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Ch. 16 & 17 - From Bacteria to Fungi
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Ch. 16 & 17 - From Bacteria to Fungi

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Chapters 16 and 17 for MVPS AP Biology Course

Chapters 16 and 17 for MVPS AP Biology Course

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  • 1. Chapter 16 and 17 (Part 1) From Bacteria to Fungi 0
  • 2.
    • How Ancient Bacteria Changed the World
      • Mounds of rock found near the Bahamas
        • Contain photosynthetic prokaryotes
    0
  • 3.
      • Fossilized mats 2.5 billion years old mark a time when photosynthetic prokaryotes
        • Were producing enough O 2 to make the atmosphere aerobic
    Layers of a bacterial mat
  • 4. EARLY EARTH AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE
    • 16.1 Life began on a young Earth
      • Planet Earth formed some 4.6 billion years ago
  • 5.
      • The early atmosphere probably contained
        • H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , N 2 , and some CH 4
      • Volcanic activity, lightning, and UV radiation were intense
    Figure 16.1A
  • 6.
      • Fossilized prokaryotes called stromatolites
        • Date back 3.5 billion years
    Figure 16.1B
  • 7.
      • A clock analogy tracks the origin of the Earth to the present day
        • And shows some major events in the history of Earth and its life
    Figure 16.1C Paleozoic Meso- zoic Ceno- zoic Humans Land plants Animals Multicellular eukaryotes Single-celled eukaryotes Origin of solar system and Earth 1 2 4 3 Proterozoic eon Archaean eon Billions of years ago Atmospheric oxygen Prokaryotes
  • 8.
    • 16.2 How did life originate?
      • Organic molecules
        • May have been formed abiotically in the conditions on early Earth
  • 9. TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE
    • 16.3 Stanley Miller’s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless earth
    Figure 16.3A
  • 10.
      • Simulations of such conditions
        • Have produced amino acids, sugars, lipids, and the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA
    Figure 16.3B Cooled water containing organic molecules Cold water Condenser Sample for chemical analysis H 2 O “Sea” Water vapor “ Atmosphere” Electrode CH 4 NH 3 H 2
  • 11.
    • 16.4 The first polymers may have formed on hot rocks or clay
      • Organic polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids
        • May have polymerized on hot rocks
  • 12.
    • 16.5 The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA
      • The first genes may have been RNA molecules
        • That catalyzed their own replication
    Figure 16.5 G A G G C G G G C C C A A A A U U U U G C U A U G C A U U C G G U U U G C A U A U G C A 1 2 Formation of short RNA polymers: simple “genes” Assembly of a complementary RNA chain, the first step in replication of the original “gene” Monomers
  • 13.
    • 16.6 Membrane-enclosed molecular cooperatives may have preceded the first cells
      • RNA might have acted as templates for the formation of polypeptides
        • Which in turn assisted in RNA replication
    Figure 16.6A Self-replication of RNA Self-replicating RNA acts as template on which poly- peptide forms. Polypeptide acts as primitive enzyme that aids RNA replication. RNA Polypeptide
  • 14.
      • Membranes may have separated various aggregates of self-replicating molecules
        • Which could be acted on by natural selection
    Figure 16.6B, C LM 650  Membrane Polypeptide RNA
  • 15. PROKARYOTES
    • 16.7 Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for billions of years
      • Prokaryotes are the oldest life-forms
        • And remain the most numerous and widespread organisms
    Figure 16.7 Colorized SEM 650 
  • 16.
    • 16.8 Bacteria and archaea are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution
      • Domains Bacteria and Archaea
        • Are distinguished on the basis of nucleotide sequences and other molecular and cellular features
  • 17.
      • Differences between Bacteria and Archaea
    Table 16.8
  • 18.
    • 16.9 Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes
      • Prokaryotes may be shaped as
        • Spheres (cocci)
        • Rods (bacilli)
        • Curves or spirals
    Figure 16.9A–C Colorized SEM 12,000  Colorized SEM 9,000  Colorized SEM 3,000 
  • 19.
    • 16.10 Various structural features contribute to the success of prokaryotes
  • 20.
    • External Structures
      • The cell wall
        • Is one of the most important features of nearly all prokaryotes
        • Is covered by a sticky capsule
    Figure 16.10A Colorized TEM 70,000  Capsule
  • 21.
      • Some prokaryotes
        • Stick to their substrate with pili
    Figure 16.10B Colorized TEM 16,000  Pili
  • 22.
    • Motility
      • Many bacteria and archaea
        • Are equipped with flagella, which enable them to move
    Figure 16.10C Flagellum Plasma membrane Cell wall Rotary movement of each flagellum Colorized TEM 14,000 
  • 23.
    • Reproduction and Adaptation
      • Prokaryotes
        • Have the potential to reproduce quickly in favorable environments
  • 24.
      • Some prokaryotes can withstand harsh conditions
        • By forming endospores
    Figure 16.10D TEM 34,000  Endospore
  • 25.
