Public research and innovation:
Opportunities and challenges
Alan B. Bennett, Ph.D.
Executive Director, Public Intellectua...
University research represents a $50B investment –
mostly from the government,
but does it lead to innovation
and economic...
How are U.S. universities using this
research base to support innovation
and economic development?
  Bayh-
  Bayh-Dole Act...
Licensing activity and royalty revenues indicate that
university innovation accounts for >$20B in economic activity

And c...
University innovation and technology transfer can:

Strengthen institutional research capacity

Provide “real world” resea...
UC Davis – from its roots
A comprehensive university campus

    College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

               College of Biolo...
Research Funding 1996-2006

              in millions

 FY 1996-97     $183.6
                            $600
 FY 1997-98...
Deliberate and strategic IP management to
identify best innovative path
Founded 2004




     Technology Transfer Services...
Three strategies – a lo mismo tiempo



           Infrastructure to support technology
           transfer and industry c...
leadership counts
“California's economic rise is closely tied to the rise of its research universities. New
industries hav...
Campus “Events” – 15 to 20 per year

Info Sessions Monthly panel discussions focused on topics of interest to entrepreneur...
High profile examples of success and campus recognition
– i.e. Entrepreneur of the year

                UNIAX -    Founde...
Supporting faculty entrepreneurs
Faculty Roadmap for a
Start-up Company




               http://www.innovationaccess.ucd...
Supporting student entrepreneurs
Three strategies



           Infrastructure to support technology
           transfer and industry collaborations


    ...
Infrastructure to support technology
transfer and industry collaborations

                What skills are needed?

      ...
Associate Vice
                                                                          Chancellor
                      ...
An infrastructure for technology management




            www.iphandbook.org
Three strategies



           Infrastructure to support technology
           transfer and industry collaborations


    ...
Created a culture supporting innovation in the
university, in the faculty and graduate students
Infrastructure to manage existing intellectual
property assets (technology transfer office)
Developed networks with business development
resources – legal, investment and entrepreneurship
Infrastructure to support technology
         transfer and industry collaborations


                 Strong research base...
research diversity driving innovation
research diversity driving innovation




                             Soluble expoxide
                             hydro...
research diversity driving innovation
The university-based technology cluster
     university-



Intellectual Property can be an important tool to support inno...
Agricultural research – historically a public good…

Subsistence crops for developing countries




                    Sp...
Agricultural research – increasingly a private asset…
And patent claims are appropriating public science…
US 2007/0022495 A1
patent application
1.A transgenic plant having an i...
… which creates IP challenges for public research
and missed opportunities for crop development.

     70 proprietary tech...
IP in Agricultural Research and Innovation

 IP (patents) can be difficult to navigate – especially for
 public sector ins...
PIPRA's founders wanted to created a
                partnership of public institutions
To enable access to agricultural t...
www.pipra.org
abbennett@ucdavis.edu




      PIPRA’s world headquarters at the
        University of California, Davis
Ag-Biotechnology R&D in Latin America and the Caribbean



                                             Private Firms
    ...
Public Research and Innovation
Public Research and Innovation
Public Research and Innovation
Public Research and Innovation
Public Research and Innovation
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Public Research and Innovation

