SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES  SITE ANALYSIS: NORTH DUNEDIN  Desi 335 Summer School 2009Dave Strydom, Luke Pirie, Guinevere Alai...
Luke PirieDave StrydomRob MachinMatt TaineGuinevere AlaiOli Cameron
CONTENTS:   SITE                           02     COMMUNITY                           14        HEALTH                    ...
02                  SITE:            HISTORY OF THE LAND           03    BUILDING VALUES IN CONTEXT            05         ...
HISTORY OF THE LAND03The SiteAccording to the current owners, Allen and Maria             this area also such as the Gregg...
10                                                                                                                        ...
BUILDING VALUES IN CONTEXT05                     From left to right: The chosen site (1 Duke Street), The Gregg Mansion, 4...
06The EnvironmentThe site neighbors a part of the town belt known as             as they remain close to the necessities r...
CURRENT USAGE07Site SpecificThe site at 1 Duke Street is unique to the NorthDunedin area in many aspects. It is situated a...
081 Duke Street is currently undergoing minor             house very comfortably supports five residents, with      though...
ZONING AND REGULATIONS09                                              Classification                                      ...
RESIDENTIAL ZONE 3 REGULATIONS                                                                                            ...
CONNECTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS11                                                                                           ...
12                                                                                                                        ...
A SYSTEM OF RELATIONSHIPS15Community can be viewed as a system. The pieces of         the means of reaching the market all...
10                                                                     16 Figure 1.0 - Relational map of economic connecti...
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY17 10      For a sustainable housing development to be               The site would be accessible to ...
18the town belt, that would not only provide a great     Again film screenings, live music, poetry readings       Informin...
WEEKLY ACTIVITIES19 10                                                                        This age group is mainly con...
20                                             This age group is mainly people who are well established                   ...
USE ANALYSIS2110                                          Housing                                                         ...
22   Duration                                                               Environmental Impact                          ...
NEEDS AND DESIRES2310  North Dunedin The University of Otago is a well known institute,       live in North Dunedin. The f...
24and the hospital nearby. Spirtitual needs are also met   space they are entitled to. These public spaces con-    ously d...
26HEALTH:IN A COMMUNITY CONTEXT              27          SITE INFLUENCES           29      POPULATION DENSITY            3...
28                                                          Manpower                                                  Easy...
SITE INFLUENCES29 Desire equals good health                                                                               ...
30                                                                                                                        ...
POPULATION DENSITY31 The Community Culture                                                                                ...
32The Street Grid                                                                                                 Pedestri...
HABITATS AND LIFESTYLE3310 The Effect of Lifestyle on Individual Health and Wellbeing:                                    ...
34Dissecting lifestyle factors and habits affecting health in North Dunedin                                               ...
BUILDINGS3510 Resource and shelter                                    North Dunedin Housing                               ...
36                                                          Tips to prevent condensation and mildew                       ...
38MATERIALS:        LOCAL             39         NATURAL ON SITE            43    FUTURE CONSTRUCTION             45      ...
LOCAL39                     Existing Materials                     The dwelling currently onsite is constructed mainly    ...
40Potential Local MaterialsInsulation                                                  Construction/ReinforcementWool - Ce...
LOCAL41 When selecting a material it is important to consider       (NZS provides customers with a LCA on all products), w...
42Stone is one the under utilized local materials            The embodied                                      Up-front ma...
NATURAL MATERIALS ON SITE43 Building Materials Due to the large amount of trees available on the     We can use local sawm...
44Planting MaterialsPlanting new trees on site will not only be a valuable   shelter, resources and attracting wildlife. I...
FUTURE CONSTRUCTION45The sustainability of buildings is dependant on        Building new structures provides us with an op...
46while providing increased sustainability for the user     Electrochromatic Glass/ Smart glass                        whi...
BUILDING MATERIALS: RE-THOUGHT47 Dunedin Standard                                                Break down of building fa...
48Building the Future                                        Construction                                             Pure...
50SYSTEMS:CONTROLLING YOUR ENVIRONMENT              51                   OWNERSHIP              53                 FOOD SY...
CONTROLLING YOUR ENVIRONMENT51                                                         In the Context of the SiteProductiv...
1                                                                                                                         ...
OWNERSHIP53 From left to right: The Dunedin City Council, collaboration of arms, Dunedin students who largely make up the ...
54                                                                                 Tourism                                ...
FOODS55     One of the largest contributors to a personal     maintained green house. It requires a little     carbon foot...
56                                            NORTH DUNEDIN                            an                          hc     ...
