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03 Lecture Ppt 03 Lecture Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 3 Organic Molecules and Cells
  • The Diversity of Organic Molecules Makes Life Diverse 3-
  • 3.1 The chemistry of carbon makes diverse molecules possible
    • Compounds made of hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms
      • Organisms consist mainly of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon
        • Most of the oxygen and hydrogen are in water
  • Carbon has unique bonding properties
    • Carbon can share electrons with as many as four other atoms
    • Consequently, it can form several different shapes
      • Chains
      • Rings
      • Side branches
  • Figure 3.1 Each of these organisms uses a different type of structural carbohydrate 3-
  • 3-
  • 3.2 Functional groups add to the diversity of organic molecules
    • A specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way
      • Example: -OH, the hydroxyl group is hydrophilic and found in alcohol, sugar, and amino acids
    • Isomers – organic molecules with identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms
  • Figure 3.2A Functional groups of organic molecules 3-
  • 3.3 Molecular subunits can be linked to form macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are called macromolecules because of their large size
    • The largest macromolecules are polymers because they are constructed of many subunits called monomers
  • Dehydration and Hydrolysis
    • Dehydration reaction synthesizes polymers from monomers by removing water
    • Hydrolysis reaction splits polymers into monomers by adding water
  • Figure 3.3B Synthesis and degradation of polymers 3-
  • Carbohydrates Are Energy Sources and Structural Components 3-
  • 3.4 Simple carbohydrates provide quick energy
    • Used as an immediate energy source
      • Carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ratio = 1:2:1
      • Monosaccharides contain a single sugar molecule
        • Ribose and deoxyribose are found in DNA
      • Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides joined via dehydration synthesis
  • Figure 3.4A Three ways to represent glucose, a source of quick energy for this cheetah and all organisms 3-
  • Figure 3.4B Formation and breakdown of maltose, a disaccharide 3-
  • 3.5 Complex carbohydrates store energy and provide structural support
    • Polymers of monosaccharides
    • Used for short-term or long-term energy storage
      • Animals store glucose as glycogen
      • Plants store glucose as starch
    • Some are used for structure
      • Chitin is used in animals and fungi
      • Cellulose is used by plants
  • Figure 3.5 Some of the polysaccharides in plants and animals 3-
  • Lipids Provide Storage, Insulation, and Other Functions 3-
  • 3.6 Fats and oils are rich energy-storage molecules
    • Hydrophobic biomolecules made of hydrocarbon chains
    • Fats and oils contain glycerol and fatty acids
      • Sometimes called triglycerides
  • Figure 3.6 Formation and breakdown of a fat 3-
  • Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
    • Saturated fats have no double bonds
      • They are saturated with hydrogens
    • Unsaturated fats have double bonds
      • They are not saturated with hydrogens
  • 3.7 Other lipids have structural, hormonal, or protective functions
    • Phospholipids have hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads
      • Found in plasma membranes
    • Steroids are hydrophobic molecules that pass through plasma membranes
    • Waxes are hydrophobic molecules used for waterproofing
  • Figure 3.7 Phospholipid, cholesterol (a steroid), and wax 3-
  • Proteins Have a Wide Variety of Vital Functions 3-
  • 3.8 Proteins are the most versatile of life’s molecules
    • Important for structure and function
      • 50% of dry weight of most cells
    • Several functions
      • Support
      • Metabolism
      • Transport
      • Defense
      • Regulation
      • Motion
  • 3.9 Each protein is a sequence of particular amino acids
    • Proteins are macromolecules with amino acid subunits
      • Made of peptide bonds via dehydration synthesis
    • Polypeptide chain is many amino acids bonded together
      • A protein may have many polypeptide chains
  • Figure 3.9A Formation and breakdown of a peptide 3-
  • Amino Acids
    • Variety is due to the R group
  • Figure 3.9B Amino acid diversity. The amino acids are shown in ionized form 3-
  • 3.10 The shape of a protein is necessary to its function
    • Denaturation - the irreversible change of protein shape caused by heat or pH
    • Levels of Organization
  • Figure 3.10 Levels of protein organization 3-
  • Nucleic Acids Are Information Molecules 3-
  • 3.11 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA carry coded information
    • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid
      • The genetic material
    • RNA – ribonucleic acid
      • A copy of DNA used to make proteins
    • Both are polymers of nucleotide s monomers
      • Nucleotides are made of a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate
  • 3-
    • Figure 3.11A One nucleotide Figure 3.11B RNA structure
  • Figure 3.11C DNA structure at three levels of complexity 3-
  • APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 3.12 The Human Genome Project may lead to new disease treatments
    • Sequenced the genome of humans
    • Scientists create genetic profiles
      • Used to predict diseases
        • Examples: Type 2 Diabetes, Schizophrenia
      • Used to make specific treatments
  • 3.13 The nucleotide ATP is the cell’s energy carrier
    • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
      • A nucleotide with the base adenine and the sugar ribose making a compound adenosine
    • Hydrolyzes phosphates to release energy and form adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
    • Figure 3.13A ATP hydrolysis
    3- Figure 3.13B releases energy Animals convert food energy to that of ATP
  • Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 3
    • Carbon forms the backbone of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
    • The macromolecules of cells are polymers of small organic molecules
      • Simple sugars are the monomers of complex carbohydrates
      • Amino acids are the monomers of proteins
      • Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids
      • Fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol