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Chapter 11 Notes
 

Chapter 11 Notes

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    Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 11 Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
    • The Ideal Body Image
      • Media promotion
      • Need for social acceptance
      • Influence and stress on young individuals
      • Eating is a necessity
      • Dieting may lead to a disorder
    • Food: More Than Just Nutrients
      • Linked to personal emotions
      • Source of comfort
      • Release of neurotransmitters and natural opioids
      • Food used as a reward or bribe
      • Can lead to disordered eating
    • Overview of Eating Disorders
      • Affects more than 5 million people
      • Females outnumber males (5 to 1)
      • 85% of cases develop during adolescence
      • Co-occurs with other psychological disorders
      • Recognition of disorder is critical to treatment
      • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • Genetic Link?
      • Identical twins are more likely to share eating disorders
      • Fraternal twins are less likely
    • Characteristics: Anorexia & Bulimia
    • Profile of an Anorexic
      • Usually Caucasian female
      • Middle–upper socioeconomic class
      • “Responsible, meticulous, and obedient”
      • Competitive and obsessive
      • May have conflicts with family
      • High family expectations
      • Expression of self control
    • Warning Signs of Anorexia
      • Abnormal, rigid eating habits
      • Eating very little food (300-600 kcal/day)
      • Hiding and storing food
      • Exercising compulsively
      • Preparing meals for others, but not eating
      • Withdrawing from friends and family
      • Critical of self and others
      • Sleep disturbances and depression
      • Ammenorrhea
    • Anorexia Health Problems
      • “ Skin-and-bone” appearance
      • Lowered body temperature
      • Lanugo and loss of hair
      • Lower basal metabolism, decreased heart rate
      • Iron deficiency anemia and other nutrient deficiencies
      • Rough, dry, scaly, cold skin
      • Low white blood cell count, potassium
      • Constipation, ammenorrhea
    •  
    • Intervention
      • Person typically in denial
      • Supportive confrontation by loved ones
      • Hospitalization for severe cases
      • Eating disorders clinic
      • Multidisciplinary team
      • Gain trust and cooperation
      • Restore sense of balance, purpose, and a future
    • Nutrition Therapy
      • Increase food intake to raise basal metabolism
      • Prevent further weight loss
      • Restore appropriate food habits
      • Restrict excessive activity
      • Ultimately achieve and maintain weight gain
    • Psychological Therapy
      • Cognitive behavior therapy
      • Determine underlying emotional problems
      • Reject sense of accomplishment associated with weight loss
      • Family therapy, support group
    • Bulimia Nervosa
    • Profile of a Bulimic
      • Young adults (commonly female college students)
      • Predisposed to becoming overweight
        • At or slightly above normal weight
      • Frequent weight-reduction diets as a teen
      • Impulsive behavior
      • Usually from disengaged families
    • Secret Lives of Bulimics
      • Many are not diagnosed
      • Hidden binge-and-purge habits
      • Elaborate food rules
      • Binge may consist of 3,000+ kcal
        • Convenient, high-sugar, high-fat foods
        • Loss of control
      • Purge
        • Vomiting and laxatives to avoid weight gain
        • Excessive exercise (“debting” )
      • Binge-Purge cycles triggered by emotional factors
    • Effects of Bingeing and Purging
      • Absorption of calories
        • 33%-75% absorbed after vomiting
        • 90% absorbed when laxatives are used
      • Can cause weight gain and weight fluctuations
      • Leads to guilt, depression, low self-esteem
    • Vicious Cycle of Bulimia
    • Bulimia Health Problems
      • Vomiting causes most health problems
      • Demineralization of teeth
      • Drop in blood potassium
      • Swelling of salivary glands
      • Stomach ulcers and bleeding
      • Constipation
      • Ipecac syrup is toxic
    • Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa
      • Decrease episodes of bingeing & purging
      • Psychotherapy to improve self-acceptance
      • Change “all-or-none” attitude about food
      • Correct misconceptions about food
      • Establish good, normal eating habits
      • Group therapy
      • Antidepressants
      • Long-term therapy
    • Binge-Eating Disorder
    • Profile of a Binge-Eater
      • Considers self as hungrier than normal
      • Isolates self to eat large quantities
      • Suffers from stress, depression, anxiety, loneliness, anger, frustration that can trigger binge
      • Uses food to reduce stress, provide feeling of power and well-being
      • Usually binges on “junk” foods
      • Eats without regard to biological need
    • Treatment of Binge-Eating
      • Eat in response to hunger, not emotions
      • Learn to eat in moderation
      • Avoid restrictive diets that can intensify problems
      • Address hidden emotions
      • “Overeaters Anonymous”
      • Antidepressants
    • Night Eating Syndrome
      • Eating > 1/3 of calories after evening meal
      • Not feeling hungry in the morning
      • Need to eat to help fall asleep
      • Waking at night to eat
      • Depressed
    • Profile of Female Athlete Triad
      • Female athletes in appearance-based and endurance sports
        • 15% swimmers; 62% gymnasts; 32% other
      • 1. Disordered eating
      • 2. Irregular menses or ammenorrhea
      • 3. Osteoporosis and loss of estrogen
        • Bone density similar to 50-60 year olds
        • Bone loss is largely irreversible
    • The Female Athlete Triad
    • Treatment of Female Athlete Triad
      • Reduce preoccupation with food, weight, and body fat
      • Gradually increase meals and snacks
      • Rebuild body to healthy weight
      • Establish regular menses
      • Decrease training by 10%-20%
    • Dying To Be Thin
      • It is normal to be concerned about diet, health, and body weight
      • Weight typically fluctuates
      • Treat physical, emotional problems early
      • Discourage restrictive diets
      • Correct misconceptions about foods, diet
      • Thin is not necessarily better