Ssc107 july2010


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Ssc107 july2010

  1. 1. SSC107Individual in SocietySSC107R25 November 20107:30p.m. – 9:30p.m. (Thursday)Main Ref:Coon, D., & Mitterer, J.O. (2009). Psychology: Modules for active learning (11th ed.).Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson LearningREVISION SLIDES 2010 1
  2. 2. REVISION MATERIAL• Course Text• Study Units• SEP• Past Exams – January 2010 – July 2009 2
  3. 3. SSC107 Jan 2010 Exam SECTION A (Total 48 marks) You must answer Question 1 in this section• Question 1• Briefly describe the importance of any FOUR of the following six concepts using your own examples to illustrate your understanding of the concepts.• (a) Authoritative parents (12 marks)• (b) Latent learning (12 marks)• (c) Emotional intelligence (12 marks)• (d) Fight or flight (12 marks) 3
  4. 4. SECTION B (Total 52 marks) Answer any TWO of the following three questions.• Question 2 (26 marks)• The three basic ways to gain compliance are foot-in-the-door effect, door-in-the-face effect, and the lowball technique.• (a) Describe, with examples, how each of the three strategies listed above can be used to get people to voluntarily comply with a request. (20 marks)• (b) What are the benefits of knowing these strategies? (6 marks)
  5. 5. Question 3 (26 marks)• A mother wants her 10-year-old son to reduce the amount of time he spends playing on his hand-held game and to spend more time reading a book or doing his schoolwork.• (a) How can the mother make use of the principles of operant conditioning to achieve the desired behavioural outcome? (20 marks)• (b) Discuss the importance of the timing of reinforcement. (6 marks) 5
  6. 6. Question 4 (26 marks)• The behaviour of outstanding artists, scientists, athletes, educators, and leaders is best understood in terms of social motives, such as their need for achievement (nAch). Need for achievement is a desire to meet an internalized standard of excellence.• (a) How does the need for achievement differ from the need for power? (8 marks)• (b) McClelland (1965) found that those who scored high in nAch (need for achievement) tended to be moderate risk takers. In other words, when faced with a problem or a challenge, they avoid goals that were too easy to achieve. Why is this so? (8m)• (c) Discuss the importance of cultivating intrinsic motivation in children and the problems associated 6 with the constant use of extrinsic rewards. (10m)
  7. 7. SSC107 July 2009 Exam SECTION A (Total 48 marks) You must answer Question 1 in this section• Question 1• Briefly describe the importance of any FOUR of the following six concepts using your own examples to illustrate your understanding of the concepts.• (a) Intelligence quotient (12 marks)• (b) Operant reinforcer (12 marks)• (c) Separation anxiety (12 marks)• (d) Homeostasis (12 marks) 7
  8. 8. SECTION B (Total 52 marks) Answer any TWO of the following three questions.• Question 2 (26 marks)• Behavioural theories place great emphasis on learned behaviour patterns.• (a) Provide examples of how learned behaviour is acquired through classical and operant learning, observational learning, reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and discrimination. (16 marks)• (b) Darren has been a bully since Primary school and eventually got expelled from Secondary school. He joined a gang and started getting into trouble with the law. Describe some of the external causes (situational determinants) of Darren’s behaviour. (10 marks)
  9. 9. Question 3 (26 marks)• Through the observation of his own children, Jean Piaget believed that all children mature through a series of distinct stages in cognitive development.• (a) Piaget was convinced that intellectual development took place through several processes of mental adaptation. Explain the processes of assimilation and accommodation. (8 marks)• (b) Object permanence is said to emerge during the Sensorimotor Stage (0 – 2 years) while the concept of conservation is mastered during the Concrete Operational Stage (7 – 11 years). Discuss these two stages of cognitive development. (12 marks)• (c) We sometimes see parents forcing their children to learn reading, math, gymnastics, swimming, or music at an accelerated pace. Why do you think Piaget would discourage parents from ‘hothousing’ (forced teaching) their children? 9
  10. 10. Question 4 (26 marks)• Eating disorders amongst young women and men are becoming more prevalent today; and those suffering from eating disorders are reluctant to seek help on their own, especially for men, as eating disorders are widely perceived to be a female disorder.• (a) What is the difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa? (6 marks)• (b) Women and men who suffer from eating disorders are extremely dissatisfied with their bodies. Discuss the causes of eating disorders? (10 marks)• (c) Most people suffering from eating disorders will not seek help on their own. How can eating disorders be 10 treated? (10 marks)
