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How Animals Move - Chapter 30
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How Animals Move - Chapter 30






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How Animals Move - Chapter 30 How Animals Move - Chapter 30 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 30 How Animals Move 0
    • Elephants Do the “Groucho Gait”
      • Scientists paint spots on the sides of elephants
        • To study their pattern of movement
    John Hutchinson (far left) of Stanford University paints spots on Tika, an Asian elephant
      • Elephants and Groucho Marx have one thing in common
        • The way they walk, kicking their feet forward
    Groucho Marx
      • Movement
        • Is one of the most distinctive features of animals
    • 30.1 Diverse means of animal locomotion have evolved
      • Locomotion, active travel from place to place
        • Requires that an animal use energy to overcome friction and gravity
    • Swimming
      • Animals that swim
        • Are supported by water but are slowed by friction
    Figure 30.1A
    • Locomotion on Land: Hopping, Walking, Running, and Crawling
      • Animals that walk, hop, or run on land
        • Are less affected by friction, but must support themselves against gravity
    Figure 30.1B, C
      • Burrowing or crawling animals
        • Must overcome friction
        • May move by side-to-side undulation or by peristalsis
    1 Figure 30.1D 2 3 Longitudinal muscle relaxed (extended) Circular muscle contracted Circular muscle relaxed Longitudinal muscle contracted Head Bristles
    • Flying
      • The wings of birds, bats, and flying insects
        • Are airfoils, which generate lift
    Airfoil Figure 30.1E
    • 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection
      • A skeleton has many functions
        • Body support
        • Movement as muscles pull against it
        • Protection of internal organs
    • Hydrostatic Skeletons
      • Hydrostatic skeletons
        • Consist of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment
        • Are found in worms and cnidarians
    Figure 30.2A
    • Exoskeletons
      • Exoskeletons are hard external cases
        • Such as the chitinous, jointed skeletons of arthropods
    Figure 30.2B
        • That also include the shells of some molluscs
    Shell (exoskeleton) Mantle Figure 30.2C
    • Endoskeletons
      • An endoskeleton consists of hard or leathery supporting elements
        • Situated among the soft tissues of an animal
    Figure 30.2D
      • The vertebrate endoskeleton
        • Is composed of cartilage and bone
    Figure 30.2E
    • 30.3 The human skeleton is a unique variation on an ancient theme
      • The human skeleton consists of
        • An axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, and ribs)
        • An appendicular skeleton (shoulder girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs)
      • The human skeleton
    Skull Examples of joints 1 2 3 Clavicle Scapula Shoulder girdle Sternum Ribs Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Pelvic girdle Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Figure 30.3A
      • The vertebrate skeleton
        • Changed dramatically as upright posture and bipedalism evolved
    Human (bipedal) Baboon (quadrupedal) Figure 30.3B
      • Movable joints
        • Provide the human skeleton with flexibility
    1 2 3 Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Pivot joint Head of humerus Scapula Ulna Humerus Ulna Radius Figure 30.3C
    • 30.4 Bones are complex living organs
      • Cartilage at the ends of bones
        • Cushions the joints
      • Bone cells, serviced by blood vessels and nerves
        • Live in a matrix of flexible protein fibers and hard calcium salts
    Cartilage Blood vessels Fibrous connective tissue Yellow bone marrow Central cavity Compact bone Spongy bone (contains red bone marrow) Cartilage Figure 30.4
      • Long bones have a central cavity
        • That stores yellow bone marrow, which is mostly stored fat
      • Spongy bone contains red marrow
        • Where blood cells are made
    • 30.5 Broken bones can heal themselves
      • Broken bones
        • Are realigned and immobilized
    Figure 30.5A
      • Bone cells
        • Build new bone, healing the break
      • Artificial joints
        • Are often used to repair severe injuries
    Figure 30.5B
    • 30.6 Weak, brittle bones are a serious health problem, even in young people
      • Osteoporosis, a bone disease characterized by weak, porous bones
        • Is a growing health concern
    Colorized SEM 50  Colorized SEM 50  Figure 30.6
    • 30.7 The skeleton and muscles interact in movement
      • Antagonistic pairs of muscles
        • Produce opposite movements
    Biceps contracted, triceps relaxed (extended) Triceps contracted, biceps relaxed Biceps Triceps Triceps Biceps Tendon Figure 30.7
      • Muscles perform work
        • Only when contracting
    • 30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus
      • Skeletal muscle
        • Produces body movements
      • Muscle fibers, or cells
        • Consist of bundles of myofibrils
      • Myofibrils
        • Contain bundles of overlapping thick (myosin) and thin (actin) protein filaments
      • Sarcomeres
        • Are repeating groups of thick and thin filaments
        • Are the contractile units
    Figure 30.8 Sarcomere Z line Z line Thin filaments (actin) Thick filaments (myosin) Light band Dark band Light band Sarcomere TEM 26,000  Z line Light band Light band Dark band Myofibril Nuclei Single muscle fiber (cell) Bundle of muscle fibers Muscle
    • 30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments
      • The sliding-filament model
        • Explains muscle contraction
    Sarcomere Dark band Z Z Contracted sarcomere Relaxed muscle Contracting muscle Fully contracted muscle Figure 30.9A
      • The myosin heads of the thick filaments
        • Bind ATP and extend to high-energy states
      • The heads then attach to binding sites on the actin molecules
        • And pull the thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere
      • The mechanism of filament sliding
    Figure 30.9B Thick filament (myosin) ATP Thin filament (actin) Myosin head Z line ADP P ADP P ADP + P New position of Z line ATP binds to a myosin head, which is released from an actin filament. 1 Hydrolysis of ATP extends the myosin head. 2 The myosin head attaches to an actin binding site. 3 The power stroke slides the actin (thin) filament toward the center of the sarcomere. 4
    • 30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction
      • Motor neurons carry action potentials
        • That stimulate muscle contraction
      • A motor unit consists of
        • A neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
    Bone Tendon Muscle Neuromuscular junctions Muscle fibers (cells) Nuclei Motor neuron axon Nerve Motor neuron cell body Spinal cord Motor unit 1 Motor unit 2 Figure 30.10A
      • The axon of a motor neuron
        • Forms synapses with the muscle at a neuromuscular junction
    Ca 2+ released from ER Sarcomere Plasma membrane Myofibril Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Tubule Motor neuron axon Action potential Mitochondrion Figure 30.10B
      • Acetylcholine released at a neuromuscular junction triggers an action potential
        • That passes along tubules into the center of the muscle cell
      • Calcium released from the endoplasmic reticulum
        • Initiates muscle contraction
    • 30.11 Athletic training increases strength and endurance
      • A balance of aerobic and anaerobic exercise
        • Increases endurance and strength
    Figure 30.11
    • 30.12 The structure-function theme underlies all the parts and activities of an animal
      • Animal movement
        • Is a visible reminder that function emerges from structure
      • An animal’s nervous system
        • Connects sensations derived from environmental stimuli to responses carried out by its muscles
    Figure 30.12