Sustainable Communities
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Sustainable Communities

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES SITE ANALYSIS: NORTH DUNEDIN Desi 335 Summer School 2009Dave Strydom, Luke Pirie, Guinevere Alai, Rob Machin, Oliver Cameron, Matthew Taine
  2. 2. Luke PirieDave StrydomRob MachinMatt TaineGuinevere AlaiOli Cameron
  4. 4. 01 NORTH DUNEDIN
  6. 6. HISTORY OF THE LAND03The SiteAccording to the current owners, Allen and Maria this area also such as the Gregg Mansion, which was for food production and further living space, althoughMcCaw, the house on the site was built around the time split into several pieces and distributed down the length the current owners explained that the lack of buildingof the first world war. The owner was a mediterranean of Queen St opposite the site. The reserve land around up the hill is due to its being a “logistical nightmare”ship merchant who settled in Dunedin with his family. the site is part of the town belt, but the land upwards for construction. The living area of the house currentlyThe arches and the flat roof are typical of the classical of the inhabited part of the property to the boundary has five bedrooms, with a small kitchen/laundry and amodern style in which it is built, and the overall facade at the top of the hill is part of the site. The area of this small lounge. There is undoubtedly room for expansionof the house is quite grandiose in regards to its context. section of the property is about two and a half times to house more people than this in a more comfortableSeveral historic Dunedin buildings are situated around the area of the house The potential here is massive and sustainable way. NORTH DUNEDIN
  7. 7. 10 04 The Area 1 Duke Street sits on the side of the valley that was sun in all seasons. This is very important in terms of the created by flooding eroding away the volcanic rock carved out of the land by the Water of Leith over the amount of solar radiation that can be collected and until a steep valley was created, and so the terrain at last million years or so. The orientation of the site is utilised for heating and food production, among other Duke Street level is mostly gravel and silt. At the foot North-facing, unlike 80% of houses in North Dunedin, things. A University of Otago Energy Studies research of the hill is the Leith flood plain. This is important in and so takes full advantage of the sun’s rays. The project has found that Dunedin is the least effectively that it is a large flat fertile area that poses no physical property extends up into the bush on the side of the sun oriented city in New Zealand, so finding a site interference in the direction of the sun’s rays even hill, so it is ideal in terms of overall sun-coordination with this amount of sun potential is very important throughout winter which is when the sun passes as the entire site is elevated and oriented towards the in Dunedin. The hill that the site is located on was lower in the sky in this specific direction. NORTH DUNEDIN
  8. 8. BUILDING VALUES IN CONTEXT05 From left to right: The chosen site (1 Duke Street), The Gregg Mansion, 4A Duke Street, Area Location Map, Aerial photograph of the site. Site The proposed site, 1 Duke Street, contains earthworks or rebuilding which uses vast amounts of one existing dwelling which was built by the energy and resources. Using existing resources on site Mediterranean ship merchant (insert name here) is one of the main goals of the project. in (insert date here) in Italian Renaissance style The building only occupies 167 square metres of that demands attention and carries a real sense of the site leaving a very large space which is currently historic value. There is a sense of history evident in covered in scrub leaving massive potential for more most Dunedin architecture, with most new buildings productive usage. Other neighboring sites typically trying to encapsulate or imitate this sense of historic have smaller sections and smaller buildings. However style. A clear example of this can be found opposite this site is far from isolated in its characteristics as the site at 4a Duke Street. There is great value of Dunedin has many urban sites which do not utilise having an existing building which complements it’s the large sections they occupy. Due to this trend in surroundings so well. Utilizing the existing structure unused section space, our solution may be able to will allow us to minimize the need for extensive adapted to different sites around North Dunedin. NORTH DUNEDIN
  9. 9. 06The EnvironmentThe site neighbors a part of the town belt known as as they remain close to the necessities required for a This smaller community based approach to living will be aProspect Bank, which contains Bullock track. It is also only convenience based lifestyle without feeling like they are key characteristic of a solution to the problem of creating30 metres from the Woodhaugh Gardens which contains in a condensed and heavily populated area. Even with this more sustainable housing.The site neighbors a part of the town belt known as sense of being out of the city, the site is only 5 minutesProspect Bank, which contains Bullock track. It is also only walk from the bus stop, doctor, supermarket, university, Given the site of 1 Duke Street is located in such a desirable30 metres from the Woodhaugh Gardens which contains a 24 hour convenience store, pub and bottle store to name location containing such a durable building which is in keepingplayground, swimming pool and duck pond. The Leith River but a few. Having the necessities of life in walking distance with the architectural style of Dunedin, with amenities andis also in close proximity to our site, which may be utilised from the site is essential to reduce the usage of cars, resources in such close proximity, and the obvious potentialas an energy resource. This gives our site ample access to increase the quality of life that the occupants feel while for a vast improvement with the unused land, it has beenthe ‘outdoors’ with close proximity to nature. inhabiting the site and for building a more sustainable chosen to create a model for sustainable housing withinPeople living in urban areas often search for such sites future for the site. North Dunedin. NORTH DUNEDIN
  10. 10. CURRENT USAGE07Site SpecificThe site at 1 Duke Street is unique to the NorthDunedin area in many aspects. It is situated atthe base of a north facing hill in the Leith Valleyand so receives the benefit of a north arcing sun,with the hillside also shielding the building from ANNUAL RAINFALLcold Southerly winds coming from the sea. Thebuildings front face is flush up against the footpath,but the boundary of the property extends 40m upthe hill. This hill as a barrier effectively divides theproperty into 2 different microclimates. According togrowOTAGO data compiled by the Otago Regional 1 Duke StreetCouncil, the different elevations of the site result indrastically different annual rainfall levels and windspeeds. This duality is a valuable and versatile asset to AVERAGE ANNUAL WIND SPEEDthe site, providing a sheltered lower area for living aswell as an upper area for other activities. The currentusage of the extensive backyard is nil. From the topof the concrete staircase behind the building to theback fence, trees, brush and vines grow unchecked.The large trees dotted throughout the section help toprevent topsoil erosion as well as provide shade andshelter. NORTH DUNEDIN
  11. 11. 081 Duke Street is currently undergoing minor house very comfortably supports five residents, with though these are currently untended.renovations, just ahead of the returning students plenty of common space in the two living areas andwho will begin inhabiting it from the 19th of January conservatory. There are two double and three single This site has a wealth of opportunity in terms2009. The buildings primary use is as a residential bedrooms, with one single cleverly making up for its of redevelopment and these factors are easilyproperty and has been housing students for at least small size by lofting a queen sized bed up near the identifiable. The undergrowth in the large backtwelve years; as many years as current owners Maria ceiling, opening up the floor space underneath for garden could be removed, providing ample amountsand Allen McCaw have owned the property. other bedroom amenities of space for vegetable gardens, communal lawns, In its current configuration, the building could easily hydroponics or even the site of new buildings. TheThe large, plastered concrete building is built into support another two residents, should the two area the concrete slab occupies on the same levelthe bottom of the sections slope and is of a multi double bedrooms be filled by couples. The area just as the building could remain as is, but the potentiallevel design. An interior staircase leads from the outside the front door is paved with a large concrete value of a building extension exceeds that of itsbuildings main floor, to a lower level with basement slab that acts as communal barbeque area, the site current configuration. One other asset that can neverpartly recessed into the hillside. The five bedroom of the clothesline and small herb and flower gardens, be ignored; the view. It’s beautiful. NORTH DUNEDIN
  12. 12. ZONING AND REGULATIONS09 Classification The area of North Dunedin mostly falls under a Residential Zone 3 (R3) or Campus Zone classification. The Dunedin City Council (DCC) has set regulations for these zones. Although the are is a mixture of these zones their regulations are similar. For the purpose of this project, we will use the regulations as set out under R3. These regulations for R3 Zone are shown in figure 2. North Dunedin Residential Zone 3 Campus Zone figure 1 NORTH DUNEDIN
  13. 13. RESIDENTIAL ZONE 3 REGULATIONS 10 Protected buildings Various buildings in the area have significant cultural value and are protected by the council. There are set restrictions of the changes allowed to these buildings. 9.0 m Max Fauna and Flora x 55 dBA Ma There are various Urban x 40 dBA Landscape Conservation Areas Ma (ULCA). These are protected by the DCC and are public property. They form part of the All community and will be used in -y dM giving all living areas far greater in 1.0 m value. .0 m 3 in 50% M 0- yd 4 F- er age cov te x si ˚* Ma /45 63˚ figure 2 NORTH DUNEDIN
  14. 14. CONNECTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS11 SITE STUDY: 1 Duke Street Dunedin Physical environment Physical conditions The property at 1 Duke St is on a steep hillside with a The property is physically connected to the surround- There are close physical connections by pedestrian north facing aspect in the residential suburb of North ing community and city by road and pedestrian ac- and road to public resources such as educational fa- Dunedin. In relation to surrounding properties and cess. Bordering the property is a public reserve with cilities for different groups. There is a primary school structures the Duke street property boarders with two pedestrian access immediately beside the property. around the corner and a University close by. Food out- residential properties, the roadside, and a council re- The physical relationship between the flat and the lets, pubs and the rest of the city are all physically con- serve. A student flat sits on the front of the property road connects the property with the surrounding resi- nected through this system. The road provides access facing the street, and extends to the footpath and dences while the trees on the rest of the property ex- to public transportation systems and other social re- boundaries on either side. The flat is cut back into the tend into the neighbouring gardens. The property sits sources such as the neighbouring public gardens and hillside with the roof at the rear of the flat meeting the on the edge of a residential block with close connec- bowling club. hillside. The land behind the flat is covered entirely in tions to both the urban environment and the neigh- thick growth which extends without distinguishable bouring “wilderness”. boundaries to the neighbouring council reserve. NORTH DUNEDIN NORTH DUNEDIN
  15. 15. 12 Car/Traffic Recreational Users School Children Bowlers/EldersPhysical relationships StudentWhile largely occupied by a Student population, who Profile One: During the working week we see an in- Profile Two: During the weekend student activity islive a different lifestyle to the rest of the public, the crease of children in the area with the primary school likely to be low (at least until around 6pm). The markedproperty draws close relationships and connections nearby. There is likely an increase in traffic over the change comes from an increase of recreational userswith different groups of society at different times. weekdays, especially at specific times of the day due most likely coming from outside the immediate area.Two separate profiles of the area represent the dif- to the regular working population. Being close to Uni- The neighbouring reserve, park, and bowling greenferent relationships and connections between certain versity there is an increase in student pedestrians at- creates a social connection with recreational users. Angroups at different times. Identifying the different so- tending class, but there would be very little pattern to increase in families and the older generation is morecial relationships and interactions between different this given student’s flexible timetables. likely over the weekend, while students tend to keepgroups are important in understanding how a com- to a later schedule barely showing their faces duringmunity functions daylight. NORTH DUNEDIN
  16. 16. 13 NORTH DUNEDIN
  18. 18. A SYSTEM OF RELATIONSHIPS15Community can be viewed as a system. The pieces of the means of reaching the market all in one. It is athe system fit together because the other pieces are marketer’s dream... especially if alcohol is the productthere. Economic factors control this system because they market.of the dependence of members of the community onothers. It would be extremely difficult for one personor one small group of people to produce all that theyneeded to live and socialise for themselves and stillhave time for such things as University study, or forthere to be a University at all. People NeedsIn North Dunedin, the students are the driving sector ofthe community in terms of cash flow. They travel fromall over the country, bringing not only the money fromtheir home towns, but their access to student loansand allowances from the government. This meansthat the residents of North Dunedin are almost solelyfocused on catering to the needs of the students. AsFigure 1.0 shows, the North Dunedin community is avery complex web of economic services based on thepresence of 20,000 young people. Fulfilment CompaniesIn return, the students staff the shops and createthe everchanging workforce that runs itself, with theowners of the businesses seldom residing within thegeographical boundaries that constitute North Dune-din. The students bring in the money, the market, and Figure 2.0 - Community as a bilateral system of economic relationships NORTH DUNEDIN
  19. 19. 10 16 Figure 1.0 - Relational map of economic connections within the north dunedin area NORTH DUNEDIN
  20. 20. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY17 10 For a sustainable housing development to be The site would be accessible to members of the The sites open spaces, tree huts, covered seating, successful the surrounding community must be smaller and wider community, with a community bike barbeque, and gardens would be ideal for families considered. The site will carry a social responsibility system allowing people to commute around the city and students alike to enjoy during summer and for the community, providing entertainment, for allocated periods of time. The occupants of the spring. During the winter large living areas inside the transport and safety in the area. The aim of this is site would be responsible for maintenance of the dwelling offer open internet access, film screenings to create a micro-community that is able to share site, with a strong emphasis placed on respect from and craft days. All of which are advertised weekly resources, knowledge and skills. the community. through email lists and a community blog or website. As the sun sets the site becomes a vibrant light on NORTH DUNEDIN
