Chapter 11 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
The Ideal Body Image <ul><li>Media promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Need for social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Influence and ...
Food: More Than Just Nutrients <ul><li>Linked to personal emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Source of comfort  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Overview of Eating Disorders <ul><li>Affects more than 5 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Females outnumber males (5 to 1)...
Genetic Link? <ul><li>Identical twins are more likely to share eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins are less...
Characteristics: Anorexia & Bulimia
Profile of an Anorexic <ul><li>Usually Caucasian female </li></ul><ul><li>Middle–upper socioeconomic class </li></ul><ul><...
Warning Signs of Anorexia  <ul><li>Abnormal, rigid eating habits  </li></ul><ul><li>Eating very little food (300-600 kcal/...
Anorexia Health Problems  <ul><li>“ Skin-and-bone” appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered body temperature </li></ul><ul><li...
 
Intervention <ul><li>Person typically in denial </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive confrontation by loved ones </li></ul><ul><li...
Nutrition Therapy <ul><li>Increase food intake to raise basal metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent further weight loss </l...
Psychological Therapy <ul><li>Cognitive behavior therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Determine underlying emotional problems </li></...
Bulimia Nervosa
Profile of a Bulimic <ul><li>Young adults (commonly female college students) </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposed to becoming ove...
Secret Lives of Bulimics <ul><li>Many are not diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden binge-and-purge habits </li></ul><ul><li>...
Effects of Bingeing and Purging <ul><li>Absorption of calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33%-75% absorbed after vomiting </li>...
Vicious Cycle of Bulimia
Bulimia Health Problems <ul><li>Vomiting causes most health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Demineralization of teeth </li></ul...
Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa <ul><li>Decrease episodes of bingeing & purging </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy to improve se...
Binge-Eating Disorder
Profile of a Binge-Eater <ul><li>Considers self as hungrier than normal </li></ul><ul><li>Isolates self to eat large quant...
Treatment of Binge-Eating <ul><li>Eat in response to hunger, not emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to eat in moderation </l...
Night Eating Syndrome <ul><li>Eating > 1/3 of calories after evening meal </li></ul><ul><li>Not feeling hungry in the morn...
Profile of Female Athlete Triad <ul><li>Female athletes in appearance-based and endurance sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15%...
The Female Athlete Triad
Treatment of Female Athlete Triad <ul><li>Reduce preoccupation with food, weight, and body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually...
Dying To Be Thin <ul><li>It is normal to be concerned about diet, health, and body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Weight typical...
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Chapter 11 Notes

