Green Book   Classification
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Green Book Classification

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Green Book   Classification Green Book Classification Presentation Transcript

  • Classification and the Five (or Six) Kingdoms Mr. W.R. McCammon, MSNS Pisgah High School
  •  
  • Taxonomy
    • The branch of biology that specialized in classifying organisms into a series of groups called taxa (or taxon for singular).
    • The modern classification system has 7 different levels.
  • Taxonomy
    • KNOW THESE LEVELS IN ORDER!!!
    • Kingdom – Largest group, there are only 6 (or 5) kingdoms in the entire world.
    • Phylum (or Division when dealing with plants and fungi). Many phyla make up a kingdom.
    • Class – Many classes make up a phylum
    • Order – Many orders make up a class
    • Family – Many families make up an order
  • Taxonomy
    • Genus – Many genera make up a family. The genus makes up the first part of the scientific name.
    • Species – The species name is never used without the genus name. Many species make up a genus. This is the second word in the scientific name. It’s the smallest MOST SPECIFIC group of organisms.
  • Taxonomy
    • Organisms are named using a system created by Carolus Von Linnaeus called binomial nomenclature which means “two part name.”
      • Until Linnaeus scientific names were long sometimes with 11 or 12 names. Linnaeus proposed a universally accepted system whereby each organism on the planet has a two part name.
  •  
  • Taxonomy
    • The first part of an organisms name is the genus name. It is ALWAYS capitalized.
    • The second part of an organisms scientific name is the species name. It is NEVER capitalized.
    • All scientific names must be either underlined or written in italics.
  • Taxonomy
    • EXAMPLE:
      • Quercus is the genus name for all oak trees. Quercus rubrum is the name for the red oak. Quercus alba is the white oak.
  • Taxonomy
    • Remember the rules of scientific naming:
      • Must be two (sometimes more) words.
      • Must be either underlined or in italics
      • First word must be capitalized and the second must be lower case
  • Taxonomy
    • Common names are not used because each country, region, and sometimes even different communities have different names for the same thing.
      • In the south, we are familiar with the Roly-Poly. In the north it is called a Pill bug.
      • What we call a yellow poplar, is known as the tulip tree by many others.
      • Language differences make it difficult too. All scientific names are written in Latin because at the time of Linnaeus, all educated people know Latin.
  • Taxonomy
    • Scientific names can also give you information about the organism. For example, Canus familiarus is the domesticated dog because it is “familiar.”
  • The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms
    • 2000 years ago, Aristotle created a system of classification with two kingdoms: Plants and Animals.
      • He classified plants based on stem differences (woody, herbaceous, etc)
      • He classified animals based on where they lived (water, air, land.)
  • The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms
    • This system remained in place until the invention of the microscope by Galileo.
      • Microscopic organisms were discovered in water that were green like plants, but moved around like animals.
      • Scientists couldn’t decide if they were animals or plants so they created a 3 rd kingdom called Protista.
  • The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms
    • Everything that wasn’t a plant or animal was thrown into Kingdom Protista so its often called the “Catch-All” kingdom.
    • Eventually, the bacteria were given their own Kingdom called Monera and the Fungi were separated from the Plant Kingdom and given its own Kingdom called Fungi.
  • The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms
    • Within the last 20 years, some scientists have decided that the two kinds of bacteria in Kingdom Monera are so different that they should be separated into different Kingdoms.
  • The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Archaebacteria are the oldest living organisms. They live in the harshest environments on the planet like hot springs (thermophiles), acidic water (acidophiles), volcanic deep-sea vents (Heliophiles).
    • Kingdom Eubacteria are the more common bacteria ( E. coli and such).
  • Dichotomous Keys
    • One tool used for classification is a dichotomous key.
    • Answer a series of questions to determine what the next question will be.
    • You continue through the key until the name of the organism is given in the key.
  • Dichotomous Key
    • 1 The coin
      • is silver in color go to 2
      • is not silver in color go to 4
    • 2 The coin
      • has ridges around the edge go to 3
      • doesn’t have ridges around the edge NICKLE
    • 3 The coin
      • a picture of George Washington on it QUARTER
      • doesn’t have a picture of George Washington DIME
    • 4 The coin
      • has a man with a beard on it PENNY
      • Doesn’t have a man with a beard on it DOLLAR
  • Viruses
    • Since viruses are not alive they are not classified into any kingdom.