  21. 21. 18the town belt, that would not only provide a great Again film screenings, live music, poetry readings Informing the community of the services will beatmosphere, but it would also act as a safe point and art exhibitions would be regular fixtures in the essential to the success of the site as much of thealong the largely unlit Duke Street. The location of dwelling and on the site. Noise control has been proposed services require volunteers, organisationthe site means that people from North East Valley, considered for the entertainment and largely this will and people to make them enjoyable. Having suchWoodhaugh, and North Dunedin will undoubtably not be an issue due to the sites minimal neighbors a diverse and open environment will encourageutilise such a convenient venue for socialising. and large surrounding section. A sober driver roster the community to treat it with respect, creating a could be put in place, as well bunk beds and walking desirable environment that can be sustained for years groups. to come. NORTH DUNEDIN
  22. 22. WEEKLY ACTIVITIES19 10 This age group is mainly concerned with primary or secondary level of education. Their habits during the week is significantly different than on the weekends. They tend 0-17 not to have dependencies or a high level of responsibility. Rather they tend to be dependant on other members of the community. However their contribution level has the opportunity to be high, although maybe low in skill. Work Study Free Time Contribution Socialising Recreation This age group focuses on tertiary education, skill 18-35 refinement and entry level work. They tend to socialize far more than any other group. They also have the opportunity to contribute to the highest level with the a high level of free time throughout the week. Work Study Free Time Contribution Socialising Recreation NORTH DUNEDIN
  23. 23. 20 This age group is mainly people who are well established within the workforce. Although they may still be studying casually, time spent in the work place requires most of their time. Their contribution to a particular community can be36-55 of the highest skill. Work Study Free Time Contribution Socialising Recreation This group comprises of primarily of those individuals who have retired from the active workforce. Their contribution55+ to the community can be the highest in terms of time but they may have physical restrictions limiting their contribution. They tend not to favour change and struggle to find social interaction. Work Study Free Time Contribution Socialising Recreation NORTH DUNEDIN
  24. 24. USE ANALYSIS2110 Housing Income 0-18 18-30 30-50 Dependent Own Savings 50+ Rent Employment North Dunedin Income Community is probably best defined by the North Dunedin is substantially made up of rental Given the large number of students in North Dunedin interactions between different groups. Factors that property, specifically targeting the temporary student across all age groups, benefits and borrowing from identify communities may include; locality, interaction, market. Renting is the most appropriate arrangement the government will be the primary source of income unification, distinction, common interests. In the given the usually short durations of stay. With this, for most. Working and retired groups are more likely case of a North Dunedin, identifying the different landlords and property owners become an important to gain income from earnings and savings. Statistics groups who occupy the space and the way they live part of the community, with a high influence on NZ shows North Dunedin’s average income as $5,200 is essential in developing a profile that represents the living standards and interactions. compared with the $18,500 for all of NZ. community. NORTH DUNEDIN
  25. 25. 22 Duration Environmental Impact Long Term Heavy Mid Term Medium Short Term LightDuration Environmental ImpactHeavy carbon footprints based on high consumption Again this shows a trend towards the short term amongamongst younger groups. Substandard housing may students. This means there is little investment in futurecontribute to energy wastage. But some of this may be benefits for the community. If an older member of theoffset by low use of carbon heavy transport. Groups working population stays in the community there iswho travel in and out of the community more often greater chance of longer stays.may contribute more through transportation. 0-14 15-64 65+ 2% 95% 3% Age profile of North Dunedin according to StatsNZ NORTH DUNEDIN
  26. 26. NEEDS AND DESIRES2310 North Dunedin The University of Otago is a well known institute, live in North Dunedin. The famous student culture is community, representation and loyalty within North that provides quality education, high standards, and concentrated on the northern side. Student flats and Dunedin. pride to this area. The presence of this institution those of staff members are scattered and mingled in Residents in the northern side of Dunedin have all contributes to one of the thriving cultures here in between homes of the locals. their needs catered for. A local supermarket, small Dunedin, as the student city. The University of Otago Strong local culture is also established through shops or dairies, a mini shopping centre, petrol also provide the benefits of supplying quality occupa- schools, primary through to high school. Also it is stations, fast food outlets, all help supply food and tions or employment. through sporting clubs ranging from bowling, cricket, other essentials. Medical needs are also met with Students make up a majority of the residents who football, and rugby that help build a strong sense of local general practioners, vets, student health centre, NORTH DUNEDIN
  27. 27. 24and the hospital nearby. Spirtitual needs are also met space they are entitled to. These public spaces con- ously done that, so then the question is what iswith the numerous concregations lining along North tribute to the wellbeing of residents young and old. missing, or what more can be done? Achieving aDunedin. North Dunedin are catered for its residents by places sustainable community requires residents that carePeople need public space to relax and interact with where they can benefit from open space. Without about the area. Building that trust and care for thenot only one another but with the environment they people there is no community, so attending to their area, through accomodating to peoples needs, willlive in. Football grounds, rugby fields, the Botanic needs is as important. The environment people live establish loyalty to the area. As a result passionateGardens, and local parks give residents a great place in and what is around influences the choices, and ideas and suggestions will be generated to improvewhere they can acknowledge nature and enjoy the the desire to stay there. North Dunedin has obvi- or maintain a sustainable community. NORTH DUNEDIN
  28. 28. 25 NORTH DUNEDIN
  31. 31. 28 Manpower Easy EpidemicsSocial Interaction When physical labour is required for the good of the In community and close-living situations it is very easyImportant for mental health and well being, provides community, “many hands make light work”. This is for contagious illnesses to spread. This can become anan outlet for frustrations, opinions and tensions. Also good in terms of achievement, physical health, social epidemic if left unchecked. An example in Dunedin isprovides support and gives people something to do as factors and mental health. the “Fresher Flu”.well as share knowledge and experiences.Entertainment Neighbourhood Watch Weakest LinkAlso good for mental health and the general well There is no doubt that there is safety in numbers. In terms of hygiene and food safety, it only takes onebeing of the community because when people are Community members look out for others and vice person’s lack of knowledge in this area to make abored, problems arise. As with everything, the com- versa. This builds trust, social well being and general whole lot of people sick. They are the weakest link inmunity provides and consumes this. safety within the community. the community chain.Communal Knowledge Buffer System Potential for DisagreementsIn terms of problem solving, illness diagnosis, preven- When a member of the community is sick or unable There are always going to be disagreements in a close-tion and healing, communal knowledge is a great to complete their duties, there are plenty of people to living situation. This is exacerbated by close quarters,asset to have. Many brains are definitely better than take their place and look after them and their chores and can get nasty. Luckily there is the factor of Neigh-one, and shared experience benefits all. while they are unwell or away. bourhood Watch to combat this. NORTH DUNEDIN