    • Internal Organization
      • Some prokaryotic cells
        • Have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions
    Figure 16.10E Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membrane TEM 45,000  TEM 6,000 
  • 26.
    • 16.11 Prokaryotes obtain nourishment in a variety of ways
      • As a group
        • Prokaryotes exhibit much more nutritional diversity than eukaryotes
  • 27.
    • Types of Nutrition
      • Autotrophs make their own organic compounds from inorganic sources
        • Photoautotrophs harness sunlight for energy and use CO 2 for carbon
        • Chemoautotrophs obtain energy from inorganic chemicals instead of sunlight
  • 28.
      • Heterotrophs obtain their carbon atoms from organic compounds
        • Photoheterotrophs can obtain energy from sunlight
        • Chemoheterotrophs are so diverse that almost any organic molecule can serve as food for some species
    Figure 16.11A
  • 29.
      • Nutritional classification of organisms
    Table 16.11
  • 30.
    • Metabolic Cooperation
      • In some prokaryotes
        • Metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies called biofilms
    Figure 16.11B Colorized SEM 13,000 
  • 31.
    • 16.12 Archaea thrive in extreme environments— and in other habitats
      • Archaea are common in
        • Salt lakes, acidic hot springs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents
    Figure 16.12A, B
  • 32.
      • Archaea are also a major life-form in the ocean
  • 33.
    • 16.13 Bacteria include a diverse assemblage of prokaryotes
      • Bacteria are currently organized into several subgroups, including
        • Proteobacteria
    Figure 16.13A, B LM 13,000  Colorized TEM 5,000 
  • 34.
        • Chlamydias
        • Spirochetes
  • 35.
        • Gram-positive bacteria
        • Cyanobacteria, which photosynthesize in a plantlike way
    Figure 16.13C, D Colorized SEM 2,800  LM 650  Photosynthetic cells Nitrogen-fixing cells Colorized SEM 2,8000 
  • 36. CONNECTION
    • 16.14 Some bacteria cause disease
      • Pathogenic bacteria cause disease by producing
        • Exotoxins or endotoxins
    Figure 16.14A, B SEM 12,000  Spirochete that causes Lyme disease “ Bull’s-eye”rash Tick that carries the Lyme disease bacterium SEM 2,800 
  • 37. CONNECTION
    • 16.15 Bacteria can be used as biological weapons
      • Bacteria, such as the species that causes anthrax
        • Can be used as biological weapons
    Figure 16.15
  • 38. CONNECTION
    • 16.16 Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment
      • Bioremediation
        • Is the use of organisms to clean up pollution
  • 39.
      • Prokaryotes are decomposers in
        • Sewage treatment and can clean up oil spills and toxic mine wastes
    Figure 16.16A, B Liquid wastes Outflow Rotating spray arm Rock bed coated with aerobic bacteria and fungi
  • 40. PROTISTS
    • 16.17 The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotic cells
        • Evolved from prokaryotic cells more than 2 billion years ago
  • 41.
      • The nucleus and endomembrane system
        • Probably evolved from infoldings of the plasma membrane
  • 42.
      • Mitochondria and chloroplasts
        • Probably evolved from aerobic and photosynthetic endosymbionts, respectively
  • 43.
      • A model of the origin of eukaryotes
    Figure 16.17 Cytoplasm Ancestral prokaryote Plasma membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Nuclear envelope Cell with nucleus and endomembrane system Membrane infolding Aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote Ancestral host cell Endosymbiosis Mitochondrion Chloroplast Photosynthetic eukaryotic cell Photosynthetic prokaryote Mitochondrion Some cells
  • 44.
    • 16.18 Protists are an extremely diverse assortment of eukaryotes
      • Protists
        • Are mostly unicellular eukaryotes
      • Molecular systematics
        • Is exploring eukaryotic phylogeny
    Figure 16.18 LM 275 
  • 45.
    • 16.19 A tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes includes multiple clades of protists
      • The taxonomy of protists
        • Is a work in progress
    Figure 16.19 Diplomonads Euglenozoans Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Ciliates Water molds Diatoms Brown algae Amoebas Plasmodial slime molds Cellular slime molds Fungi Choanoflagellates Animals Red algae Green algae Closest algal relatives of plants Plants Alveolates Stramenopila Amoebozoa Ancestral eukaryote
  • 46.
    • 16.20 Diplomonads and euglenozoans include some flagellated parasites
      • The parasitic Giardia
        • Is a diplomonad with highly reduced mitochondria
    Figure 16.20A Colorized SEM 4,000 
  • 47.
      • Euglenozoans
        • Include trypanosomes and Euglena
    Figure 16.20B, C Colorized SEM 1,300  Colorized SEM 1,300 
  • 48.
    • 16.21 Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane and include dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
      • Dinoflagellates
        • Are unicellular algae
    Figure 16.21A SEM 2,300 
  • 49.
      • Apicomplexans are parasites
        • Such as Plasmodium , which causes malaria
    Figure 16.21B Red blood cell Apex TEM 26,000 
  • 50.
