Green Book 5 Cell Structure And Function


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Green Book 5 Cell Structure And Function

  1. 1. Cell Structure and Function Section 5 Biology I Mr. W.R. McCammon, MSNS
  2. 2. Prokaryotic Cell <ul><ul><li>All living things are made up of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells are bacteria cells . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria (prokaryotic cells) have the following features: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a cell wall </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HAVE NO NUCLEUS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has DNA in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HAS NO MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually has a flagellum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Prokaryotic Cells <ul><ul><li>Bacteria come in three shapes coccus (round), bacillus (rod), or spirillum (spiral) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria are named based on their shape for example Streptococcus pneumoniae (which causes pneumonia) is coccus shaped and “strepto” means they arrange themselves into a straight line. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Eukaryotic Cells <ul><ul><li>Include all other cells besides bacteria including all your cells, plant and animal cells . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They include the following characteristics : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much larger than bacterial cells (10 to 100 times larger) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant, fungi, and some protists, have cell walls; animal and some protists do not have cell walls. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has DNA in the nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has membrane bound organelles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cellular Organelles <ul><ul><li>Organelle means “little organ”. They are enclosed areas of the cell that carry out different processes and functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOW ALL THE ORGANELLES LISTED BELOW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cellular Organelles <ul><li>Cell membrane – phospholipid bilayer which separates the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell and determines what enters and leaves the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall – only found in plant, fungi, and some protists. Tough carbohydrate layer outside the cell membrane that supports and protects the cell. Allows plants to stand upright against gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus – Location of DNA; surrounded by a nuclear membrane (or envelope); It’s the control center of the cell. The genetic information is located in the nucleus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cellular Organelles <ul><li>Cytoplasm – jelly-like material where all the organelles are located. </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum – membrane system in the cell that is primarily used for transportation of proteins and other substances. If ribosomes are attached it is called rough ER. If no ribosomes are attached it is called smooth ER. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes – site of protein synthesis; its where proteins are made; can either be attached to ER or free floating in the cytoplasm </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cellular Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Apparatus (bodies or complex) – Made of membranes; looks like a stack of pancakes; primary job is to package and send proteins and lipids to other areas of the cell; usually called the packaging center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles – sac-like storage used for water, salts, and waste. Usually LARGE in plants cells, but tiny to non-existent in animal cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria – Powerhouse of the cell; bean shaped; turn food into energy; make ATP; made up of 2 membranes; site of cellular respiration </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cellular Organelles <ul><li>Chloroplast – Found only in producers (plants and green protists) bean shaped; 2 membranes; converts light energy into chemical energy; site of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton – network of thin protein fibers that help the cell keep its shape and helps the cell move. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YOU NEED TO MEMORIZE THESE ORGANELLES, WHAT THEY LOOK LIKE, WHAT THEY DO, AND FIND THEM IN A CELL. You’ll be tested on them until you learn them. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cellular Organization <ul><li>More accurately it should be animal cells vs. producer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells and animal cells have all the same organelles except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants cells have chloroplasts and animal cells do not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cells have a cell wall and animal cells do not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants cells have a LARGE central vacuole and animal cells either have really small ones or none at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cells have lysosomes and plant cells do not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All cells do cellular respiration, however, only plant cells (and other producers) do photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cellular Organization <ul><li>The cell is the basic unit of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of cells working together makes up tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of tissues working together makes up organs. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of organs working together makes up organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of organ systems working together make up organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Know examples of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems </li></ul>