  32. 32. SITE INFLUENCES29 Desire equals good health Work equals good health The sustainability of the site depends on the sites Having a site with existing trees, grass and walkways The occupants and temporary users will also be desirability, and more specifically the health and well- provides feelings of privacy, adventure, serenity required to maintain the section, using physical being of its permanent occupants and temporary and personal space. All of which are important to energy that can release endorphins. It would be users. The rationale behind this is, if a person is in address for the users state of mental well-being. The promoted that people should not expend too much a comfortable environment which they desire to be site not only gives the occupants a relaxing feeling energy working and not relaxing. It’s even been in, then they will have a healthy body as well as a through nature, but it also encourages physical found that simply looking at trees and vegetation healthy mind. fitness through its large sloping selection of paths reduces stress, lowers blood pressure, and relieves and gardens. muscle tension (Campbells, 2004) . NORTH DUNEDIN
  33. 33. 30 Environment Inputs Outputs Outputs InputsView and warmth InterconnectedThe site also has some stunning views over North Windows would be triple glazed so as to maintain communities involvement and interest in the site. IfDunedin, taking in the local architecture and the lush the heat and sound that the dwelling generates. there was no connection between the communitytown belt. The existing dwelling already has a large As well as the windows and balcony, the large then there would be little connection between thebalcony on the street side of the property as well as section would have seated viewing areas placed up natural environment and the human environment.a sun room (pictured) with large windows. The rest the section allowing people to take in even more Members of the community are required for wasteof the dwelling has minimal windows which would of the views of the surrounding community. The disposal, resource conservation and consumption,be rectified as much as possible in the alterations of connections between the community and the site pollution control as well as entertainment, educationthe dwelling. and vital as the system would not work without the and communication. NORTH DUNEDIN
  34. 34. POPULATION DENSITY31 The Community Culture Density of dwellings In North Dunedin as we see it today the is a high of the street grid and the dependency on vehicles Buildings that are built too close to each other block level of interaction between individuals of a certain for short transport. Statistics for 2006 showed that the sun from warming them up. This causes building age and who are mostly students. This is a result of 15.9% of homes in New Zealand had access to three to be colder, damper and more likely to make its a high desire for social interaction. However the built of more cars. Cars are parked most of the time and occupants ill. It also makes it harder for plants to grow environment in Dunedin does poorly to facilitate even then cost money to run. Up to one third of all in the area and a diverse range of wild animals find community interaction, which is important for the car trips made in New Zealand are under 2 km. We the area uninhabitable. It causes a higher density of happiness of individuals. The environment is disturbed are likely to feel less connected with the community waste which proves to be suitable for opportunist by the amount of individuals who use the area for when we drive everywhere. Another study shows animals such as rats, mince and seagulls which breed parking while at work, density of the dwellings, setup that a lack of general human interaction is a facture dangerous diseases. Let alone the implications of contributing to an every rising depression level world higher density of waste. wide. NORTH DUNEDIN
  35. 35. 32The Street Grid Pedestrian TravelHousing and the lifestyle around interaction with poor community interaction levels. It also has created Another concern is the exercise level of thepeoples homes is to an extent restricted and a build environment and has removed the joy of individuals within the community, judging by risingcontrolled by the street grid on which we live. The nature from peoples daily live. All in the effort to obesity levels globally. This is partly cause by anway we travel, how we interact with our neighbours, make a quick buck. The removal of the fixed idea of increase in travel by vehicles and a decrease in travelwhere we interact with them and even who we a street grid brings many advantages. Higher levels by walking and cycling. Also partly cause by aninteract with is determined by a street grid made of community interaction, a re-connection with increase in crime affecting pedestrians and cyclists.primarily with access and economic efficiency in nature and allows for houses to be placed optimally However this once again can be blamed on a poormind. However these ideas were based on being within the space. This results in an environment street grid system. A solution in well light streets andable to drive your car up to your front door and not which helps elevate stress and sustain mental well walkways and less vehicle access to certain areas.on human interaction. These grids and the density of being. This will result in a higher level of pedestrians andthe houses built within them have made for pretty cyclists. More people means less crime and higher interaction. NORTH DUNEDIN
  36. 36. HABITATS AND LIFESTYLE3310 The Effect of Lifestyle on Individual Health and Wellbeing: Sleeping Habits There are specific habits and characteristics of the will focus on the individual affects. There are particular The value of sleep to personal health is often taken for lifestyle of individuals in North Dunedin which have social and cultural determinants of health and granted. Sleeping habits greatly affect the effectiveness a significant impact on health and wellbeing among happiness. These are created largely by a particular of sleep. Exercise, caffeine, stress and other factors can individuals. Taking into account the significant number “lifestyle” which results of a number of contributing influence the quality and quantity of sleep a person of students between the age of 18 and 30 who inhabit factors. Outcomes: gets. The “student lifestyle” in North Dunedin is likely North Dunedin, there are particular issues relating Creating spaces that encourage and contribute to to have a negative impact on sleeping habits. Students to individual health and wellbeing which should be better health and wellbeing of the individual, which have a propensity to keep irregular hours, combining considered when designing a sustainable community. in turn have a positive impact on the community as social with academic schedules, often with the These issues are often community or site related but I a whole. assistance of caffeine to delay sleep. NORTH DUNEDIN NORTH DUNEDIN
  37. 37. 34Dissecting lifestyle factors and habits affecting health in North Dunedin Social Habits Fitness and Diet Behavioural and social issues that impact on Regular physical activity and a balanced health include substance smoking, alcohol, nutritional intake are important contributors drugs, exercise, and sexual behaviour. With to healthy lifestyles. Exercise is an area with a evidence of a high degree of substance abuse positive impact on health and wellbeing of North and sexual activity among individuals in North Dunedin with increased activity from walking, Dunedin these factors are important to both biking or social sports teams. Poor diet can often the physical and mental health and wellbeing be linked with low income. A high concentration of the individual. In addition to alcohol related of cheap, unhealthy food in North Dunedin is accidents, binge drinking impacts on crime and a growing contributor to poor nutrition, not to social problems. Similarly, drug taking can have a mention the pie or two from the 24 on the way devastating affect on personal health as well as home from town every weekend. impacting on others. NORTH DUNEDIN
  38. 38. BUILDINGS3510 Resource and shelter North Dunedin Housing (Shannon S) Consturcting a house is not hard, the A Building according to EVH3 - Impact of Housing on Houses in North Dunedin are known for their Victorian hard part is designing a house that will handle local Health in Dunedin NZ (a case study based on Dunedin villa look, not only that they are commonly being weather conditions, and shield all that is inside. housing) it identifies the home to be a place where occupied by a great number of university students. In residents can find safety and comfort, and protection recent times North Dunedin houses all share a common from the outside weather. (Shannon S) factor which is affecting its residents and their well being. That common factor is moisture. The reason why moisture is quickly affecting houses in Dunedin is due to the reliability of “building fabric, water and air supply, and the energy use within the building”. NORTH DUNEDIN
  39. 39. 36 Tips to prevent condensation and mildew Keep your house warm, Wipe any moisture off glass generally 5-7 degrees celsius or other cold surfaces. warmer than outside. Avoid using unflued gas heaters Keep doors to other rooms closed when they give off moisture as they using the bathroom or kitchen to prevent provide heat. steam spreading throughout your home. Insulate the ceilings and walls.Building for local conditions and poorly maintained, so there is a need to install noticed and accepted the poor conditions. Because ofA building needs to be constructed to protect its the right equipment that will generate heat, provide their carefree attitude students would not seek helptenants from the harmful affects of the weather. ventilation, and minimise health risks. or improvement, and live with these poor conditionsDunedin weather to date has been high in humidity leading to various health issues. It is in the landlord’sincreasing the levels of moisture in the homes, and Failure to construct a healthy home duty to present a home that is free from dampness,also contributing to the growth of house dust mites. A home that fails to provide tenants with a suitable with sufficient ventilation, moisture resistant, and safeThe increases in these two areas have tenants at risk and safe living environment, like a damp home from all danger.with exposure to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus increases the chance of them getting sick. According(dust mite allergen) which can lead to asthma. A to the EVH3 report it recognized that students, livingmajority of these student flats are under ventilated in the numerous flats surrounding the University, NORTH DUNEDIN
  40. 40. 37 NORTH DUNEDIN
  42. 42. LOCAL39 Existing Materials The dwelling currently onsite is constructed mainly Further insulation and/or repair of the external walls from reinforced concrete, as shown in the photo mon- with sustainable materials, double glazing, a strength- tage to the left. The interior walls of the house are ened, insulated and load bearing roof, further and brick, and the ceilings are plastered. Timber is used complete use of the available land space and poten- for access points like the stairs and doors as well as tial indoor area, and more window area along the flooring on the upper floor and the ceiling support. frontage of the house for maximised sun usage would The flat roof is clad in corrugated iron.Very little of improve the sustainability and general quality of this the materials used in this building can be regarded dwelling. as entirely sustainable. Neither are they likely to be entirely local. Although concrete in general is good in terms of in- sulation and strength, the concrete in this dwelling is old, not very dense, and is cracking in some parts, let- ting in water and causing a cold, humid environment in the lower floor. The corrugated iron on the roof is also quite old and some of the nails have fallen out. The flat roof has major potential for food production or social space, but this would not be possible with the constraint of this non-load bearing surface and material. NORTH DUNEDIN
  43. 43. 40Potential Local MaterialsInsulation Construction/ReinforcementWool - Central Otago produces a large percentage Timber - Otago, as with the rest of New Zealand, hasof New Zealand’s wool. Wool is a healthy, sustainable commercial timber planted around the entire span ofinsulator that literally grows on the backs of animals. the region. Forestry blocks are harvested, milled and treated locally.Flax - Flax fibres can be turned into a safe, energy ef-ficient insulator with fire retardant, acoustic and heat Concrete - The quarry beside Logan Park in Dunedininsulating properties. It grows in wetlands all over produces cement and gravel for export and local use.New Zealand. Concrete is the original material of the house, and adding to it in the same way will keep the feel of theNatural Insulation™ - A commercially produced, house consistent.New Zealand based insulation product that is createdfrom recycled newsprint that is macerated and im- Oamaru Stone - A light coloured sandstone that ispregnated with natural minerals. It is sprayed on, so used in a lot of historic buildings in the Otago regionfills every gap and is 100% natural or recycled. as a facing. Not durable enough to be used as a foun- dation or structurally.Clay-coated Straw - Has an R rating of 3+ per inchof thickness and has been proven as a sustainable and Rammed Earth - The oldest and most readily availableefficient insulator for over 700 years. Very easy to pro- material known to man. Rammed earth can be usedduce and build with. as a very strong and permanent construction material and has good thermal mass but poor insulation.Why do people use imported, non-natural substancesor even none at all when there are so many natural,efficient insulators available within arms reach? NORTH DUNEDIN
  44. 44. LOCAL41 When selecting a material it is important to consider (NZS provides customers with a LCA on all products), where the material is made, and where it’s raw mate- plastics (when treated, recycled plastic can be used rials come from. Whether it made close to the site or to insulate) and the various forms of stone quarried transported from elsewhere in New Zealand, or is it throughout New Zealand. imported. And if the raw materials local or imported. The more transport involved in getting the material to the building site, the more greenhouse gas emis- Auckland Region (scoria) sions it is contributing to. The transport factor is also linked with cost, the further away the material, the greater the transport cost. Consider the weight and bulk of the mate- Nelson (marble) rial. Transport costs will be higher for heavy or bulky materials. The more transport involved in getting the material to the building site, the more greenhouse Waikato (limestone) gas emissions it is contributing to. Central Otago There are a variety of local materials available for (schist) use in the construction of a sustainable community. These include locally produced glass, concrete and is superior form Hebel, timber (although native New Zealand species of timber have proven to be Oamaru (limestone) poor building materials, the Pine Radiata which was believed to be introduced by settlers is a very versatile source of timber and grows easily throughout New Zealand), Aluminium and steel for use in frame work Areas throughout New Zealand where stone is quarried NORTH DUNEDIN
  45. 45. 42Stone is one the under utilized local materials The embodied Up-front materials costs are relatively high, butreadily available in New Zealand. Many of the energy of those costs are partly offset by low maintenanceenvironmental issues with stone has to do with locally sourced and long life. Stone is heavy to transport. Coststhe “non-locality” of the material. However stone, dimensioned or cut increase with distance from quarry or port of stone vs importedin its many different forms are readily found entry. Natural (uncut) stone is labour intensive to dimensioned stone.throughout New Zealand. Imported install – cut stone is easier to lay. 6.8 MJ/kg Stone is usually installed as a veneer supportedStone is a natural product that can be quarried or off a framed structure or as a thin slab finnish tosourced from gravel areas such as river beds. In Local wall and floors. Specialist skills are required. Oncedomestic buildings stone is typically used as cut 0.79 MJ/kg delivered, materials can be handled by site labour.stone or coursed natural stone veneer attached Structural capability Stone is typically used asto a timber frame, or as a cut tile applied to wall veneer – structural stone must be specificallyand floor surfaces. A wide range of stone types engineered. Durability