Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes

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Nutrition Chapter 3 Lecture Notes

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  2. 2. Body Organization <ul><li>Cells form Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues form Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organs form Systems (e.g., digestive) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Cell Processes <ul><li>Constant turnover of substances </li></ul><ul><li>Require energy, adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Require nutrients </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Double layers of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Controls passage of substances </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct identification structures </li></ul>
  5. 7. Organelles <ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria — Power plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major site for energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum — Communication network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough endoplasmic reticulum - protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - fat synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging site for protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell’s digestive system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxify harmful chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Nucleus <ul><li>Double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Directs protein synthesis and cell division </li></ul>
  8. 11. Four Types of Tissues <ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines the outside surfaces and external passages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds structures together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts to cause movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports nerve impulses </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Exchange of Nutrients
  10. 13. Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems <ul><li>Heart and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul>
  11. 14. Cardiovascular System
  12. 15. Capillary and Lymph Vessels
  13. 16. Portal Circulation <ul><li>Transports nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>From the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers to the liver </li></ul>
  14. 17. Blood Circulation
  15. 18. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Contains lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Immune cells </li></ul><ul><li>Passage for large particles </li></ul><ul><li>Empties into veins leading to the heart </li></ul>
  16. 19. Nervous System <ul><li>Regulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches out to organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic unit is Neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to electrical and chemical signals </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Transmission
  18. 21. Sending Signals <ul><li>Change in sodium and potassium concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion of dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent on nutrient supply </li></ul>
  19. 22. Endocrine System <ul><li>Secretes regulatory substances (hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Target cells with receptor proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Body’s messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormones </li></ul>
  20. 23. Immune System
  21. 24. The Skin <ul><li>Continuous barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of nutritional deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Lysozyme </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Intestinal Cells <ul><li>Barrier to invading microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Immunoglobulins </li></ul><ul><li>Muscosal membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of nutritional deficiency </li></ul>
  23. 26. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Attack microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody-antigen response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Template (memory) made </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. The Digestive System
  25. 28. The Mouth <ul><li>Mastication </li></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. The Esophagus <ul><li>Long tube </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Lower esophageal sphincter </li></ul><ul><li>Heartburn </li></ul>
  27. 30. The Stomach <ul><li>Sphincters </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric juices </li></ul><ul><li>Holding “tank” </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of chyme </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of autodigestion </li></ul>
  28. 31. Physiology of the Stomach
  29. 32. Stomach Acid <ul><li>Destroys activity of protein </li></ul><ul><li>Activates digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Partially digests dietary protein </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in calcium absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption </li></ul>
  30. 33. Peristalsis
  31. 34. The Small Intestine <ul><li>Approximately 10 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Folded walls </li></ul><ul><li>Villi </li></ul><ul><li>Absorptive cells </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid cell turnover </li></ul>
  32. 35. The Small Intestine
  33. 36. Nutrient Absorption <ul><li>Passive absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Active absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis and pinocytosis </li></ul>
  34. 37. Nutrient Absorption
  35. 38. The Large Intestine <ul><li>Indigestible food stuff </li></ul><ul><li>No villi or enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus-producing cells </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul>
  36. 40. Rectum <ul><li>Stool </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Anal sphincters </li></ul>
  37. 41. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul>
  38. 42. The Liver <ul><li>Bile </li></ul><ul><li>Enterohepatic circulation </li></ul>
  39. 43. The Pancreas <ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucagon and insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic juices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicarbonate </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. The Urinary System <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Ureter </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Blood acid-base balance (pH) </li></ul>
  41. 45. Storage Capabilities <ul><li>Maintaining reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium in bones </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Genetics <ul><li>Nutrigenomics </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Diseases with a genetic link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. Common Problems with Digestion <ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Heartburn </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhoids </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable Bowel Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Gallstones </li></ul>
  44. 48. Ulcers <ul><li>Can occur in esophagus, stomach and small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H. Pylori </li></ul></ul>
  45. 51. Heartburn <ul><li>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) </li></ul>
  46. 52. Constipation <ul><li>Difficult or infrequent evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignoring normal urges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle spasms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain medications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity </li></ul></ul>
  47. 53. Laxatives <ul><li>Irritate the intestinal nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Draw water into the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Regular use is harmful </li></ul>
  48. 54. Hemorrhoids (piles) <ul><li>Swollen veins of the rectum and anus </li></ul><ul><li>Intense pressure and straining </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary recommendation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber and fluid </li></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Irritable Bowel Syndrome <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea, constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered intestinal peristalsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased pain threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualized treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-fat, small, frequent meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress reduction </li></ul></ul>
  50. 56. Diarrhea <ul><li>Fluidity and frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly absorbed substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenty of fluid </li></ul></ul>
  51. 57. Gallstones <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper right abdominal pain, gas, bloating, nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of gallbladder </li></ul></ul>

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