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Membrane Structure and Function

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http://brainerdbiology.com/index_files/page0009.htm

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  • 1. Chapter 7 Membrane Structure and Function
  • 2. Figure 7-01
  • 3.  
  • 4. LE 7-3 Hydrophilic region of protein Hydrophobic region of protein Phospholipid bilayer
  • 5. LE 7-2 Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER WATER
  • 6. LE 7-5 Lateral movement (~10 7 times per second) Flip-flop (~ once per month) Viscous Movement of phospholipids Fluid Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails with kinks Membrane fluidity Saturated hydro- carbon tails Cholesterol Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane
  • 7. LE 7-7 Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glycoprotein Carbohydrate Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Cholesterol Integral protein Peripheral proteins CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE Glycolipid
  • 8. LE 7-9a Enzymes Signal Receptor ATP Transport Enzymatic activity Signal transduction
  • 9. LE 7-9b Glyco- protein Cell-cell recognition Intercellular joining Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extra- cellular matrix (ECM)
  • 10. LE 7-8 EXTRACELLULAR SIDE N-terminus C-terminus CYTOPLASMIC SIDE  Helix
  • 11. LE 7-10 Plasma membrane: Cytoplasmic face Extracellular face Transmembrane glycoprotein Plasma membrane: Secreted protein Vesicle Golgi apparatus Glycolipid Secretory protein Transmembrane glycoproteins ER
  • 12. LE 7-7 Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glycoprotein Carbohydrate Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Cholesterol Integral protein Peripheral proteins CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE Glycolipid Activity: Selectively Permeable Membranes
  • 13.  
  • 14. LE 7-11a Molecules of dye Membrane (cross section) WATER Net diffusion Net diffusion Equilibrium Diffusion of one solute
  • 15. LE 7-11b Net diffusion Net diffusion Equilibrium Diffusion of two solutes Net diffusion Net diffusion Equilibrium Activity: Diffusion
  • 16. LE 7-12 Lower concentration of solute (sugar) Higher concentration of sugar Same concentration of sugar Selectively permeable mem- brane: sugar mole- cules cannot pass through pores, but water molecules can H 2 O Osmosis Activity: Osmosis
  • 17. Water Potential
    • Ψ = Ψ s + Ψ p
    • solute pressure
    • potential potential
    • Ψ s = -iCRT
    • i = ionization constant
    • (usually 1)
    • C = Molarity (M)
    • R = gas constant (0.0821)
    • T = temp in Kelvins (ºC + 273)
    Ψ p is zero in an open system
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. LE 7-13 Animal cell Lysed H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O Normal Hypotonic solution Isotonic solution Hypertonic solution H 2 O Shriveled H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O Plant cell Turgid (normal) Flaccid Plasmolyzed Activity: Osmosis
  • 21. LE 7-14 Filling vacuole 50 µm 50 µm Contracting vacuole
  • 22. LE 7-15a EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Channel protein Solute CYTOPLASM
  • 23. LE 7-15b Carrier protein Solute Activity: Facilitated Diffusion
  • 24. LE 7-17 Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Passive transport ATP Active transport
  • 25. LE 7-16 Cytoplasmic Na + bonds to the sodium-potassium pump CYTOPLASM Na + [Na + ] low [K + ] high Na + Na + EXTRACELLULAR FLUID [Na + ] high [K + ] low Na + Na + Na + ATP ADP P Na + binding stimulates phosphorylation by ATP. Na + Na + Na + K + Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its conformation, expelling Na + to the outside. P Extracellular K + binds to the protein, triggering release of the phosphate group. P P Loss of the phosphate restores the protein’s original conformation. K + is released and Na + sites are receptive again; the cycle repeats. K + K + K + K + K + Activity: Active transport
  • 26.  
  • 27. LE 7-18 H + ATP CYTOPLASM EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Proton pump H + H + H + H + H + + + + + + – – – – –
  • 28. LE 7-19 H + ATP Proton pump Sucrose-H + cotransporter Diffusion of H + Sucrose H + H + H + H + H + H + + + + + + + – – – – – –
  • 29. Activity: Exocytosis & Endocytosis
  • 30. LE 7-20a CYTOPLASM Pseudopodium “ Food” or other particle EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Bacterium Food vacuole An amoeba engulfing a bacterium via phagocytosis (TEM) Pseudopodium of amoeba 1 µm Food vacuole PHAGOCYTOSIS
  • 31. LE 7-20b Plasma membrane Pinocytosis vesicles forming (arrows) in a cell lining a small blood vessel (TEM). 0.5 µm Vesicle PINOCYTOSIS
  • 32. LE 7-20c Receptor RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS Ligand Coated pit Coated vesicle Coat protein Coat protein Plasma membrane 0.25 µm A coated pit and a coated vesicle formed during receptor- mediated endocytosis (TEMs).

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