Introduction
:
LEARNING
OF
EXPERTIS
E
Pirkko Hyvönen, pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi
Post-doc researher
KTK/ LET, Oulun yliopisto
30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 2
EXPERT AND
EXPERTISE
Who is an expert? Why
do you think so? What
is her/his domain?
How...
BACKGROUND
 Universities are expected to
educate experts, who are
competent to excel in
changing and complex
circumstance...
STEREOTYPES related to EXPERTISE
Gender
Age
Education
Objective truth
(Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993)
Expertise is more tha...
LET AIMS TO EDUCATE EXPERTS IN LEARNING AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY.
The students will be competent to work in schools and ...
DEFINITIONS IN DICTIONARIES 1968-
2011
1968: One who is very skillful and well-
informed in some special field (Webster)
2...
LEARNING EXPERTISE IS A PATH OR
JOURNEY OF COMPETENCE BUILDING
including also regressions (Alexander, 2003; Bereiter
& Sca...
DOMAIN-SPECIFIC EXPERTISE
- Informal and formal domains
Salomon (1997). Wine expertise
Norman et al. (2006). Medicine and
...
GENERATING THE BEST
- Find the best solution
DETECTION and
RECOGNITION
- Detect and perceive
features that novices
cannot
...
DOMAIN-LIMITED
- Have not necessarily
knowledge about other
domains
OVERTLY CONFIDENT
- eg. in music and physics
GLOSSING ...
HOW TO LEARN TO BE AN EXPERT?
Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986
1....
ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE
Help novices to expand
knowledge and understanding
in the areas of their interests
30.9.2013 12© pirk...
ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE
(Crowley & Jacobs, 2002; Palmquist & Crowley, 2007)
• Children and adult novices can develope knowled...
– Child & parent/adult; novice
& expert
• Domain approach to cognition
applied to social interactions. It
recognizes and r...
”BUILDING” AN ISLAND (knowledge construction)
”working theories”
 Building is seen as social and cognitive process, where...
YOU ARE NOT ALONE IN THE ISLAND! (learning is
social)
 Construct knowledge and deepen your understanding with other
peopl...
ISLANDS WILL FORM AN
ARCHIPELAGO! (Conceptual
construction)
 Through various activities individuals
can develop larger ep...
18
COOKING
COUNTRIES, CONTINENTSVEHICLES
TRAINS
AN EXAMPLE OF ISLANDS5-year child:
vocabulary,
declarative
knowledge,
sche...
Religion
Healt sciences
Finnish
language
English
Biologie
Statistics
Health
sciences
Chemistry
Educational
sciences,
Learn...
30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 20
TASK
Where people find problems that lead to interest; where the
interest comes from; ...
REFERENCES
Chi, M.T.H. & Koeske, R. (1983). Network representation of a child’s
dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psycholo...
References
Alexander, P. A. (2003). The development of expertise: The journey from acclimation to proficiency.
Educational...
Hatano, G. & Inagagi, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. In H. Stevenson, H. Azuma & K. Hakuta
(Eds.), Child development...
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  • Normallearningcanreachsatisfyingbasiclevel. Thenit is possible to freementalresources in order to usethem for higherlevelactivities (in knowledgeconstruction, skills and self-regulation)
  • Informal and formalenvironments
  • Children / adultNovice / expert
  • Nature of social interactionfromnovices and expert’sperspective
  • Epistemicframescanbeseen as a transfer (moreSchaffer, 2006) Transfer
  • Intro expertise 2013

    1. 1. Introduction : LEARNING OF EXPERTIS E Pirkko Hyvönen, pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi Post-doc researher KTK/ LET, Oulun yliopisto
    2. 2. 30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 2 EXPERT AND EXPERTISE Who is an expert? Why do you think so? What is her/his domain? How experts think and perform? How to become an expert? What is your expertise? Where are you in your expertise?
    3. 3. BACKGROUND  Universities are expected to educate experts, who are competent to excel in changing and complex circumstances in work life, but education does not provide competencies for it. (Hyvönen, Impiö, Järvelä, 2010).  ”Normal” learning does not provide expertise, but can lead to ”good enough” or ”satisfying” level (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993). Formal education produces the users of experts, but not experts! (Geisler, 1994). Formal education does not nesessarily produce experts, rather experienced non- experts (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993).
    4. 4. STEREOTYPES related to EXPERTISE Gender Age Education Objective truth (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993) Expertise is more than general intelligence: ”Capasity to perform consistently at a superior level” (Weisberg, 2006)
    5. 5. LET AIMS TO EDUCATE EXPERTS IN LEARNING AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY. The students will be competent to work in schools and work places and use their expertise in adapting to changing situations, solving problems, creating social innovations and integrating technologies in practices. They know how people learn and behave in various contexts.
