Chapter1

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Principles of Biology - Chapter 1

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  • Figure 1.2 : Animated! Levels of organization in nature, from simpler to more complex. 1 Atoms 2 Molecules 3 Cells 4 Organisms 5 Populations 6 Communities 7 Ecosystems 8 The biosphere
  • Figure 1.3 : Animated! The one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials in the world of life. Below , a consumer eating a producer.
  • Figure 1.3 : Animated! The one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials in the world of life. Below , a consumer eating a producer.
  • Figure 1.3 : Animated! The one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials in the world of life. Below , a consumer eating a producer.
  • Figure 1.3 : Animated! The one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials in the world of life. Below , a consumer eating a producer.
  • Figure 1.5 : Animated! Three-domain classification system with a few representatives of life’s diversity.
  • Figure 1.7 : Animated! The steps in a scientific experiment to determine if Olestra causes cramps. A report of this study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in January of 1998.
  • Figure 1.9 Example of error bars in a graph. This particular graph was adapted from the peacock butterfly research described on the previous page. The researchers recorded the number of times each butterfly flicked its wings in response to an attack by a bird. The orange squares represent the average frequency of wing flicking for each sample set of butterflies. Black error bars that extend above and below the squares indicate the range of values—the sampling error—for each set of butterflies.
  • Chapter1