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Chapter 11 Notes

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  2. 2. The Ideal Body Image <ul><li>Media promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Need for social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Influence and stress on young individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Eating is a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Dieting may lead to a disorder </li></ul>
  3. 3. Food: More Than Just Nutrients <ul><li>Linked to personal emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Source of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Release of neurotransmitters and natural opioids </li></ul><ul><li>Food used as a reward or bribe </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to disordered eating </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of Eating Disorders <ul><li>Affects more than 5 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Females outnumber males (5 to 1) </li></ul><ul><li>85% of cases develop during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Co-occurs with other psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of disorder is critical to treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders </li></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic Link? <ul><li>Identical twins are more likely to share eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins are less likely </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics: Anorexia & Bulimia
  7. 7. Profile of an Anorexic <ul><li>Usually Caucasian female </li></ul><ul><li>Middle–upper socioeconomic class </li></ul><ul><li>“Responsible, meticulous, and obedient” </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive and obsessive </li></ul><ul><li>May have conflicts with family </li></ul><ul><li>High family expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of self control </li></ul>
  8. 8. Warning Signs of Anorexia <ul><li>Abnormal, rigid eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>Eating very little food (300-600 kcal/day) </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding and storing food </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising compulsively </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing meals for others, but not eating </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing from friends and family </li></ul><ul><li>Critical of self and others </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbances and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Ammenorrhea </li></ul>
  9. 9. Anorexia Health Problems <ul><li>“ Skin-and-bone” appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Lanugo and loss of hair </li></ul><ul><li>Lower basal metabolism, decreased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Iron deficiency anemia and other nutrient deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Rough, dry, scaly, cold skin </li></ul><ul><li>Low white blood cell count, potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation, ammenorrhea </li></ul>
  10. 11. Intervention <ul><li>Person typically in denial </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive confrontation by loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalization for severe cases </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary team </li></ul><ul><li>Gain trust and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Restore sense of balance, purpose, and a future </li></ul>
  11. 12. Nutrition Therapy <ul><li>Increase food intake to raise basal metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent further weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Restore appropriate food habits </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict excessive activity </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately achieve and maintain weight gain </li></ul>
  12. 13. Psychological Therapy <ul><li>Cognitive behavior therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Determine underlying emotional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Reject sense of accomplishment associated with weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Family therapy, support group </li></ul>
  13. 14. Bulimia Nervosa
  14. 15. Profile of a Bulimic <ul><li>Young adults (commonly female college students) </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposed to becoming overweight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At or slightly above normal weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequent weight-reduction diets as a teen </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Usually from disengaged families </li></ul>
  15. 16. Secret Lives of Bulimics <ul><li>Many are not diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden binge-and-purge habits </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate food rules </li></ul><ul><li>Binge may consist of 3,000+ kcal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient, high-sugar, high-fat foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting and laxatives to avoid weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive exercise (“debting” ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binge-Purge cycles triggered by emotional factors </li></ul>
  16. 17. Effects of Bingeing and Purging <ul><li>Absorption of calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33%-75% absorbed after vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% absorbed when laxatives are used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can cause weight gain and weight fluctuations </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to guilt, depression, low self-esteem </li></ul>
  17. 18. Vicious Cycle of Bulimia
  18. 19. Bulimia Health Problems <ul><li>Vomiting causes most health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Demineralization of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in blood potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling of salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach ulcers and bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Ipecac syrup is toxic </li></ul>
  19. 20. Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa <ul><li>Decrease episodes of bingeing & purging </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy to improve self-acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Change “all-or-none” attitude about food </li></ul><ul><li>Correct misconceptions about food </li></ul><ul><li>Establish good, normal eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>Group therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term therapy </li></ul>
  20. 21. Binge-Eating Disorder
  21. 22. Profile of a Binge-Eater <ul><li>Considers self as hungrier than normal </li></ul><ul><li>Isolates self to eat large quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers from stress, depression, anxiety, loneliness, anger, frustration that can trigger binge </li></ul><ul><li>Uses food to reduce stress, provide feeling of power and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Usually binges on “junk” foods </li></ul><ul><li>Eats without regard to biological need </li></ul>
  22. 23. Treatment of Binge-Eating <ul><li>Eat in response to hunger, not emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to eat in moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid restrictive diets that can intensify problems </li></ul><ul><li>Address hidden emotions </li></ul><ul><li>“Overeaters Anonymous” </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul>
  23. 24. Night Eating Syndrome <ul><li>Eating > 1/3 of calories after evening meal </li></ul><ul><li>Not feeling hungry in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>Need to eat to help fall asleep </li></ul><ul><li>Waking at night to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed </li></ul>
  24. 25. Profile of Female Athlete Triad <ul><li>Female athletes in appearance-based and endurance sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% swimmers; 62% gymnasts; 32% other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Disordered eating </li></ul><ul><li>2. Irregular menses or ammenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>3. Osteoporosis and loss of estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone density similar to 50-60 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone loss is largely irreversible </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. The Female Athlete Triad
  26. 27. Treatment of Female Athlete Triad <ul><li>Reduce preoccupation with food, weight, and body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually increase meals and snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuild body to healthy weight </li></ul><ul><li>Establish regular menses </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease training by 10%-20% </li></ul>
  27. 28. Dying To Be Thin <ul><li>It is normal to be concerned about diet, health, and body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Weight typically fluctuates </li></ul><ul><li>Treat physical, emotional problems early </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage restrictive diets </li></ul><ul><li>Correct misconceptions about foods, diet </li></ul><ul><li>Thin is not necessarily better </li></ul>

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