Green Book 3

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  • 1. Section 3 Biochemical Concepts Mr. McCammon Biology I and SSR
  • 2. Section 3.1
    • I. Characteristics of Living Things
      • A. One or more cells
      • B. Have a way to reproduce
      • C. Grow and develop
      • D. Universal genetic code
      • E. Obtain material and use the energy from it.
      • F. Maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis)
      • G. Respond to changes in the environment
      • H. Change over time
  • 3. Section 3.1 Practice
    • Complete 1-8 on a sheet of paper
    • Turn the sheet into the box.
  • 4. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life
    • A. Atoms make up all matter in the universe.
    • B. Atoms are made up of :
    • 1. Protons – positive charge and found in the nucleus (center) of the atom.
    • 2. Neutrons – no charge and found in the nucleus (center) of the atom.
    • 3. Electrons – negative charge and found orbiting the nucleus (center) of the atom.
  • 5. Comparing Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons 0 Electron Shells - Electron 1 Nucleus 0 Neutron 1 Nucleus + Proton Mass Location Charge Sub-atomic Particle
  • 6. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • C. Electrons closer to the nucleus are held tighter than those further away.
    • 1. Atoms can gain, lose, or share electrons with other atoms.
    • 2. This is the basis for chemical reactions.
  • 7. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • D. Chemical reactions
    • 1. Making and/or breaking chemical bonds.
    • 2. Chemical bonds are formed when outer electrons are attracted, shared, or transferred from one atom to another in order to fill outer shell electrons.
  • 8. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • E. The periodic table
    • 1. All known elements
    • 2. 92 natural occurring elements
    • 3. Metals, non-metals, metalloids
    • 4. Atomic mass, atomic number, symbol, and name.
  • 9. Section 3.2
  • 10. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • F. Making electron diagrams
    • 1. Find the element on the periodic table and note the atomic number.
    • 2. Atomic number is the number to protons.
    • 3. The number of protons = the number of electrons.
  • 11. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • F. Making Electron diagrams (con’t)
    • 4. Helium’s atomic number is 2 therefore it has 2 protons and 2 electrons.
    • 5. Draw protons in the center and electrons orbiting nucleus.
    • a . 2 electrons in 1 st energy level
    • b. 8 electrons in 2 nd energy level
    • c. 8 electrons in 3 rd energy level
  • 12. Section 3.2 F +9
    • Place the number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Put 2 electrons in the 1 st level, 8 in the second.
    3. Continue until all the electrons are accounted for.
  • 13. Section 3.2
    • Write the electron diagrams for:
    • 1. Chlorine
    • 2. Sodium
    • 3. Lithium
    • 4. Carbon
    • 5. Boron
    • Turn them into the box.
  • 14. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • G. Two types of Bonds
    • H. Ionic bonds result from atoms that gain or lose electrons.
    • 1. When an electron is lost, a + results.
    • 2. When an electron is gained, a – results.
  • 15. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • H. Ionic bonds (cont)
    • 3. Goal is to fill an outer shell. To reach the magic number of 8 (or 2 for the 1 st energy level)
    • 4. Positive and negative attract.
    • 5. When an atom gains or loses an electron it is called an ion.
  • 16. Section 3.2
    • Chemistry of Life (con’t)
    • I. Covalent Bonds result from the sharing of electrons.
    • 1. Outer shell electrons overlap
    • 2. Form molecules.
    • 3. Organic molecules, water, complex macromolecules are examples.
  • 17. Section 3.2
    • Complete Practice 1-6 on page 71
    • Turn it into the box.
  • 18. Section 3.3
    • The Chemistry of Water
    • A. Chemical formula is H 2 0 – made up of two molecules of hydrogen and one oxygen.
    • B. Most abundant compound in living organisms.
    • C. Covalently bonded.
  • 19. Section 3.3
    • The Chemistry of Water
    • D. Properties of Water (con’t)
    • 1. Transparent to let sunlight through to aquatic organisms.
    • 2. Can form ions.
    • 3. Universal solvent – can dissolve many substances
    • 4. Cohesion – Water sticks to water
    • 5. Adhesion – Water sticks to stuff
    • 6. Temperature stabilizer – Can absorb lots of heat before it changes temp.
  • 20. Section 3.3
    • The Chemistry of Water (con’t)
    • E. The electrons are not shared evenly between the hydrogen and the oxygen molecules resulting in the oxygen end having a slight negative charge and the hydrogen having a slight positive charge. This makes water a polar covalent bond, having a slightly positive pole and a slightly negative pole.
  • 21. Section 3.3
    • The Chemistry of Water (con’t)
    • F. Since the slight positive end will attract the slight negative end, water molecules will stick together (cohesion).
    • G. Water can form weak hydrogen bonds that can hold water to other materials (adhesion).
    • H. Liquid at room temp. and floats when frozen
  • 22. Section 3.3
    • The Chemistry of Water (con’t)
    • I. Water will dissolve most all materials except _____.
    • J. 65 to 70% of human body and up to 80% in some organisms.
    • Complete Practice on page 73 1-8
    • Turn it into the box.
  • 23. Section 3.4
    • pH
    • A. Water forms ions.
    • B. Water will split into H+ and OH-
    • C. pH measures the concentration of H+ in solution.
    • D. pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral (H+ is equal to OH-)
  • 24. Section 3.4
    • pH (con’t)
    • E. Any solution less than 7 is an acid.
    • 1. A compound that forms H+ in solution is an acid.
    • 2. The lower the number the stronger the acid. 2.5 is a stronger acid than 4.5.
  • 25. Section 3.4
    • pH (con’t)
    • F. Any solution more than 7 is a base (or alkaline)
    • 1. A compound that forms OH- in solution is a base.
    • 2. The higher the number the stronger the base. 12.5 is stronger than 8.
  • 26.  
  • 27. Section 3.4
    • Complete 1-10 on page 74 and 1-8 on page 75.
    • Turn it into the box.