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07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
07 Lecture Ppt
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07 Lecture Ppt

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  • 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 7 Pathways of Cellular Respiration
  • 2. Glucose Breakdown Releases Energy 7-
  • 3. 7.1 Cellular respiration is a redox reaction that requires O 2
    • Oxidation of substrates, such as glucose, is a fundamental part of cellular respiration
      • NAD + and FAD coenzymes assist in oxidation during cellular respiration carrying high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain
    7-
  • 4. Figure 7.1 Cellular respiration produces ATP 7-
  • 5. 7.2 Cellular respiration has four phases—three phases occur in mitochondria
    • Four phases of cellular respiration
      • Glycolysis - an anaerobic process occurs outside the mitochondria
      • Preparatory (prep) reaction - in the matrix of the mitochondria pyruvate is broken down to a 2-carbon acetyl group
      • Citric acid cycle - in the matrix of the mitochondria NADH and FADH 2 produced
      • Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons to the chain and energy is released to produce ATP
    7-
  • 6. Figure 7.2 The four phases of complete glucose breakdown 7-
  • 7. Carbon Dioxide and Water Are Produced During Glucose Breakdown 7-
  • 8. 7.3 Glycolysis: Glucose breakdown begins
    • Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria and glucose is broken into two pyruvates
    • Inputs and outputs of glycolysis
    7-
  • 9. Figure 7.3A Glycolysis 7-
  • 10. Figure 7.3B Substrate-level ATP synthesis 7-
  • 11. 7.4 The preparatory reaction occurs before the citric acid cycle
    • Preparatory (prep) reaction occurs before the citric acid cycle
    • 3-carbon pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon acetyl group and CO 2 is given off
    7-
  • 12. 7- Figure 7.4 Mitochondrion structure
  • 13. 7.5 The citric acid cycle: Final oxidation of glucose products
    • Citric acid cycle - a cyclic metabolic pathway located in the matrix of mitochondria
      • It produces a lot of the NADH and all of the FADH 2 that carry electrons to the electron transport chain
    7-
  • 14. Figure 7.5 The citric acid cycle 7-
  • 15. 7.6 The electron transport chain captures much energy
    • Electron transport chain (ETC) located in the cristae of the mitochondria is a series of carriers that pass electrons
      • Many of the carriers are cytochrome molecules, a protein that has a tightly bound heme group with a central atom of iron
      • NADH and FADH 2 are recycled to pick up more electrons to bring back to the electron transport chain
    7-
  • 16. Figure 7.6 The electron transport chain 7-
  • 17. 7.7 The cristae create an H + gradient that drives ATP production
    • Chemiosmosis
      • As hydrogen ions flow from high to low concentration ATP synthase synthesizes ATP from ADP + P
    7-
  • 18. Figure 7.7 Organization and function of cristae 7-
  • 19. 7.8 The ATP payoff can be calculated
    • Figure 7.8 Energy yield per glucose molecule
    7-
  • 20. 7- Fermentation Is Inefficient
  • 21. 7.9 When oxygen is in short supply, the cell switches to fermentation
    • Fermentation produces a limited amount of ATP using organic molecules instead of oxygen as the final electron acceptor
      • Benefit of Fermentation
        • Provide a rapid burst of ATP without oxygen
      • Drawback of Fermentation
        • Creates oxygen debt
        • Yields 2 ATP, cellular respiration yields ≥36ATP
    7-
  • 22. Figure 7.9A Fermentation 7-
  • 23. APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 7.10 Fermentation helps produce numerous food products
    • Fermenting yeasts leaven bread and produce alcohol
    • Fermenting bacteria produce acids used to make yogurt, sour cream, and cheese
    • Soy sauce is made by adding a mold and a combination of yeasts and fermenting bacteria to soybeans and wheat
    7-
  • 24. Metabolic Pathways Cross at Particular Substrates 7-
  • 25. 7.11 Organic molecules can be broken down and synthesized as needed
    • Metabolic pool - substrates are entry points for degradation or synthesis of larger molecules
      • Catabolism - reactions that break down molecules
      • Anabolism - reactions that synthesize molecules
    7-
  • 26. Figure 7.11 The metabolic pool concept 7-
  • 27. APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 7.12 Exercise burns fat
    • Prolonged aerobic exercise burns fat
      • Breathing and heart rate increase during exercise in order to supply the muscles with adequate oxygen
    7-
  • 28. Figure 7.12A Sources of fuel for exercise 7-
  • 29. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 7
    • Energy released when carbohydrates are oxidized and used to produce ATP molecules
    • Removal of hydrogen atoms occurs during glycolysis, the prep reaction, and the citric acid cycle
      • NADH and FADH 2 carry electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) to produce ATP
      • Oxygen serves as the final acceptor of electrons, and water is produced
    7-

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