• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapter 9 Notes
 

Chapter 9 Notes

on

  • 2,566 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,566
Views on SlideShare
2,521
Embed Views
45

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 45

http://www.pisgahscience.com 45

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapter 9 Notes Chapter 9 Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
    • Water
      • 50%-70% of body weight
      • Muscle contains 73% water
        • Fat contains ~20%
      • Intracellular fluid
        • Fluid within the cells
      • Extracellular fluid
        • Fluid outside the cells
    •  
    • Fluid Balance
      • Water shifts freely in and out of cells
      • Controlled by electrolyte concentration
      • Osmosis
      • Intracellular water volume
        • Depends on intracellular potassium and phosphate concentrations
      • Extracellular water volume
        • Depends on extracellular sodium and potassium concentrations
    •  
    • Functions of Water
      • Body temperature regulation
        • Water absorbs excess heat
        • Body secretes fluid via perspiration
        • Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates
      • Removal of body waste via urine
        • Urea excretion
        • Sodium excretion
        • Avoid concentrated urine
      • Amniotic fluid, joint lubricants, saliva, bile
    • Are You Drinking Enough?
      • Fluid recommendation: 9 cups for women and 13 cups for men as a starting point
    • Thirst Mechanism
      • Not reliable
      • Concerns for infants, older adults, athletes
      • Athletes
        • Weigh before and after training session
        • Consume 3 cups for every pound lost
      • Illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever)
    • Ignoring the Thirst Signal
      • Shortage of water increases fluid conservation
      • Antidiuretic hormone
        • Released by the pituitary gland
        • Forces kidneys to conserve water (reduce urine flow)
      • Aldosterone
        • Responds to drop in blood pressure
        • Signals the kidney to retain sodium (water)
    • Hydration
      • Loss of 1%-2% of body weight in fluid
        • Thirst signal
      • Loss of 2% or more of body weight causes muscle weakness
        • Lose significant strength and endurance
      • Loss of 10%-12%
        • Heat intolerance
      • Loss of 20%
        • Coma and death
    •  
    • Too Much Water
      • Overburden the kidneys
      • Low blood electrolyte concentrations
      • Blurred vision
    • Minerals
      • Various functions in the body
      • Major Minerals
        • Require >100 mg /day
        • Calcium, phosphorus
      • Trace Minerals
        • Require < 100 mg/day
        • Iron, zinc
    •  
    • Bioavailability of Minerals
      • Degree of absorption
      • Presence of binders and fiber
      • Animal products are better absorbed
      • Plants depend on mineral content of soil
      • Refinement lowers mineral content
      • Mineral-mineral competition
      • Vitamins-mineral competition
    • Mineral Toxicity
      • Trace minerals are more toxic
      • Result of supplementation
        • Presence of contaminants
        • Look for the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-approved brands
    • Sodium
      • Table salt (NaCl): 40% sodium, 60% chloride
      • 95% of ingested sodium is absorbed
      • Positive ion in extracellular fluid
      • Aldosterone regulates sodium balance
      • Key for retaining body water
      • Excretion regulated by the kidneys
      • Muscle contraction
      • Conduction of nerve impulses
    • Sodium Deficiency
      • Deficiency is rare
      • Persistent vomiting/ diarrhea
      • Excessive perspiration
        • Losing 2-3% of body weight
      • Depletion of sodium in the body
      • Signs of deficiency:
        • Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shock, coma
      • Normally kidney will respond by conserving sodium
    • Food Sources of Sodium
      • Most sodium is added by food manufacturers and restaurants
      • Milk and dairy products
      • Processed foods
      • Sodium content listed on the labels
    •  
    • Sodium Needs
      • Adequate Intake is 1500 mg for adults
      • Body only needs 200 mg to function
      • Daily Value is 2400 mg/day
      • Upper Level is 2300 mg
      • Typical intake is 4700 mg/day
      • Sodium-sensitive individuals should restrict intake
    • Potassium
      • Positive ion in intracelluar fluid
      • Functions
        • Fluid balance
        • Nerve impulse transmission
      • Associated with lowering blood pressure
      • 90% of potassium consumed is absorbed
      • Low blood potassium
        • Muscle cramps, confusion, constipation, irregular heart beat, heart failure
    • Potassium Sources and Needs
      • Fruits, vegetables, milk, grains, meats, dried beans
      • Adequate Intake is 4700 mg/day
      • Daily Value is 3500 mg/day
      • Typical intake is 2000-3000 mg/day
      • Diuretics may deplete potassium
      • Excess potassium is excreted by the kidneys; no Upper Level
    •  
    • Chloride
      • Negative ion for extracellular fluid
      • Component of
        • NaCl
        • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
      • Functions
        • Immune response, nerve function
    • Chloride Needs
      • Excess excreted by the kidneys
      • Adequate Intake is 2300 mg/day
      • Daily Value is 3400 mg
      • Upper Level is 3600 mg
      • High Intake may cause high blood pressure
    • Calcium
      • 99% is in bones and teeth
      • Makes up 40% of all the minerals present in the body
    • Absorption of Calcium
      • Amount in body is dependent on amount absorbed
      • Requires slightly acidic environment and vitamin D
      • Absorbed in upper part of small intestine
      • Normally absorb 25% of calcium in food
      • Increase to ~60% during time of need (pregnancy, infancy)
      • Parathyroid hormone
    • Decreased Absorption of Calcium
      • Rapid intestinal motility
      • High fiber intake
      • Excess phosphorus
      • Vitamin D deficiency
      • Polyphenols (tannins) in tea
      • Menopause
      • Aging
    • Blood Calcium is Regulated
      • Blood level is maintained at the price of bone calcium
      • Blood level can be maintained despite inadequate calcium intake
      • Setting stage for future bone fractures
    • Functions of Calcium
      • Bone formation and maintenance
      • Blood clotting
      • Nerve impulse transmission
      • Muscle contraction
      • Cell metabolism
        • Activates various enzymes
    • Building Higher Bone Mass
      • Adequate diet
      • Healthy body weight
      • Normal menses
      • Weight-bearing physical activity
      • Moderate intakes of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine
      • Non-smoker
      • Lower use of certain medications
    • Other Roles of Calcium
      • May lower blood pressure
      • May reduce colon cancer
      • May reduce PMS symptoms
      • May lower blood cholesterol
      • May reduce kidney stones
      • Reduces lead absorption
      • Promotes weight loss?
    • Food Sources of Calcium
    • Bone Strength
      • Dependent on bone mass and bone mineral density
      • The more there is, the stronger the bone
    • Calcium Needs
      • Daily Value is 1000 mg/day
      • Adequate Intake is 1000 -1200 mg/day for adults
      • Adequate Intake is 1300 mg/day for adolescents (9-18 yrs. old)
      • Average intake: 800 mg/day for women and 1000 mg/day for men
      • Upper Level is 2500 mg/day
    • Calcium Supplements
      • Recommended for people who cannot incorporate Ca into their diets
      • Not recommended with high-zinc meal
      • Calcium carbonate (40% calcium)
        • For those with ample stomach acid
        • Found in antacids
      • Calcium citrate (21% calcium)
        • Enhances absorption due to acidity content
        • Recommended for older adults
    • Phosphorus
      • Major ion of intracellular fluid
      • Bone and tooth strength
      • Component of various compounds
        • ATP, cell membrane, enzymes, DNA
      • Role in acid/base balance
      • Absorption is based on body’s need (70%-90%)
      • No disease associated with deficiency
      • May contribute to bone loss in older women
      • Vitamin D enhances absorption
    • Phosphorus Sources and Needs
      • Wide variety of foods
      • Dairy, bakery products, eggs, sodas, meats
      • Some from food additives
      • Difficult to limit intake
      • RDA is 700 mg/day for adults
      • Daily Value is 1000 mg
      • Current intake exceeds RDA
      • Deficiency unlikely
    • Phosphorus Toxicity
      • Problem for individuals with inefficient kidney function
      • Phosphate ions bind calcium
        • Chronic imbalance may lead to bone loss
      • Upper Level is 3-4 g/day
    • Magnesium
      • Absorption based on body’s needs (normally 40%-60%)
      • Kidneys regulate blood concentration of magnesium
      • 60% is stored in the bones
    • Functions of Magnesium
      • Aids in many enzyme reactions
      • Potassium and calcium metabolism
      • Proper nerve and cardiac functions
      • Insulin release from the pancreas
      • May dilate arteries
        • Decrease blood pressure
      • May prevent heart rhythm abnormalities
    • Magnesium Deficiency
      • Develops slowly
      • Irregular heartbeat
      • Weakness, muscle spasms, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, seizures
    • Too Much or Too Little Magnesium
      • Magnesium loss
        • Heavy perspiration
        • Long-standing diarrhea or vomiting
        • Alcoholism
        • Disorientation, weakness, muscle pain, poor heart function
      • Toxicity
        • Caused by medications
    • Magnesium Sources and Needs
      • Whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds
      • Hard tap water
      • Dairy, chocolate, meat
      • RDA for women is 310 mg/day
      • RDA for men is 400 mg/day
      • Daily Value is 400 mg
      • Average intake is lower than the RDA
      • Upper Level is 350 mg (nonfood source)
    • Sulfur
      • Found in amino acids and vitamins
      • Acid-base balance
      • Drug detoxifying pathways
      • Part of a natural diet, primarily from protein
      • Used to preserve foods
      • No deficiency or toxicity
    • The Trace Minerals
      • Needed in much smaller amounts
      • Essential for health
      • Difficult to study
        • Only trace amounts in the body
      • Animal sources of mineral are generally better absorbed
    • Iron
      • Found in minute amounts in every cell
      • 18% is absorbed
      • Heme iron vs. Nonheme iron
        • Heme found in animal products better absorbed than nonheme
        • Meat protein factor may aid in nonheme absorption
      • Vitamin C enhances absorption (nonheme iron)
    • Absorption of Iron
      • Determined by body’s need
      • Iron storage in intestinal cells
      • Absorbed in an acidic environment
      • Hindered by phytic acid, oxalic acid, high fiber, high calcium, polyphenols
    • Functions of Iron
      • Hemoglobin in red blood cells
        • Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
        • High turnover, high demand for iron