    6. 6. DEFINITIONS IN DICTIONARIES 1968- 2011 1968: One who is very skillful and well- informed in some special field (Webster) 2005: Characteristics , skills and knowledge that distinguishes experts from novices and less experienced people (Wikipedia) 2011: person, who in certain domain can recognise problems and solve them efficiently. Expertise includes knowledge, experiences and skills for expressing. (Wikipedia) 1) How experts think; how do they perform? Why? 2) How to learn to be an expert? 3) What is expertise in my field/ in my competence?
    7. 7. LEARNING EXPERTISE IS A PATH OR JOURNEY OF COMPETENCE BUILDING including also regressions (Alexander, 2003; Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1986; Lajoie, 2003) Learning expertise comprices of three overlapping dimensions:  knowledge construction (Bransford et al, 2000; Sawyer, 2006)  expert-like performance (eg., Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993; Tynjälä, 2007)  self-regulation (Boekaerts, Pintrich & Zeidner, 2000; Lin, Schwarz & Hatano, 2005)  It is a transitional learning process where goals are set, monitored, reflected and scaffolded (Lajoie, 2003)
    8. 8. DOMAIN-SPECIFIC EXPERTISE - Informal and formal domains Salomon (1997). Wine expertise Norman et al. (2006). Medicine and surgery Durco & Dattel (2006). Transportation Sonentag et al. (2006). Software design Kellogg (2006). Professional writing Ross et al. (2006). Decision making Lehman & Gruber (2006). Music Hodges et al. (2006). Sports Butterworth (2006). Mathematics Cobet & Charness (2006). Chess Voss & Wiley (2006). History Brennenkmeyer & Spillane (2008). Problem-solving
    9. 9. GENERATING THE BEST - Find the best solution DETECTION and RECOGNITION - Detect and perceive features that novices cannot QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS -Analyse problems, develope problem representations EXPERTS can EXCELL (Chi, 2006) MONITORING & REFLECTING - Have good self-monitoring and predicting skills STRATEGIES - Use the best and effective strategies in a given situation OPPORTUNISTIC - Can use whatever sources of information that are available COGNITIVE EFFORT Can retrieve relevant domain knowledge
    10. 10. DOMAIN-LIMITED - Have not necessarily knowledge about other domains OVERTLY CONFIDENT - eg. in music and physics GLOSSING OVER - Sometimes they overlook details CONTEXT-DEPENDENT WITHIN A DOMAIN - Sometimes they rely too much for contextual cues EXPERTS may FALL SHORT (Chi, 2006) INFLEXIBLE INACCURATE PREDICTION, JUDGMENT AND ADVICE - Cannot always take the perspectives of novices BIAS AND FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS - Analyse problems in other domain through the priciples of their own domain
    11. 11. HOW TO LEARN TO BE AN EXPERT? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986 1. Help students understand their own processes of knowing and problem-solving! (Collaborative problems-solving method and expert profiles) 1. Help novices to expand knowledge and understanding in the areas of their interests (Islands of expertise)
    12. 12. ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE Help novices to expand knowledge and understanding in the areas of their interests 30.9.2013 12© pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi
    13. 13. ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE (Crowley & Jacobs, 2002; Palmquist & Crowley, 2007) • Children and adult novices can develope knowledge constructions and deep understanding of phenomena, which they are personally and deeply interested in, and they are motivated to learn more (Chi & Koeske, 1983,). Where people find problems that lead to interest; where the interest comes from; what is the first touch towards area of interest? How interests starts, developes and grows? How does it maintain? Do it transform? (Anke Grotlüschen, University of Hamburg)
    14. 14. – Child & parent/adult; novice & expert • Domain approach to cognition applied to social interactions. It recognizes and requires that environmental inputs are matched to child/novices capacities and expectations. (Gelman, 2010) • Affective and cognitive support is needed (ChanLi & Chan, 2007).
    15. 15. ”BUILDING” AN ISLAND (knowledge construction) ”working theories”  Building is seen as social and cognitive process, where learning habits are practiced and developed.  Island is woven throughtout multiple activities, hence it is essential to be occupied in many ways (negotiating, activities, reading, teaching, problem-solving, memorising etc.) with the phenomen, learn in activity, particularly in conversations.  Abstract and general themes  Building may continue for weeks, months or years  Generally building takes place in informal settings, like in home, museums etc. © Pirkko Hyvönen
    16. 16. YOU ARE NOT ALONE IN THE ISLAND! (learning is social)  Construct knowledge and deepen your understanding with other people by negotiations, explanations and problem-solving situations in everyday practices.  Long series of collaborative interactions with peers and experts that seems to be relatively unmarcable when viewed individually, but they collectively create a strong linkage between understanding and interest.  Other people support you in maintaining the interest. © Pirkko Hyvönen
    17. 17. ISLANDS WILL FORM AN ARCHIPELAGO! (Conceptual construction)  Through various activities individuals can develop larger epistemic frames, which will support the connections between earlier knowledge and new domains (Shaffer, 2006)
    18. 18. 18 COOKING COUNTRIES, CONTINENTSVEHICLES TRAINS AN EXAMPLE OF ISLANDS5-year child: vocabulary, declarative knowledge, schemas, memories are numerous, well- organised, and flexible. Their shared knowledge, conversational space, allow their talk to move on deeper levels than is typically possible if the boy were a novice. 30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi Understanding can be transfered to other situations and domains.