    1. 1. Invitation to Biology Chapter 1
    2. 2. 1.1 Impacts/Issues: The Secret Life of Earth <ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The systematic study of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have encountered only a fraction of the organisms that live on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists constantly discover new species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction rates are accelerating </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Video: Lost worlds and other wonders
    4. 4. Exploring New Guinea <ul><li>A rare golden-mantled tree kangaroo </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1.2 Life’s Levels of Organization <ul><li>The building blocks (atoms) that make up all living things are the same ones that make up all nonliving things </li></ul><ul><li>The unique properties of life emerge as certain kinds of molecules become organized into cells </li></ul>
    6. 6. Life’s Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental building block of all matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An association of two or more atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual; consists of one or more cells </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Life’s Levels of Organization <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of individuals of a species in a given area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations of all species in a given area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community interacting with its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All regions of Earth that hold life </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Nature and Life <ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything in the universe, except what humans have manufactured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergent property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic of a system that does not appear in any of a system’s component parts </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Levels of Organization in Nature
    10. 10. Fig. 1-2, p. 5 3 2 8 1 7 6 4 5
    11. 11. Animation: Life’s levels of organization
    12. 12. Active Figure: Levels of organization
    13. 13. 1.3 Overview of Life’s Unity <ul><li>All living things have similar characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense and respond to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce with the help of DNA </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Energy Sustains Life’s Organization <ul><li>One-way flow of energy through the biosphere and cycling of nutrients among organisms sustain life’s organization </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity to do work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance that is necessary for survival, but that an organism can’t make for itself </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Organisms and Energy Sources <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that make their own food using energy and simple raw materials from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that get energy and carbon by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: animals </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Energy Flow and Material Cycling
    17. 17. Fig. 1-3a, p. 6
    18. 18. Fig. 1-3a, p. 6 sunlight energy A Producers harvest energy from the environment. Some of that energy flows from producers to consumers. PRODUCERS plants and other self-feeding organisms B Nutrients that become incorporated into the cells of producers and consumers are eventually released by decomposition. Some cycle back to producers. CONSUMERS animals, most fungi, many protists, bacteria C All energy that enters the world of life eventually flows out of it, mainly as heat.
    19. 19. Fig. 1-3a, p. 6 Stepped Art sunlight energy A Producers harvest energy from the environment. Some of that energy flows from producers to consumers. PRODUCERS plants and other self-feeding organisms CONSUMERS animals, most fungi, many protists, bacteria C All energy that enters the world of life eventually flows out of it, mainly as heat. B Nutrients that become incorporated into the cells of producers and consumers are eventually released by decomposition. Some cycle back to producers.
    20. 20. Fig. 1-3b, p. 6
    21. 21. Animation: One-way energy flow and materials cycling
    22. 22. Organisms Sense and Respond to Change <ul><li>Organisms sense and respond to change to keep conditions in their internal environment within a range that favors cell survival (homeostasis) </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule or structure that responds to a stimulus </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Response to Stimuli
    24. 24. Organisms Grow, Develop and Reproduce <ul><li>Organisms grow, develop, and reproduce based on information encoded in DNA, which they inherit from their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in size, volume, and number of cells in multicelled species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual becomes a multicelled adult </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Organisms Grow, Develop and Reproduce <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which parents produce offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of DNA from parents to offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule that carries hereditary information about traits </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 1.4 Introduction to Life’s Diversity <ul><li>The millions of species on Earth vary greatly in details of body form and function </li></ul><ul><li>Each species is given a unique two-part name that includes genus and species names </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of species that share a unique set of traits </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Classification Systems <ul><li>Classification systems group species according to traits and organize information about species </li></ul><ul><li>One system sorts all organisms into one of three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>The eukaryotes include plants, protists, fungi and animals </li></ul>
    28. 28. Life’s Diversity: Three-Domain Classification System
    29. 29. Fig. 1-5, p. 8 Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
    30. 30. Animation: Life’s diversity
    31. 31. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single celled organisms in which DNA is not contained in a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacterium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A member of the prokaryotic domain Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archaeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A member of the prokaryotic domain Archaea </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms whose cells typically have a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic consumer that obtains nutrients by digestion and absorption outside the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically a multicelled, photosynthetic producer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicelled consumer that develops through a series of embryonic stages and moves about during all or part of the life cycle </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Animation: Three domains
    35. 35. 1.5 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental process of judging the quality of information before deciding whether or not to accept it </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. The Scope and Limits of Science <ul><li>Science is a way of looking at the natural world which helps us to communicate our experiences without bias by focusing only on testable ideas about observable phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science does not address the supernatural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The systemic study of nature </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 1.6 How Science Works <ul><li>Researchers make and test potentially falsifiable predictions about how the natural world works </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, scientific inquiry involves forming a hypothesis (testable assumption) about an observation then making and testing predictions based on the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis that is not consistent with the results of scientific tests is modified or discarded </li></ul>
    38. 38. Common Research Practices <ul><li>1. Observe some aspect of nature </li></ul><ul><li>2. Frame a question about your observation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Propose a hypothesis (a testable explanation of the observation) </li></ul>
    39. 39. Common Research Practices <ul><li>4. Make a prediction – a statement based on a hypothesis, about some condition that should exist if the hypothesis is not wrong </li></ul><ul><li>5. Test the accuracy of the prediction by experiments or gathering information (tests may be performed on a model ) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Common Research Practices <ul><li>6. Assess the results of the tests (data) to see if they support or disprove the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>7. Conclusions : Report all steps of your work and conclusions to the scientific community </li></ul>
    41. 41. Making Observations: A Field Study
    42. 42. A Scientific Theory <ul><li>Scientific theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothesis that has not been disproven after many years of rigorous testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for making predictions about other phenomena </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Laws of Nature <ul><li>Law of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization that describes a consistent and universal natural phenomenon for which we do not yet have a complete scientific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: gravity </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Examples of Scientific Theories
    45. 45. Animation: An example of the scientific method
    46. 46. 1.7 The Power of Experiments <ul><li>Natural processes are often influenced by many interacting variables </li></ul><ul><li>Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic or event that differs among individuals </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. The Power of Experiments <ul><li>Experiments simplify interpretations of complex biological systems by focusing on the effect of one variable at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A test to support or falsify a prediction </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Experimental and Control Groups <ul><li>Experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of objects or individuals that display or are exposed to a variable under investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of objects or individuals that is identical to an experimental group except for one variable </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Potato Chips and Stomachaches
    50. 50. Fig. 1-7, p. 12 A Olestra ® causes intestinal cramps. Hypothesis B Prediction People who eat potato chips made with Olestra will be more likely to get intestinal cramps than those who eat potato chips made without Olestra. C Experiment Control Group Experimental Group Eats regular potato chips Eats Olestra potato chips D 93 of 529 people get cramps later (17.6%) 89 of 563 people get cramps later (15.8%) Results E Conclusion Percentages are about equal. People who eat potato chips made with Olestra are just as likely to get intestinal cramps as those who eat potato chips made without Olestra. These results do not support the hypothesis.
    51. 51. Fig. 1-10, p. 14 Stepped Art Results 93 of 529 people get cramps later (17.6%) 89 of 563 people get cramps later (15.8%) Experiment Control Group Eats regular potato chips Experimental Group Eats Olestra potato chips Hypothesis Olestra® causes intestinal cramps. Prediction People who eat potato chips made with Olestra will be more likely to get intestinal cramps than those who eat potato chips made without Olestra Conclusion Percentages are about equal. People who eat potato chips made with Olestra are just as likely to get intestinal cramps as those who eat potato chips made without Olestra. These results do not support the hypothesis.
    52. 52. Example: Butterflies and Birds <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does a peacock butterfly flick its wings? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposing wing spots scares off predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing sounds scare off predators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals without spots are eaten more often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals without sounds are eaten more often </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Peacock Butterfly Defenses
    54. 54. Experiments and Results <ul><li>Four groups of butterflies were exposed to predators (birds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterflies without spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterflies without sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterflies without spots or sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test results support both original hypotheses </li></ul>
    55. 55. Results: Peacock Butterfly Experiment
    56. 56. Sampling Error <ul><li>Biology researchers experiment on subsets of a group, which may result in sampling error </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between results derived from testing an entire group of events or individuals, and results derived from testing a subset of the group </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Sampling Error
    58. 58. Fig. 1-9, p. 14 24 20 16 12 8 Wing-flicks per minute 4 0 – spots + sound – spots – sound + spots – sound
    59. 59. Probability <ul><li>Researchers try to design experiments carefully in order to minimize sampling error </li></ul><ul><li>Statistically significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to a result that is statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Animation: Sampling error
    61. 61. 1.8 Impacts/Issues Revisited <ul><li>Biologists constantly discover new species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse lemur ( Microcebus lehilahytsara ), discovered in Madagascar in 2005 </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Digging Into Data: Peacock Butterfly Predator Defenses

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