Controls passage of substances
    • Distinct identification structures
  •  
  • Organelles
    • Cytoplasm
    • Mitochondria — Power plant
      • Major site for energy production
    • Endoplasmic reticulum — Communication network
      • Rough endoplasmic reticulum - protein synthesis
      • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - fat synthesis
  •  
  • Organelles
    • Golgi Complex
      • Packaging site for protein
    • Lysosomes
      • Cell’s digestive system
    • Peroxisomes
      • Detoxify harmful chemicals
  • Nucleus
    • Double membrane
    • Genetic material DNA
    • Directs protein synthesis and cell division
  • Four Types of Tissues
    • Epithelial
      • Lines the outside surfaces and external passages
    • Connective
      • Holds structures together
    • Muscle
      • Contracts to cause movement
    • Nervous
      • Transports nerve impulses
  • Exchange of Nutrients
  • Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
    • Heart and blood vessels
    • Blood
    • Pulmonary circulation
    • Systemic circuit
    • Lymphatic system
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Capillary and Lymph Vessels
  • Portal Circulation
    • Transports nutrients
    • From the small intestine
    • Delivers to the liver
  • Blood Circulation
  • Lymphatic System
    • Contains lymph
    • Immune cells
    • Passage for large particles
    • Empties into veins leading to the heart
  • Nervous System
    • Regulatory system
    • Central Nervous System
      • Brain and the spinal cord
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • Branches out to organs
    • Basic unit is Neuron
      • Responds to electrical and chemical signals
  • Transmission
  • Sending Signals
    • Change in sodium and potassium concentration
    • Neurotransmitter
      • Secretion of dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
    • Dependent on nutrient supply
  • Endocrine System
    • Secretes regulatory substances (hormones)
    • Target cells with receptor proteins
    • Body’s messenger
    • Insulin
    • Thyroid hormones
  • Immune System
  • The Skin
    • Continuous barrier
    • Effects of nutritional deficiencies
    • Lysozyme
  • The Intestinal Cells
    • Barrier to invading microbes
    • Immunoglobulins
    • Muscosal membrane
    • Effects of nutritional deficiency
  • White Blood Cells
    • Attack microorganism
    • Phagocytes
    • Cell-mediated immunity
      • Antibodies
      • Antibody-antigen response
      • Template (memory) made
  • The Digestive System
  • The Mouth
    • Mastication
    • Taste
    • Saliva
      • Solvent
      • Enzymes
      • Mucus
  • The Esophagus
    • Long tube
    • Epiglottis
    • Peristalsis
    • Lower esophageal sphincter
    • Heartburn
  • The Stomach
    • Sphincters
    • Size
    • Gastric juices
    • Holding “tank”
    • Formation of chyme
    • Prevention of autodigestion
  • Physiology of the Stomach
  • Stomach Acid
    • Destroys activity of protein
    • Activates digestive enzymes
    • Partially digests dietary protein
    • Assists in calcium absorption
    • Makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption
  • Peristalsis
  • The Small Intestine
    • Approximately 10 feet long
    • Folded walls
    • Villi
    • Absorptive cells
    • Rapid cell turnover
  • The Small Intestine
  • Nutrient Absorption
    • Passive absorption
    • Facilitated absorption
    • Active absorption
    • Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
  • Nutrient Absorption
  • The Large Intestine
    • Indigestible food stuff
    • No villi or enzymes
    • Mucus-producing cells
    • Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins
    • Bacteria
    • Elimination
  •  
  • Rectum
    • Stool
    • Elimination
    • Muscle contraction
    • Anal sphincters
  • Accessory Organs
    • Pancreas
    • Gallbladder
    • Liver
  • The Liver
    • Bile
    • Enterohepatic circulation
  • The Pancreas
    • Digestive enzymes
    • Hormones
      • Glucagon and insulin
    • Pancreatic juices
      • Bicarbonate
  • The Urinary System
    • Kidneys
    • Ureter
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
    • Waste products
    • Blood acid-base balance (pH)
  • Storage Capabilities
    • Maintaining reserves
    • Adipose tissue
    • Glucose
    • Amino acids
    • Vitamins and minerals
      • Calcium in bones
  • Genetics
    • Nutrigenomics
    • Nutritional Diseases with a genetic link
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Hypertension
      • Obesity
      • Diabetes
      • Cancer
      • Osteoporosis
  • Common Problems with Digestion
    • Ulcers
    • Heartburn
    • Constipation
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • Diarrhea
    • Gallstones
  • Ulcers
    • Can occur in esophagus, stomach and small intestine
    • Cause
      • H. Pylori
  •  
  •  
  • Heartburn
    • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Constipation
    • Difficult or infrequent evacuation
    • Causes
      • Ignoring normal urges
      • Muscle spasms
      • Certain medications
    • Treatment
      • Dietary fiber
      • Fluids
      • Regular physical activity
  • Laxatives
    • Irritate the intestinal nerve
    • Draw water into the intestine
    • Regular use is harmful
  • Hemorrhoids (piles)
    • Swollen veins of the rectum and anus
    • Intense pressure and straining
    • Dietary recommendation:
      • Fiber and fluid
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • Symptoms
      • Cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea, constipation
    • Causes
      • Altered intestinal peristalsis
      • Decreased pain threshold
    • Individualized treatment
      • Elimination diet
      • Moderate caffeine
      • Low-fat, small, frequent meals
      • Stress reduction
  • Diarrhea
    • Fluidity and frequency
    • Causes
      • Infections
      • Poorly absorbed substances
    • Treatment:
      • Plenty of fluid
  • Gallstones
    • Symptoms
      • Upper right abdominal pain, gas, bloating, nausea and vomiting
    • Treatment
      • Removal of gallbladder