depends on stone type andare available – the most common being schist, environment but stone is usually very durable.limestone, scoria, sandstone, bluestone, granite Limestones, marble and sandstones can beand marble. affected by aggressive (industrial) environments.The quarrying of stone creates dust, noise and Oamaru Stone wall in the ISB Building of the Oamaru Stone is readily available from ana significant visual impact to the land being University of Otago area just north of Dunedin. Oamaru Stone is aexcavated. There is also potential for damage Gabion Walls can be hard, compact limestone. It is ideal for buildingto local ecosystems during extraction. Although made from irregular sized purposes, especially where ornate moulding isthere are typically no emissions from the stone stones, rocks or from required. The finished stonework has a creamy, rubble from demolished– granite may emit low level radioactivity. Stone buildings. When used sandy colour. Unfortunately, it is not stronglyis inert, non-toxic and not generally prone to off- properly can have great resistant to pollution, and can be prone to surfacegassing of volatile materials. Coatings applied to aesthetic appeal as well crumbling. If left unprotected, Oamaru Stone can as being structurallyporous stones to seal the surface may have VOC strong, sturdy and having wither, in time.emissions, although now days typically low. thermal mass properties. NORTH DUNEDIN
  46. 46. NATURAL MATERIALS ON SITE43 Building Materials Due to the large amount of trees available on the We can use local sawmills, furniture manufacturers The logs provide insulation that keeps heat in the site both now and after future growth, cordwood and log home builders to see if they have any scrap building, while the mortar provides the ability to store building would be the best option for sustainable wood, and we can use any dead trees on the site. and release heat into the building. building. Current supplies of wood can be used for The mortars that are commonly used include mixes The wood might expand over time and crack the initial building, with future tree growth used for of cement, lime, clay, sand or sawdust. Cordwood mortar, but you can remedy this problem through maintenance. Cordwood building uses wood that is is a natural building material that offers both good caulking (2009 HowStuffWorks, Inc.). cut into short lengths, about the size of firewood, insulation and good thermal mass. which might otherwise go to waste. NORTH DUNEDIN
  47. 47. 44Planting MaterialsPlanting new trees on site will not only be a valuable shelter, resources and attracting wildlife. It is also vital Utilizing the existing site materials is a high priority asconstruction resource, it will also break down that there are trees and plants grown for their ‘fruits’ any reduction in outsourcing materials heavily reducescarbon into oxygen. This is a simple yet effective such as apple trees, tomato plants and any number our carbon footprint. The existing roof will be used toway to reduce our carbon footprint. The use of of vegetables that can be grown year round in capture rainwater to reuse in the garden. We will alsonative plants and trees is also fundamental as they Dunedin. This is something that would be promoted install a ‘drip line’ irrigation system and use an 100mmneed little maintenance as they easily adapt to their to the city council as a more sustainable tree planting layer of mulch as ground cover instead of a weed mattenvironment. Trees such as Kowhai, Cabbage and scheme than its current aesthetically driven planting’s. to reduce the use of plastic.Pohutakawa would be ideal as a basis for providing NORTH DUNEDIN
  48. 48. FUTURE CONSTRUCTION45The sustainability of buildings is dependant on Building new structures provides us with an opportunity Hebelits ability to adapt for change of use or ability to to plan environmentally freindly outcomes. One way Hebel is a lightweight autoclaved concrete buildingbe deconstructed optimising re use and recycling of acheiving this is through the use of new energy material. It essentially provides the same functionsof materials. Creating sustainable communities is efficient and sustainable materials. and values of traditional concreteabout creating permanent systems that encouragesustainable behaviours. From the point of view of the property and existing Features of Hebel include increased thermal efficiency building at 1 Duke Street, it is one that demands and moisture management and is non-toxic. It isThe choice of materials has a huge impact on the strength and stability while staying open to the north strong, durable, accurate and versatile. These benefitssustainability of buildings. The challenges faced facing aspect. The sun is an obvious advantage of of Hebel translate into valuable properties for theare that most existing buildings built from energy the property, so I will look at two technologies which building an user. In terms of use, Hebel maintains theinefficient materials and with little thought as to efficiently utilise the natural energy it provides, with physcial and cultural traditions and values of concreteenvironmental impact and long term sustainability. minimal environmental implications. NORTH DUNEDIN NORTH DUNEDIN
  49. 49. 46while providing increased sustainability for the user Electrochromatic Glass/ Smart glass while involving the user in a process of adjusting theirand less environmental impact through lower material Glass is a matrial with inherent valuable function if own environment. Smart glass maintains the intangibleand energy use during manufacture. Sustainability utilised in appropriate ways. Electrochromatic glass is values of glass such as views and connecting interiorextends to the futureproofing of materials. Not only is a technology which allows the amount of light the with exterior.Hebel recyclable but a Hebel home is more affordable glass alllows through to be adjusted. this gives theto run giving it greater value. user a feeling of control over light and heat in their environment. The tint of the glass can be changed when small electrical current. Obviously the electricity required could be offset in through other sustainable technologies such as photovoltaic cells (solar panels). Smart glass increases efficiency in lighting and heating NORTH DUNEDIN
  50. 50. BUILDING MATERIALS: RE-THOUGHT47 Dunedin Standard Break down of building fabric types, surveyed student houses (EVH3 2003) The future usage of materials in Dunedin buildings Walls Windows needs serious attention to assess health concerns, Timber frame, weatherboard exterior 49% Single glazed, wooden frame 77% sustainability and affordability, particularly in residential Timber frame, brick exterior 22% Single glazed, aluminium frame 15% housing. A recent research project undertaken by Timber frame, plaster exterior 11% Single glazed, plastic frame 1% University of Otago Energy Studies students, EVH3 – Concrete block or tilt slab 7% No data 7% Impact of Housing on Health in Dunedin NZ, details Mixed types 2% the age of and common building materials used in No data 9% Insulation existing Dunedin houses. Focusing on the student No insulation 68% housing sector, a study of 91 student houses showed Floor Roof insulation 7% that an overwhelming number were built prior to Suspended 59% Roof and wall insulation 5% 1910 and constructed of non insulated weatherboard Concrete slab 32% No data 20% on timber frame. In a temperate climate like Dunedin, Mixed types 1% with high summer temperatures and very low winter temperatures, this type of pre-1910 Victorian style No data 8% Roof villa lacking, in some cases, any insulation at all is Corrugated iron 58% unacceptable. Tiled 10% No data 32% NORTH DUNEDIN
