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01 Lecture Ppt 01 Lecture Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 1 Biology, the Study of Life
  • Organisms Are Characterized by Diversity and Unity 1 -
  • 1.1 Life is diverse
    • Figure 1.1 Many diverse forms of life are found on planet Earth
    • Despite this diversity, biologists are able to group organisms based on shared similarities.
    1 -
  • 1.2 Life has many levels of organization 1 -
  • Three most relevant levels of organization are:
    • Cell
    • Multicellular Organism
    • Biosphere
    1 -
  • Cells
    • The basic unit of structure and function of all organisms
    • Made of
      • Atoms: the basic building blocks of all matter
      • Molecules: atoms bonded together
    1 -
  • The Multicellular Organism
    • Most of the living things we see
    • Made of
      • Cells: basic unit of structure and function of all organisms
      • Tissue: a group of cells working together
      • Organs: various tissues working together
      • Organ Systems: various organs working together
    1 -
  • The Biosphere
    • Most complex level of organization
    • Made of
      • Populations: all members of one species in one area
      • Communities: the populations of various organisms in an area
      • Ecosystem: the communities interacting with their physical environment
    1 -
  • Emergent Properties
    • Emergent Properties: traits due to the interactions between the parts that make up the whole
    • Each level of organization is more complex and has more properties than the previous level
    1 -
  • 1.3 Organisms share the same characteristics of life
    • Seven Characteristics of All Life
    • Order
    • Response to Stimuli
    • Regulation of Internal Environment
    • Acquisition of Materials and Energy
    • Reproduction and Development
    • Genetic Inheritance
    • Evolutionary Adaptations
    1 -
  • Order
    • Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems are highly ordered in an organism
    • Allows organism to function as a complete system
    1 -
  • Figure 1.3A The eye of an insect illustrates the orderliness of living structures 1 -
  • Response to Stimuli
    • Organisms interact with their environment
      • Example: Plants grow toward light
    • Behavior – response to stimulus
      • Behaviors to search and compete for energy, nutrients, shelter, and mates
    1 -
  • Figure 1.3B Plants respond to light 1 -
  • Regulation of Internal Environment
    • Homeostasis: the ability of organisms to maintain a state of biological balance
      • Ex: temperature, moisture, and acidity (pH)
    • Organisms have intricate and unconscious feedback and control mechanisms to maintain homeostasis
      • Also might use a nervous system to create a behavior to maintain homeostasis
      • Ex: Getting a bite to eat
    1 -
  • Figure 1.3C Iguanas basking in the sun 1 -
  • Acquisition of Materials and Energy
    • Organisms need nutrients and energy to live
      • Food provides nutrients , the building blocks of cells, and energy , the capacity to do work
    • Metabolism : all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
    • Photosynthesis : process that transforms solar energy into chemical energy that can be used by organisms
    1 -
  • Figure 1.3D Living things acquire materials and energy and they reproduce 1 -
  • Reproduction and Development
    • Life comes only from life
    • All life can reproduce – make another organism like itself
      • Bacteria, protists, and unicellular organisms split in two
      • Most multicellular organisms reproduce through the union of sperm and egg
    1 -
  • Genetic Inheritance
    • The instructions for an organism’s metabolism and organization are encoded in its genes
    • Gene: a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that carries the information for how an organism is to be ordered
    1 -
  • Evolutionary Adaptations
    • Adaptations: modifications that make organisms suited to their way of life
      • They are the product of evolution
    • Evolution: process by which a species changes through time
      • Species: a group of similarly constructed individuals capable of successful interbreeding
    1 -
  • The Theory of Evolution
    • Explains the diversity and unity of all life
    • Natural Selection: mechanism of evolution developed by Charles Darwin
      • A new variation allows certain members of a species to produce more offspring than others
      • With successive generations, more individuals will have that new variation
    1 -
  • Classification Helps Us Understand Diversity 1 -
  • 1.4 Taxonomists group organisms according to evolutionary relationships
    • Taxonomy: The discipline of identifying and classifying organisms according to their evolutionary history and relationships
    • Levels of classification (specific to general)
      • Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, and Domain
    1 -
  • Table 1.4 Levels of Classification 1 -
  • Domain
    • The largest classification category
      • Three domains: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
    • Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes and lack a membrane-bound nucleus
    • Eukarya are eukaryotes and have membrane-bound nucleus
    1 -
  • Figure 1.4A Domain Archaea 1 -
  • Figure 1.4B Domain Bacteria 1 -
  • Kingdoms
    • Domain Eukarya has four kingdoms
      • Protista: The protists - unicellular and multicellular organisms either photosynthetic or not
      • Fungi: The fungi - multicellular, heterotrophic mostly decomposers
      • Plantae : The plants - multicellular photosynthetic organisms
      • Animalia: The animals - multicellular, heterotrophic and mostly mobile
    1 -
  • Figure 1.4C The four kingdoms in domain Eukarya 1 -
  • Scientific Names
    • Binomial Nomenclature uses two words (the genus name and specific epithet) to name organisms
      • Ex: Phoradendron tomentosum
    • Scientists avoid common names and use Latin to avoid confusion
    1 -
  • The Biosphere Is Organized 1 -
  • 1.5 The biosphere is divided into ecosystems
    • Figure 1.5 Grassland, a major ecosystem
    1 -
  • Organization in the Biosphere
    • The organization of life extends into the biosphere the zone of air, land, and water where organisms live
      • Populations: all members of one species in one area
      • Communities: the populations of various organisms in an area
      • Ecosystem: the communities interacting with their physical environment
    1 -
  • 1.6 Most of the biosphere’s ecosystems are now threatened
    • Humans tend to modify existing ecosystems
    • The most biologically diverse ecosystems are severely threatened
      • Rain forests
      • Coral reefs
    1 -
  • Scientists Observe, Hypothesize, and Test 1 -
  • 1.7 The natural world is studied by using scientific methods
    • Biology is the scientific study of life
    • The scientific process often uses the scientific method , which has four steps
      • Observation
      • Hypothesis
      • Testing
      • Conclusion
    1 -
  • The Scientific Method
    • Observation: what scientists can sense in the world around them
    • Hypothesis: an explanation for a natural event that can be tested
    • Testing: using either observation or experimentation to disprove a hypothesis
    • Conclusion: the results are analyzed and the hypothesis is supported or rejected
    1 -
  • 1 - Figure 1.7 Flow diagram for the scientific method
  • Scientific Theory
    • Different from ‘theory’ used in common speech, a scientific theory is not a speculative idea
    • Scientific theories are supported by a broad range of observations, experiments and data
    1 -
  • Biological Theories 1 - Theory Concept Cell All organisms are composed of cells and new cells only come from preexisting cells Gene Organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior Evolution All living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular way of life Homeostasis The internal environment of an organism stays relatively constant – with a range protective of life Ecosystem Organisms are members of populations that interact with each other and with the physical environment within a particular locale
  • 1.8 Control groups allow for comparison of results
    • When performing an experiment, the environmental conditions must be kept constant, except for the experimental variable , which deliberately changes
      • Test groups are exposed to the experimental variable
      • Control groups are not
    1 -
    • Figure 1.8A Pigeon pea/winter wheat rotation study
    1 -
  • Ecological Importance of Pigeon Pea Study
    • Legumes, namely pigeon peas, improve soil to produce a yield far better than using nitrogen fertilizer over the long haul
      • Root nodules on the pigeon peas supply nitrogen compounds
      • When the roots decay, the extra nutrients are released into the soil
    1 -
  • APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 1.9 DNA barcoding of life may become a reality
    • The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) proposes that an organism’s DNA could be the basis for identifying any species
      • Could help people identify pests and find antivenoms
      • Figure 1.9 This ant is the jumper ant, Myrmecia pilosula , and is not a fire ant
    1 -
  • Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 1
    • The goal is to understand the scientific process and learn the basic concepts of general biology
    • The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural world in terms of theories
      • The theory of evolution is the unifying concept of biology because it pertains to all aspects of living things
      • The cell theory states that all forms of life are cellular in nature
    1 -