      • They do not satisfy the characteristics of life from the first chapter we discussed.
      • They do not grow, develop, or carry out respiration.
      • Examples include mumps, measles, chicken pox, the flu, or even a cold .
  • Viruses
    • The only way viruses are able to reproduce is inside a living cell called a host.
    • They are classified differently.
    • Viruses contain a core of nucleic acid that can either be DNA or RNA
    • Around the nucleic acid is a layer of protein called a capsid .
  • Viruses
    • Sometimes viruses have a lipid outer layer called an envelope.
    • Once inside a host cell, the viral DNA hijacks the cell and the cell makes viral genes and viral proteins.
    • Viruses are treated with antivirals NOT antibiotics.
  • Viral Replication
    • Lytic Cycle
      • The virus takes over the host cell and makes more viral parts. The new virus fill up the cell until it bursts, killing the host cell and releasing the viruses.
    • Lysogenic Cycle
      • The virus incorporates into the host cells DNA where it may remain dormant for years, but can surface and immediately enter the Lytic Cycle.
  •  
  • I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria
    • Bacteria are incredibly small
    • Bacteria are not well represented in the fossil record.
    • Some are pathogenic and give the good bacteria a bad name
  • I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria
    • They are prokaryotic – no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
      • Metabolic reactions all take place in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane.
      • Proteins are assembled on ribosomes (ribosomes are not membrane bound)
    • Most have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan and polysaccharides (NOT ARCHAEBACTERIA)
  • I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria
    • Archaebacteria live in extreme environments. Their cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan.
    • Exterior to the cell wall is the slime layer, a jelly-like capsule that helps bacterial cells attach to a substrate or deter the host’s infection-fighting cells.
  • I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria
    • Two kinds of may be attached to the cell wall to aid in locomotion
      • Bacterial flagella – acts like a propeller
      • Pili – helps attach to surfaces and attach to one another
  • I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria
    • Bacterial Shapes
      • Three basic shapes are common:
        • Coccus – Round shaped
        • Baccillus – Rod shaped/cylindrical
        • Spiral
  • II. Kingdom Protista
    • Protistans are a collection of the simplest eukaryotic organisms.
      • Both unicellular and multicellular
      • They are eukaryotic (have a nucleus, mitochondria, ER and all the other organelles.
  • II. Kingdom Protista
    • Animal-like Protists
      • They are heterotrophic which means they don’t make their own food.
      • Include amoeba
    • Plant-like Protists
      • They are autotrophic which means they make their own food.
      • Include euglena
    • Fungi-Like Protists
      • They absorb their food like fungi
      • Include slime molds
    II. Kingdom Protista
  • III. Kingdom Fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
      • Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize organic matter.
        • Saprobes get their nutrients from breaking down dead organic matter.
        • Parasitic thrive on tissues in living hosts
      • All fungi rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption
      • Fungi are valuable decomposers in the environment.
  • IV. The Plant Kingdom
    • Overview of the Plant Kingdom
      • In general, plants are eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs – green in color and self-sustaining.
      • Most, the gymnosperms and the angiosperms, have vascular tissue for transport of water and nutrients; plus they possess roots and shoot systems.
    • Overview of the Plant Kingdom (con’t)
      • Nonvascular plants, such as the bryophytes, have simple internal transport systems (no true roots, stems, and leaves.
      • Problems moving from aquatic biome to a terrestrial biome:
        • Gravity – Aquatic plants float in water.
        • Drying out – aquatic plants are always surrounded by water. Land plants must have protection (waxy covering called a cuticle)
    IV. The Plant Kingdom
    • Page Number ______
    • Which division are all non-vascular plants in? Bryophyta
    • Give 3 examples of non-vascular plants.
    • List 3 characteristics of non-vascular plants.
    IV. The Plant Kingdom
  • Index Card #1
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Bryophyta
    • Examples – Moss, Liverwort, hornwort
    • Three Characteristics
      • Small
      • No vascular tissue
      • No true roots, stems or leaves
  • Labeled Moss Diagram
  • Alternation of Generations
  • Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Page _____
    • List 3 characteristics common to all seedless vascular plants.
      • Have vascular tissue
      • Must have water to reproduce
      • Do not produce seeds – reproduce with spores.
  • Index Card #2
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Sphenophyta
    • Example – Horsetail, Equisetum , Scouring Rush
    • Facts:
      • 1. Pioneers used it to scrub their pots.