      • Cilliates
        • Use cilia to move and feed
    Figure 16.21C Cilia Macronucleus LM 60 
  • 51.
    • 16.22 Stramenopiles are named for their “hairy” flagella and include the water molds, diatoms, and brown algae
      • This clade includes
        • Fungus-like water molds
    Figure 16.22A
  • 52.
        • Photosynthetic, unicellular diatoms
    Figure 16.22B LM 400 
  • 53.
        • Brown algae, large complex seaweeds
    Figure 16.22C
  • 54.
    • 16.23 Amoebozoans have pseudopodia and include amoebas and slime molds
      • Amoebas
        • Move and feed by means of pseudopodia
    Figure 16.23A LM 185 
  • 55.
      • A plasmodial slime mold is a multinucleate plasmodium
        • That forms reproductive structures under adverse conditions
    Figure 16.23B
  • 56.
      • Cellular slime molds
        • Have unicellular and multicellular stages
    Figure 16.23C Slug-like aggregate 45  LM 1,000  15  Amoeboid cells Reproductive structure
  • 57.
    • 16.24 Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land plants
      • Red algae
        • Contribute to coral reefs
    Figure 16.24A
  • 58.
      • Green algae
        • May be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
    Figure 16.24B Chlamydomonas Volvox colonies LM 80  LM 1,200 
  • 59.
      • The life cycles of many algae
        • Involve the alternation of haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generations
    Figure 16.24C Mitosis Male gametophyte Gametes Spores Mitosis Meiosis Fusion of gametes Female gametophyte Zygote Sporophyte Mitosis Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Key
  • 60.
    • 16.25 Multicellularity evolved several times in eukaryotes
      • Multicellularity evolved in several different lineages
        • Probably by specialization of the cells of colonial protists
    Figure 16.25 Unicellular protist Colony Early multicellular organism with specialized, interdepen- dent cells Later organism that produces gametes Food- synthesizing cells Locomotor cells Somatic cells Gamete 1 2 3
  • 61.
      • Multicellular life arose over a billion years ago
  • 62. FUNGI
    • 17.15 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies
      • Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotes
        • That digest their food externally and absorb the nutrients
    Figure 17.15A
  • 63.
      • A fungus usually consists of a mass of threadlike hyphae
        • Called a mycelium
    Figure 17.15B, C Hypha Mycelium
  • 64.
    • 17.16 Fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual life cycles
      • In some fungi, fusion of haploid hyphae
        • Produces a heterokaryotic stage containing nuclei from two parents
  • 65.
      • After the nuclei fuse
        • Meiosis produces haploid spores
    Figure 17.16 Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) (unfused nuclei) Diploid (2 n ) Heterokaryotic stage Fusion of nuclei Fusion of cytoplasm Sexual reproduction Meiosis Zygote (2 n ) Spore-producing structures Germination Germination Asexual reproduction Spores ( n ) Mycelium Spore-producing structures Spores ( n )
  • 66.
    • 17.17 Fungi can be classified into five groups
      • Fungi evolved from an aquatic, flagellated ancestor
  • 67.
      • Fungal phylogeny
    Figure 17.17A Chytrids Zygomycetes (zygote fungi) Glomeromycetes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) Ascomycetes (sac fungi) Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
  • 68.
      • Fungal groups include
        • Chytrids
  • 69.
        • Zygomycetes
        • Glomeromycetes
    Figure 17.17B, C SEM 6,500 
  • 70.
        • Ascomycetes
    Figure 17.17D
  • 71.
        • Basidiomycetes
    Figure 17.17E
  • 72.
    • 17.18 Fungal groups differ in their life cycles and reproductive structures
      • Fungal life cycles
        • Often include asexual and sexual stages
    Figure 17.18A Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) Diploid (2 n ) Fusion of nuclei Meiosis Mycelia of different mating types Cells fuse Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Zygosporangium ( n + n ) Sporangium Spores ( n ) 1 2 3 4
  • 73.
      • Fungal groups have characteristic reproductive structures
    Figure 17.18B Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) Diploid (2 n ) Fusion of nuclei Meiosis Basidia Spores ( n ) Mushroom 1 Fusion of two hyphae of different mating types 2 Growth of heterokaryotic mycelium 3 Diploid nuclei 4 Spores released 5 Germination of spores and growth of mycelia
  • 74. CONNECTION
    • 17.19 Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals
      • Parasitic fungi cause 80% of plant diseases
        • And some serious human mycoses
    Figure 17.19A–C
  • 75.
    • 17.20 Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic organisms
      • Lichens consist of algae or cyanobacteria
        • Within a fungal network
    Figure 17.20A, B Fungal hyphae Algal cell Colorized SEM 1,000 
  • 76.
    • 17.21 Fungi also form mutualistic relationships with animals
      • Some animals
        • Benefit from the digestive abilities of lichens
    Figure 17.21
  • 77. CONNECTION
    • 17.22 Fungi have enormous ecological benefits and practical uses
      • Fungi are essential decomposers
        • And provide antibiotics and food
    Figure 17.22A, B Staphylococcus aureus Penicillium Zone of inhibited growth