  51. 51. 48Building the Future Construction Pure PracticalityA highly versatile building material being used Generally speaking a prefabricated concrete panel used The benefits of a “prefab panel” building over the agingthroughout the world today is the prefabricated for a residential buildings wall, consists of ~125mm Victorian style house are numerous. The installtionconcrete panel. It is used mostly in floors, walls and thick concrete either side of a polysterene core ~50mm process is not difficult but does require the use ofin some cases, like office buildings, interior ceilings. thick. The wall panels range in size depending on the a crane to position the panels. Keys on the bottomMore and more it is being used to construct modern manufacturer but are often made to fit the height of edge fit into holes in solid concrete foundations andenergy efficient passive houses, due to its insulating a one story and 2-3m in length. then steel plates in the corners are welded and andproperties and relative ease of installation. insulated to prevent thermal bridging. Thin concrete panels can be used as the ceiling/roof, but often a traditional insulated timber framed roof is used. The concrete acts as a thermal mass, moderating indoor temperatures by storing and/or releasing energy, usually received from solar radiation. This keeps the interior cool when it is warm outside and warms the interior with stored solar engery when it is a cool night outside. By reducing active heating and cooling, the passive home saves the occupant on energy bills and eliminates pollution associated with energy generation. This type of construction would compliment the existing form of the Duke Street residence and greatly improve the value and efficiency of operation. NORTH DUNEDIN
  52. 52. 49 NORTH DUNEDIN
  54. 54. CONTROLLING YOUR ENVIRONMENT51 In the Context of the SiteProductive-mode systems - These systems produce The proposed site has potential for a lot of glazing and building on the thermal mass alreadyenergy from the immediate surroundings - e.g. Wind improvement in many areas, including insulation, heat present, as well as active measures like ventilationturbines, hydroelectric generators. management, natural lighting solutions, moisture and moisture control systems and a small amount of control, and airflow - all of the factors that define a heating. There is also potential for photovoltaic solarComposite-mode systems - This is a combination living environment. In terms of this, and in the context energy generation due to the positioning of the houseof all of the other systems involving strategies for of Dunedin’s climate, a Composite-mode system is the for productive-mode systemization. Composite-modeall eventualities. Seasonal differences are taken into most appropriate. This would mean improvements systems take the best of everything to form a superioraccount and catered for. through passive means such as super-insulation, triple environmental control system. NORTH DUNEDIN
  55. 55. 1 52 MIXED PASSIVE COMPOSITE FULL/ACTIVE PRODUCTIVEEnvironmental Control SystemsThe living environment in any dwelling is as important There are 5 main systems or “modes” for controlling Mixed-mode systems - these systems accentuateas the dwelling itself. If a building designed to be lived a living environment, as described in “Ecodesign: A the positive aspects and energy sources of the site andin isn’t habitable then it is useless. The factors that Manual for Ecodesign” by Ken Yeang. These are as the passive-mode measures in place.dictate this living environment are: heating, cooling, follows:lighting, shading, moisture and airflow. There are many Full-mode systems - These systems are fully active,ways of controlling these factors, and many systems Passive-mode systems - these are systems involving in that all energy is produced electromechanically. Tothat integrate these controls to create a comfortable, non-active measures such as sun orientation and be environmentally friendly these systems should havehealthy, safe living environment for the occupants. super-insulation. No non-renewable energy is used. low energy consumption and low impact. NORTH DUNEDIN
  56. 56. OWNERSHIP53 From left to right: The Dunedin City Council, collaboration of arms, Dunedin students who largely make up the North Dunedin Community. Council Initiative Promoting the Duke Street site as a sustainable The DCC would be required to purchase the property, allowing the accumulated rent to accrue into shares community link will give the Dunedin City Council fund the alterations required to the building and help of ownership. This would give the tenants a sense of (DCC) an excellent opportunity to internationally with the acquiring of facilities such as an internet station, belonging and purpose to successfully maintain the promote the city as ‘forward thinking’, as well as film projector and a free barbeque like those found site as a valuable community resource. Where possible encouraging the rest of the Dunedin populous to set in the Woodhaugh Gardens. This capital investment community fund-raisers, events and donations would up similar links around the city. These forms of council would be paid off by the residents of the property. help with maintenance and expenses. initiatives would help to reform public faith after the The council would provide an incentive to stay and controversial stadium developments of 2008/09. maintain the property for sustained periods of time by NORTH DUNEDIN NORTH DUNEDIN
  57. 57. 54 Tourism Fig 1. Diagram of Ownership connections. Kn ow $) International l( le ta dg pi e Ex Ca pe rie nc e Management Rent City guides ce an en nt ai m & ts en Ev Events and gatherings Community ResidentsManagement Community AccessThe management of the site would largely be a Access to the site would be available 24/7 with an This will however require the residents to makecollaboration between the council and the residents ‘open door’ policy to the outdoor areas as well as the some decisions regarding disrespectful members ofof the property. The council would be called upon to communal kitchen and lounge areas. The residents the community. This is something which must besetup a community web-site with details of events, of the property would be well insulated from any considered when taking into account the studentfacilities and working bees. The actual events would noises with their sound proofed bedrooms and locked drinking culture. While it is ‘open door’ the residentsbe managed by the residents and the community. bedroom doors. It is necessary to have a 24/7 policy for will have the final say if troublesome members of the safety purposes for people walking at night through community are welcome at the Duke’s Link. the Woodhaugh area. NORTH DUNEDIN
  58. 58. FOODS55 One of the largest contributors to a personal maintained green house. It requires a little carbon foot print can be consuming imported time and effort by the owner, however if food. It occurs especially in New Zealand properly managed equates to less than the and although the country produces a large cost of purchasing these products from quantity of high quality foods, it is mostly the supermarket. Treated waste from the exported. The food products available to the plumping and left over food scraps can be public tend to be imported and often of lower turned into compost, further reducing the quality than those which are locally produced. individuals general waste production. Local products are available in Dunedin A variety of foods can be grown inside your at events such as the Farmers Market on house from wheat grass and spices in a Saturday mornings. However even these window sill to an avocado or tomato tree in products have relatively high food miles due a bucket in a semi lit area. Almost all types to individuals traveling large distances to the are food can grow outside, however weather markets from their homes throughout the city. and seasons will reduce their efficiency. A greenhouse can sustain practically any type If the market was spread out across Dunedin, of food all year round. A combination of located in every suburb, people would be these three, along with a rainwater collection By spreading the market into several smaller markets in the more willing to visit them, farmers would sell system to reduce the cost of water, can suburbs of Dunedin, products reach more people and reduce the more stock and the community in general supply the owner with sufficient sources of food miles of the product. would travel a smaller distance to them, even fruit and vegetables all year round. If properly walk. managed the owner my not require to purchase any fruit or vegetables at all. Fruits, vegetables, nuts, sprouts and even eggs can easily be grown in any persons own home, garden or all year round in a NORTH DUNEDIN
  59. 59. 56 NORTH DUNEDIN an hc hic ide s w n ins od fo ow gr be se ou ll nh na ee w gr ro n a be g di un an ro hc ar hic ye sw od fo l al n ow use gr be ho n n ca ee ch gr hi a in s w nd od rou fo ar ye e sid ut no an ow ich c gr h be sw od fo
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