      • Myoglobin in muscle cells
      • Electron transport chain
      • Enzyme cofactor
      • Immune function
      • Drug-detoxification pathway
    • Iron-Deficient Anemia
      • Most common form of anemia
      • Low levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit
      • Insufficient intake and stores
      • Reduction in
        • Production of red blood cells
        • Oxygen-carrying capacity
    • Iron Deficiency Anemia
      • Most at risk:
        • Infant, toddler, chronic blood loss, vegans, runners, and women of childbearing years
        • Pica in women and children
      • Signs:
        • Paleness, brittle nails, fatigue, poor temperature control, poor growth
    • Food Sources of Iron
    • Iron Needs
      • RDA is 8 mg/day for adult male
      • RDA is 18 mg/day for female age 19 to 50
      • Daily Value is 18 mg
      • Average intake exceeds RDA for men; low for some women
      • Upper Level is 45 mg/day
    • Iron Toxicity
      • Serious, especially for children
      • Signs:
        • Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain
        • Causes death due to respiratory collapse (shock)
      • Hemochromatosis
        • Genetic disease
        • Iron deposit that can lead to organ damage
        • May go undetected until organ damage at 50-60
    • Zinc
      • Absorption
        • Influenced by the foods consumed
        • Animal sources are better absorbed
        • Dependent on body’s need
      • Factors that decrease absorption
        • Presence of phytic acid
        • Competes with copper and iron for absorption
    • Functions of Zinc
      • Cofactor to many enzymes
      • DNA synthesis and function
      • Growth, protein metabolism, wound healing
      • Immune function
      • Cell membrane structure and function
      • Development of sexual organs and bones
      • Insulin function
      • Component of superoxide dismutase
    • Food Sources of Zinc
    • Zinc Needs
      • RDA 8 mg for adult female
      • RDA 11 mg for adult male
      • Daily Value is 15 mg
      • Average intake meets RDA
      • Upper Level is 40 mg/day
    • Zinc Toxicity
      • Inhibits copper metabolism
      • Possibly increases risk for prostate cancer
      • Causes diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting
      • Depresses immune function
    • Selenium
      • Readily absorbed
      • Excreted through the urine and feces
      • Functions:
        • Co-factor for glutathione peroxidase
        • Protects the heart and other cells from oxidative damage
        • Works together with vitamin E
        • Aids in cancer prevention?
      • Thyroid hormone metabolism
    • Selenium Deficiency
      • Muscle pain
      • Muscle wasting
      • Weakness
      • Deterioration of heart muscle
    • Selenium Sources and Needs
      • Fish, meat (organ meats), egg, milk, shellfish
      • Grains, seeds, nuts (dependent on soil content)
      • RDA for adults is 55 µ g/day
      • Daily Value is 70 µ g
      • Average intake exceeds RDA (and Daily Value)
    • Selenium Toxicity
      • Upper Level is 400 µ g/day
      • Garlicky breath
      • Hair loss
      • Nausea, vomiting
      • Weakness
      • Rashes
      • Cirrhosis of the liver
    • Iodide
      • Iodine in foods – fortified salt
      • Functions:
        • Supports thyroid hormone synthesis
        • Regulates metabolic rate, growth, development
      • Deficiency:
        • Thyroid gland enlarges ( goiter ) due to low intake
        • Cretinism, stunting of fetal growth and mental development as a result of low iodide in maternal diet
    • Iodide Sources and Needs
      • Iodized salt ̶ ½ tsp. meets RDA
      • Saltwater fish, seafood, dairy, grains
      • Sea salt is poor source
        • Iodide lost during processing
      • Plant source dependent on soil content
      • RDA and Daily Value are 150 µ g/day
        • Only 50 µ g needed to prevent goiter
      • Average intake exceeds RDA
    • Iodide Toxicity
      • Upper Level is 1.1 mg/day
      • Thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited
      • “Toxic goiter” results
      • Consumption of seaweed poses risk
    • Copper
      • Aids in iron metabolism
      • Absorption:
        • Dependent on body’s needs
        • Decreases with high intakes of vitamin C, phytic acid, fiber, zinc, iron, certain amino acids
    • Functions of Copper
      • Increases iron absorption
      • Aids in formation of connective tissue
      • Found in superoxide dismutase
      • Assists immune system, blood clotting, brain development, cholesterol metabolism
    • Copper Deficiency
      • Anemia
      • Decreased WBC
      • Bone loss
      • Inadequate growth
    • Copper Sources and Needs
      • Organ meats, seafood, cocoa
      • Mushrooms, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains
      • RDA is 900 µ g/day for adults
      • Daily Value is 2 mg
      • Average intake is near the RDA
      • Upper Level is 10 mg
    • Fluoride
      • Role in prevention of dental caries
        • Helps tooth enamel resist acid
        • Inhibits bacterial growth
    • Fluoride Sources and Needs
      • Fluoridated water
        • ~0.2 mg/cup
        • 1 ppm
      • Tea, seafood, seaweed
      • Toothpaste
      • Adequate Intake is 3.1 -3.8 mg/day for adults
    • Fluoride Toxicity
      • Mottling of teeth in children
      • Limit toothpaste to pea size for children
        • High amounts can weaken teeth
      • Upper Level is 1.3-2.2 mg/day for children
      • Upper Level is 10 g/day for older children and adults
    • Chromium
      • Enhances insulin action
      • Role in Type 2 diabetes?