    19. 19. Religion Healt sciences Finnish language English Biologie Statistics Health sciences Chemistry Educational sciences, Learning Common ground English Economics Philosophi e Media sciences Cultural anthropology Communicati on Physiotherapy ARCHIPELAGO OF A ONE GROUP psykologia 30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 19
    20. 20. 30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 20 TASK Where people find problems that lead to interest; where the interest comes from; what is the first touch towards area of interest? How interests starts, developes and grows? How does it maintain? Do it transform? Discuss in small groups about your islands and how have they evolved. During the discussion draw your islands (archipelago) and write down your thoughts. Complete the texts / pictures in your blog, dl is 4.10. 1) What is the origin of the interest/s? 2) How did the interest maintain? How did it transfom?
    21. 21. REFERENCES Chi, M.T.H. & Koeske, R. (1983). Network representation of a child’s dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19, 29–39. Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activities. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 401–423). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gelman, S.A. (2010). Modules, theories, or islands of expertise? Domain specifity in socialization. Child Development, 81(3), 715– 719. Palmquist, S. D. & Crowley, K. (2007). Studying dinosaur learning on an island of expertise. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences (pp. 271–286). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Epistemic frames for epistemic games. Computers & Education, 46, 223–234.30.9.2013 pirkko.hyvonen@oulu.fi 21
    22. 22. References Alexander, P. A. (2003). The development of expertise: The journey from acclimation to proficiency. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 10–14. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves. An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company. Bransford, J. (2001). Thought on adaptive expertise. Retrieved June 15, 2008, from http://www.vanth.org/docs/AdaptiveExpertise.pdf. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L. & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.) (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, and school. Washington: National Academy Press. http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853 Brenninkmeyer, L. D. & Spillane, J. P. (2008). Problem-solving processes of experts and typical school principals: A quantitative look. School Leadership & Management, 28(5), 435–468. Brophy, S., Hodge, L., & Bransford, J. (2004). Work in progress – Adaptive expertise: Beyond apply academic knowledge. Frontiers in Education 3 (FIE): S1B/28- S1B/30, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1408679. Chi, M. T. H. (2006). Two approaches to the study of experts’ characteristics. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (pp. 21–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chi, M.T.H., Glaser, R., & Rees, E. (1982). Expertise in problem-solving. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (pp. 7–75). Chi, M. T. H. & Koeske, R. D. (1983). Network representation of a child’s dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19(1): 29–39. Crawford, V, M, (2007), Adaptive expertise as knowledge building in science teacher’s problem solving. Paper accepted for the proceedings of the European Cognitive Science Conference. Delphi, Greece. Ericsson, K. A. (2006). An introduction to Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: Its development, organization, and content. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 3–19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    23. 23. Hatano, G. & Inagagi, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. In H. Stevenson, H. Azuma & K. Hakuta (Eds.), Child development and education in Japan (pp. 262–272). New York (N.Y.): Freeman. Hatano, G. & Oura, Y. (2003). Commentary: Reconceptualizing school learning using insight from expertise research. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 26–29. Hmelo-Silver, C., Marathe, S. & Liu, L. (2007). Fish swim, rocks sit, and lungs breathe: Expert-novice understanding of complex systems. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(3), 307 – 331. Holoyoak, 1991 Johnsson, E. J. (1988). Expertise and decision under uncertainty: Performance and process. In T. H. Michele, H. Chi, R. Glaser & M. T. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. 209–228). Hillsdale (N.J.): Lawrence Erlbaum. Jonassen, D. H. (2007). What makes scientific problems difficult? In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Learning to solve complex scientific problems (pp. 3–23). Lajoie, S. P. (2003). Transitions and trajectories for studies of expertise. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 21–25. Lin, X., Schwartz, D.L., & Bransford, J. (2007). Intercultural adaptive expertise: Explicit and implicit lessons from Dr. Hatano. Human Development, 50, 65–72. Posner, M. J. (1988). Introduction: What is it to be an expert? In M.T.H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M.J.F. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. xxix–1). Hillsdale (N.J.): Lawrence Erlbaum . Tsui, A.B.M. (2009). Distinctive qualities of expert teachers. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(4), 421–439. Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Modes of expertise in creative thinking: Evidence from case studies. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (Eds.), (pp. 761-787). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Development of adaptation of expertise: The role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 705–722). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yates and Tschirhart (2007).
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