      • 2. Only one surviving species ( Equisetum )
  • Index card #3
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Pterophyta
    • Example - Ferns
    • Facts
      • Must be found near water
      • Spores produced in Sori (usually found on the backs of the leaves).
  • The Seed Plants
    • Page _____
    • 3 characteristics:
      • Have seeds to reproduce
      • Do NOT require water to reproduce
      • Seeds in either cones or flowers.
  • Index Card #4
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Coniferophyta
    • Examples – Pine trees, cedar trees, cypress trees.
    • Facts
      • All conifers produce seeds inside cones.
      • Grow and mature quickly in poor soils
  • The Flowering Plants
    • Page #_____
    • Division Anthophyta
    • Three characteristics common to all flowering plants:
      • They produce seeds inside flowers.
      • Seeds can be spread by wind, water, or animals.
      • Seeds typically formed inside fruit (ovary).
  • Index Card #5
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Anthophyta
    • Class Monocot
    • Examples – Lilly, Orchid, Grasses
    • Characteristics:
      • Parallel leaf veins
      • Flower parts in groups of 3 or 6
      • Fiberous root system
  • Index Card #6
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Anthophyta
    • Class Dicot
    • Examples – All other plants that aren’t monocots….oak tree, tomato plant, cucumber, you get the idea…
    • Characteristics
      • Net veins in their leaves
      • Flower parts in groups of 4 or 5
      • Tap root system
  • Index Card #7
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Porifera
    • Example – Sponges
    • Page _____
    • Characteristics
      • Invertebrates
      • Body is full of pores
      • Filter feeder
      • Hermaphrodites
  • Index Card #8
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Cnidaria
    • Page number______
    • Examples – Jellyfish, Hydra, and Coral
    • Characteristics
      • Stinging cells called Cnidocytes/nematocysts
      • One body opening
      • Two body forms (medusa and polyp)
  • Index #9
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Examples – All flatworms including tapeworms and a freshwater, free-living planaria
    • Page_________
    • Characteristics
      • Flat bodies
      • One body opening
      • Cephalization-sense organs in a “head” region
      • Bilaterially symmetrical
  • Index Card #10
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Examples – All roundworms including heartworms and soil nematodes.
    • Page___________
    • Characteristics
      • Round with NO segmentation
      • First group to have separate sexes
      • First group to have TWO body openings (mouth and anus)
  • Index card #11
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Mollusca (shelled-animals)
    • Class Gastropoda
    • Examples – Snails and slugs
    • Page______
    • Characteristics
      • Literally means “stomach-foot”
      • Large “foot” used for movement
      • Single shell or no shell at all
  • Index Card #12
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Mollusca
    • Class Bivalvia
    • Examples – Clams and oysters
    • Characteristics
      • Two shells
      • Filter feeders
      • Incurrent siphon and Excurrent siphon
      • Buries itself in the sand with its large foot
      • Open circulatory system
  • Index Card #13
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Mollusca
    • Class Cephalpoda
    • Examples – Squid and Octopus
    • Characteristics
      • Large brains and advanced sense organs
      • Literally means, “Head-foot”
      • Foot is divided into arms/tentacles
      • No shell (octopus) or an internal shell (squid)
  • Index Card #14
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Annelida
    • Examples – Earthworm and leech
    • Page Number_______
    • Characteristics
      • All segmented worms
      • 5 hearts
      • Hermaphrodites
  • Slide #15
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda (jointed-legged animals with exoskeletons made of chitin)
    • Class Arachnida
    • Examples – Spiders, scorpions, and horse shoe crabs.
    • Page_____
    • Characteristics
      • Copper-based (green) blood
      • Two body sections (abdomen and cephalothorax)
      • 8 legs
  • Kingdom 16
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda
    • Class Crustacea
    • Examples – Lobsters, crabs, shrimps, crawdaddies
    • Page_________
    • Characteristics
      • 10 or more legs
      • Two body sections (abdomen and cephalothorax)
      • Large pinching claws
  • Index 17
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda
    • Class Chilopoda
    • Examples – Centipede
    • Page________
    • Characteristics
      • One pair of legs per segment
      • Carnivores – They will bite!!!