  11. 11. SU: Ch. 3 Learning and Socialization• Course Text: Ch.6. Mod 6.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 & 6.6• What is learning? What are the principles of learning?• What is classical conditioning?• What is operant conditioning?.• What is cognitive learning (modelling and observational learning)?• Explain the importance of the concepts associated with various types of learning— reinforcement, punishment, modelling and observational learning. 11
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  13. 13. SU: Ch.2 Human Development• Course Text :Ch. 3. Modules 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7• What is developmental psychology?• What is lifespan perspective?• Explain the various theories of human development: Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, Erikson’s life stages.• What are the contributions of ‘nature’ and ‘nurture’ to human development?• Discuss the importance of emotional attachment. 13
  14. 14. SU: Ch.2 Human Development 14
  15. 15. SU: Ch.2 Human Development 15
  16. 16. SU: Ch.2 Human DevelopmentPiaget’s four stages of Cognitive Development 16
  17. 17. SU: Ch.2 Human DevelopmentErik Erikson’s Life-stage theory: 17
  18. 18. SU: Ch. 4 Intelligence & Creativity• Course Text: Ch.8. Modules 8.1, 8.4• What is intelligence? What are the different conceptions of intelligence? Multiple intelligence?• How can intelligence be measured? What do intelligence tests measure?• Is intelligence influenced by the environment or is it hereditary? 18
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  20. 20. SU: Ch. 4 Intelligence & Creativity• Intelligence tests: – Individual tests: Stanford-Binet V (SB5), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (WAIS-III), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (WISC-IV) – Group Tests: SAT• The Mentally Gifted• Intellectual Disability 20
  21. 21. SU: Ch. 5 Motivation & Emotion• Course Text: Ch.9. Modules 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.5• What are the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ forces of motivation?• What are the physiological drives of hunger, thirst and pain?• What is• What are the causes of eating disorders? What are the ways to overcome them?• What are learned motives?• What are emotions? What is a physiological arousal?• What are the theories of emotions? What is the role of facial expressions? 21
  22. 22. SU: Ch. 5 Motivation & Emotion• Homeostasis• Eating disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Obesity• Learned motives• Social motives (need for achievement vs need for power)Primary motives Secondary motives• Arousal theory 22
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  24. 24. SU: Ch. 5 Motivation & Emotion• The Physiology of Emotion—What happens to our bodies when we’re excited, angry or terrified? SU (p. 72/ text (p. 396)• Theories of emotion: The James-Lange theory, The Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter’s cognitive theory 24
  25. 25. SU: Ch. 6 Health, Stress and Coping• Course Text: Ch.11. Modules 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5• From a psychological perspective, what is health and wellness?• What are the conditions that give rise to stress?• Identify various coping mechanisms available to help individuals reduce stress?• What is ‘general adaptation syndrome’ (GAS)?• Discuss the relationship between stress, illness and the immune system.• What are the three conflict producing situations? What are the ways to resolve them?• What are the various defence mechanisms explored in 25 the text?
  26. 26. Health, Stress and Coping• GAS• Conflict : Approach-approach, Avoidance-avoidance, Approach- avoidance, Double approach-avoidance conflicts, Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts• Defence Mechanism• Learned Helplessness 26
  27. 27. Health, Stress and Coping Cardiac Personality 27
  28. 28. SU: Ch. 7 Social Behavior• Course Text: Ch.15. Modules 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6• What is social psychology?• What are the factors that influence interpersonal attraction?• Provide an overview on the attribution process. What are the potential attribution errors?• Describe Asch’s experiment on conformity. What are the factors that influence degree of conformity?• Describe Milgram’s study on obedience. What are the variables that may reduce obedience?• What are the methods of compliance? Provide• Explain the applications of selected persuasion techniques.• What are the factors that influence helping behavior? 28
  29. 29. Social Behavior• Overview of attribution process• Fundamental attribution error• Actor-observer bias• Asch experiment• Milgram’s study of Obedience (1963)• Conformity, obedience, compliance• Foot-in-the-door• Door-in-the-face• Lowball Technique• Cognitive dissonance theory• Bystander apathy• Bystander intervention 29
  30. 30. Q&A