Cellular Transport Section 6 Mr. McCammon
I.  Introduction to Cell Transport <ul><ul><li>All living cells need to be able to take in oxygen and nutrients and get ri...
I.  Introduction to Cell Transport <ul><ul><li>The cell membrane is  phospholipid   bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of transport in cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive transport—movement of sub...
II. Passive Transport:  Diffusion <ul><ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration ...
<ul><ul><li>Facilitated Diffusion is very similar to simple diffusion with one difference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul>...
III.  Passive Transport:  Osmosis <ul><ul><li>Osmosis is a type of passive transport in which water moves from an area of ...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic solutions have less water and more solute than the solution inside the cell membrane so wat...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic solution means that the solution on outside of the cell membrane has a greater concentration...
<ul><li>EXAMPLE #1 – A red blood cell contains a .9% concentration of salt inside the cell.  If the red blood cell is plac...
<ul><li>Example #2 – A plant cell contains a 1% concentration of solute inside the cell.  If the plant cell is placed in a...
<ul><ul><li>Energy requiring process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of passive transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M...
IV.  Active Transport <ul><ul><li>Examples of Active Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis – “Endo=In” ...
IV.  Active Transport <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis  – “Exo=Exit” and “cyto=cell” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><u...
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Cellular Transport

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Cellular Transport

  1. 1. Cellular Transport Section 6 Mr. McCammon
  2. 2. I. Introduction to Cell Transport <ul><ul><li>All living cells need to be able to take in oxygen and nutrients and get rid of wastes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell membrane separates the inside of the cell from the outside of cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cell membrane allows some stuff to enter the cell while other stuff is blocked. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable means that the cell membrane allows some stuff to enter the cell that it needs while other substances are kept out. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I. Introduction to Cell Transport <ul><ul><li>The cell membrane is phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two layers of phospholipids arranged tail to tail. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The membrane also has various proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of transport in cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive transport—movement of substances without an energy input. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active transport—Movement of substances WITH an energy input (ATP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Passive transport include osmosis, simple diffusion, and facilitated diffusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Active transport are endocytosis and exocytosis. </li></ul></ul>I. Introduction to Cell Transport
  5. 5. II. Passive Transport: Diffusion <ul><ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a perfume bottle is opened (high concentration) the smell spreads throughout the room (lower concentration) until the smell is equal throughout the room. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple diffusion does not require energy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When there is a difference in concentration between two areas, its called a concentration gradient. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the concentration on one side of the cell is equal to the concentration on the other side of the cell, the cell has reached “equilibrium.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Facilitated Diffusion is very similar to simple diffusion with one difference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion requires transport proteins found throughout the cell membrane. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that are too large to pass through the cell membrane using simple diffusion are transported through the protein channels. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ions, sugar, and amino acids pass through protein pumps from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The proteins are also selectively permeable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>II. Passive Transport: Diffusion
  7. 7. III. Passive Transport: Osmosis <ul><ul><li>Osmosis is a type of passive transport in which water moves from an area of high concentration of an area of lower concentration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis is the diffusion of water. Water is always involved in osmosis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecules moves across a selectively permeable membrane through which solutes (dissolved particles) can not pass. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic means that the solution on the outside of the cell membrane has the same concentration as the solution on the inside of the cell membrane. No net movement occurs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic solutions have less water and more solute than the solution inside the cell membrane so water rushes out of the cell through the cell membrane and the cell shrinks. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pour salt on a snail or a slug and it will melt before your very eyes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The salt draws the water out of the slug. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>III. Passive Transport: Osmosis
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic solution means that the solution on outside of the cell membrane has a greater concentration of molecules than the solution inside of the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cell swells. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placing wilted vegetables in fresh water causes them to puff up and become “unwilted.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>III. Passive Transport: Osmosis
  10. 10. <ul><li>EXAMPLE #1 – A red blood cell contains a .9% concentration of salt inside the cell. If the red blood cell is placed in a solution that is pure water, what will happen to the cell? Is the solution hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic? </li></ul>III. Passive Transport: Osmosis
  11. 11. <ul><li>Example #2 – A plant cell contains a 1% concentration of solute inside the cell. If the plant cell is placed in a solution that is 5% solute, what will happen to the cell? </li></ul>III. Passive Transport: Osmosis
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Energy requiring process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of passive transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves molecules against the concentration gradient – movement of molecules from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to rowing a boat upstream. It requires a lot of energy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must use transport proteins. They can either be channel proteins, carrier proteins, or gate proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually involves the protein changing shape to let the molecule in or out of the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>IV. Active Transport
  13. 13. IV. Active Transport <ul><ul><li>Examples of Active Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis – “Endo=In” and “cyto=Cell” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules are moved into the cell against the concentration gradient from low concentration to high concentration with an energy input. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules are moved from outside the cell to inside the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cell surrounds the particle to be taken in with cellular material. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It encloses the particle and pulls it into the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. IV. Active Transport <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis – “Exo=Exit” and “cyto=cell” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When materials move out of the cell against the concentration gradient from low concentration to high with an energy input. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The material to be released from the cell is packaged in the Golgi bodies. This is called a vesicle. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once the vesicle meets and joins the cell membrane the vesicle breaks open and fuses with the cell membrane. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The particle is then released outside the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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