      • Low intake:
        • Impaired glucose tolerance
        • Elevated blood cholesterol and triglycerides
    • Chromium Sources and Needs
      • Little information
      • Egg yolk, bran, whole grain, cereal, organ meat, meat, beer
      • Plant sources dependent on soil content
      • Adequate Intake is 25 - 35 µ g/day for adults
      • Daily Value is set at 120 µ g
      • Average intake is ~30 µ g/day
    • Chromium Toxicity
      • No toxicity from foods
      • No Upper Level
      • Exposure to chromium in environmental waste sites
      • Lung and liver damage
    • Manganese
      • Cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism
      • Component of superoxide dimutase
      • Role in bone formation
      • No deficiency symptoms observed in humans
      • Adequate Intake is 1.8-2.3 mg/day
      • Average intake meets AI
      • Daily Value is 2 mg
      • Toxicity in individuals working in manganese mines
        • Psychiatric abnormalities, violence, impaired muscle control
      • Upper Level is 11 mg/day
    • Molybdenum
      • Required by several enzymes
      • Deficiency rare
        • Increased heart and respiration rates
        • Night blindness, mental confusion
        • Edema, weakness, coma
      • RDA is 45 µ g/day
      • Daily Value is 75 µ g
      • Average intake is 75-110 µ g/day
      • Upper Level is 2 mg/day
    • Mineral Functions
    •  
    • Other Minerals
      • Boron
      • Nickel
      • Silicon
      • Vanadium
      • Arsenic
    • Hypertension (HTN)
      • Systolic blood pressure/Diastolic blood pressure
      • Optimal BP: less than 120/80 mm Hg
      • HTN
        • Sustained systolic pressure >139mm Hg or diastolic pressure >89 mm Hg
      • 95% of all HTN have no clear cause (primary or essential HTN)
      • Secondary HTN
    • Why Control Blood Pressure?
      • Silent disease
      • To prevent
        • Cardiovascular disease
        • Poor circulation
        • Kidney disease
        • Stroke, decline in brain functions
      • African Americans most at risk
    • Causes of HTN
      • Aging
      • Family history
      • Atherosclerosis
      • Obesity (increased fat mass and circulation)
      • Elevated insulin (insulin resistant adipose cells)
      • Inactivity
      • Excess alcohol (usually reversible)
    • Sodium and Blood Pressure
      • Blood pressure increases with intake
      • Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume
    • Other Minerals and HTN
      • >1000 mg calcium per day lowers blood pressure
      • 2-4 gm of potassium per day lowers blood pressure
      • Magnesium may lower blood pressure
      • DASH diet
      • Diet rich in fruits,vegetables (vitamin C)
    • Medications and HTN
      • Diuretics
        • Reduce blood volume
        • Increase urine output
      • Other medications
        • Slow heart rate
        • Relax blood vessels
    • Osteoporosis
      • Calcium deficiency
      • “ A pediatric disease with geriatric consequences”
      • Leads to ~1.5 million fractures / year
      • Slender, inactive women who smoke are most at risk
      • “Less bones”
    • Osteoporosis
    • Bone Structure
    • Bone Growth and Mass
      • Rapid and continual throughout adolescence
      • Peak bone mass
      • Determined by gender, race, familial pattern, other genetic factors
      • Bone loss begins ~age 30
      • Women experience increased bone loss after menopause
      • DEXA bone scan
    •  
    • Bone Mineral Density