  • Index 18
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda
    • Class Diplopoda
    • Examples – Millipede
    • Page_______
    • Characteristics
      • Two legs per segment
      • Herbivore – Don’t bite
  • Index Card #19
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda
    • Class Insecta
    • Examples – All insects
    • Page _____
    • Characteristics
      • 6 legs
      • 3 body sections (head, thorax, and abdomen)
      • Go through some type of metamorphosis.
  • Index Card #20
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Echinodermata
    • Page_____
    • Examples – Starfish, sand dollar, and sea urchin, Sea Squirt
    • Characteristics –
      • “ Spiny-skinned” animals
      • Water Vascular System controls many tube feet.
      • Regeneration as long as ring canal isn’t damaged
  • Index Card #21
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Characteristics of ALL chordates
      • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
      • Post-anal Tail
      • Pharangeal Gill Slits
  • Index Card #22
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Agnatha
    • Page____
    • Examples – Hagfish and the Lamprey
    • Characteristics
      • Jawless Fish
  • Index Card #23
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Chondrichthyes
    • Page________
    • Examples – Sharks, skates, and rays
    • Characteristics –
      • Skeletons made up of cartilage
      • Scales are modified teeth and teeth are modified scales.
  • Index Card #24
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Osteichthyes
    • Page_____
    • Examples – Catfish and trout (all bony fish)
    • Characteristics –
      • Skeletons made up of bone
      • Swim bladder for buoyancy
      • Lateral line – sense organ used for detecting minor changes in the water.
  • Index Card #25
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Amphibia
    • Page_______
    • Examples – Frogs, Toads, Newts, Salamanders
    • Characteristics
      • Moist skins (used for breathing)
      • Part of their life on land and part in water
      • Feet don’t have claws
  • Index Card #26
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Reptilia
    • Page____
    • Examples – Turtle, Snake, Lizard, Alligator, Crocodile, and dinosaurs!
    • Characteristics –
      • Rough skin
      • Leather-like eggs adapted for land
  • Index Card #27
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Aves
    • Pages______
    • Examples – All Birds
    • Characteristics
      • Feathers
      • Thin hollow bones
      • Adaptations for feeding, grasping, and movement.
  • Index Card #28
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia (Animals that give birth to live young, have hair, and produce milk)
    • Order Monotremata
    • Page_____
    • Examples – Duck bill platypus
    • Characteristics
      • Egg-Laying Mammals
  • Index Card #29
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Marsupialia
    • Page____
    • Examples – Kangaroo and opossum
    • Characteristics
      • The pouched mammals
  • Index Card #30
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Insectivora
    • Examples – Moles and Shrews
    • Characteristics – Insect eating mammals
  • Index Card #31
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Chiroptera
    • Examples – Bats
    • Characteristics – Flying mammals
  • Index Card #32
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Edentata
    • Examples – Ant eater and the armadillo
    • Characteristics – Toothless or “Peg”-like toothed animals
  • Index Card #33
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Rodentia
    • Examples – rodents – mice, rats, squirrels
    • Characteristics
      • Rodents
      • Large front teeth
  • Index Card #34
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Lagomorpha
    • Examples – Rabbits and Hares
    • Characteristics – Long Ears, fluffy bunny tail, lay Easter Eggs,
  • Index Card #35
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Cetacea
    • Examples – Whales and Dolphins
    • Characteristics –
      • Smart aquatic animals
  • Index Card #36
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Sirenia
    • Examples – Sea Cow and Manatee
    • Characteristics – Aquatic herbiovores
  • Index Card #37
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Proboscidea
    • Examples – Elephants
    • Characteristics – Long Snout
  • Index Card #38
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Carnivora
    • Examples – Lions, Tigers, and Bears, Oh my.
    • Characteristics – Meat eating LAND mammals
  • Index Card #39
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Pinnipedia
    • Examples – Sea Lion and Seals
    • Characteristics – meat eating AQUATIC mammals
  • Index Card #40
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Perissodactyla
    • Examples – Horse, zebra, and rhino
    • Characteristics – Odd-toed hoofed animals
  • Index Card #41
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Artiodactyla
    • Examples – Deer, cows
    • Characteristics – Even-toed hoofed animals
  • Index Card #42
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Primates
    • Examples – Humans and Monkeys
    • Characteristics – opposable thumbs, walking upright
  • Index Card #43
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Class Mammalia
    • Order Primates
    • Family Hominadae
    • Examples – Humans ( Homo sapiens )
    • Characteristics – Like us…like yeah…ok….like humans and stuff…
      • Little body hair, larger brains and tall foreheads