  1. 1. Public research and innovation: Opportunities and challenges Alan B. Bennett, Ph.D. Executive Director, Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture
  2. 2. University research represents a $50B investment – mostly from the government, but does it lead to innovation and economic development?
  3. 3. How are U.S. universities using this research base to support innovation and economic development? Bayh- Bayh-Dole Act >25 years old 1. Created clarity about IP ownership 2. Localized licensing of IP near researcher/inventor 3. Created incentives to build technology transfer infrastructure Focus on intellectual property
  4. 4. Licensing activity and royalty revenues indicate that university innovation accounts for >$20B in economic activity And contribute to a robust engine for future innovation cycles:
  5. 5. University innovation and technology transfer can: Strengthen institutional research capacity Provide “real world” research experiences for students Contribute to regional economic development And contribute to a better world So, what is not to like? And can institutions adopt deliberate strategies to drive innovations from labs to the market?
  6. 6. UC Davis – from its roots
  7. 7. A comprehensive university campus College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences College of Biological Sciences College of Engineering 4 Colleges College of Letters and Science Division of Humanities, Arts and Cultural Studies Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Division of Social Sciences 5 Professional Schools Plus National Primate Center
  8. 8. Research Funding 1996-2006 in millions FY 1996-97 $183.6 $600 FY 1997-98 $195.5 $500 FY 1998-99 $246.3 $400 FY 1999-00 $268.6 $300 FY 2000-01 $298.3 $200 FY 2001-02 $356.9 $100 FY 2002-03 $426.3 $0 FY 2003-04 $420.7 FY 2004-05 $505.3 FY 2005-06 $544.0
  9. 9. Deliberate and strategic IP management to identify best innovative path Founded 2004 Technology Transfer Services Business Development Services (lawyers and scientists) (MBAs and entrepreneurs)
  10. 10. Three strategies – a lo mismo tiempo Infrastructure to support technology transfer and industry collaborations Strong research base Networks with Culture supporting business development innovation in the resources – legal, investment university and faculty
  11. 11. leadership counts “California's economic rise is closely tied to the rise of its research universities. New industries have been invented, new products have been developed and new medical techniques have been invented to both save lives and enhance their quality.” President Atkinson “Our mission is education, research, and public service. Technology transfer is a vehicle that helps us do all three. It boosts research support. It creates internships and educational opportunities for our students. It stimulates the regional economy. And hopefully, it benefits society.” Chancellor Dynes
  12. 12. Campus “Events” – 15 to 20 per year Info Sessions Monthly panel discussions focused on topics of interest to entrepreneurs Biz 4 Academics Briefings on business topics relevant to entrepreneurs - created a peer-oriented environment for faculty Office Hours One-on-one mentoring sessions on specific topics. Springboard Mentoring Mentoring program where a company would be matched with a mentor to provide guidance. Little Bang Annual poster competition with a specific focus on encouraging graduate students in the sciences and engineering to form teams with MBAs. Entrepefest Annual invitation-only networking event to bridge academia, industry, and the investor communities. Attendance between 125 and 400. Life Science Summits Major one-day sector-focused conferences . SBIR Seminars One-day seminars focused on writing successful SBIR grant applications. Monthly newsletter
  13. 13. High profile examples of success and campus recognition – i.e. Entrepreneur of the year UNIAX - Founded 1993 DuPont acquisition, Oct. 2000, Conducting polymers 2000: Uniax founder, Alan Heeger, shares Nobel Prize
  14. 14. Supporting faculty entrepreneurs Faculty Roadmap for a Start-up Company http://www.innovationaccess.ucdavis.edu/home.cfm?id=OVC,23,1728,1718,1276
  15. 15. Supporting student entrepreneurs
  16. 16. Three strategies Infrastructure to support technology transfer and industry collaborations Strong research base Networks with Culture supporting business development innovation in the resources – legal, investment university and faculty
  17. 17. Infrastructure to support technology transfer and industry collaborations What skills are needed? Invention Disclosure - ROI Technical/scientific Patent Evaluation and Filing Legal Market Evaluation Business Legal/Business Entrepreneurial License to Existing Company License to Start-up Company
  18. 18. Associate Vice Chancellor Alan Bennett Executive Director UC Davis InnovationAccess David McGee Associate Director Associate Director Director Director Associate Director Technology Transfer Technology Transfer Business Officer Business Development Industry Research Technology Transfer Services Services (Open Position) & Entrepreneurship Alliances Material Transf & IP Serv. Basic Sci. & IP Serv. Life Sci. & IP Services Meg Arnold Mona Ellerbrock Rafael Gacel Clint Neagley Barbara Boczar (20%) Manager Manager Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Project Manager Business Development Business Development Officer Officer Analyst Rebeca Madrigal Strategy Tod Stoltz Andrei Chakhovskoi Luanna Putney Linda Dixon Sajeel Malani Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Marketing Assistant Officer Analyst Analyst Jasmine A. Bonoan Nancy Rashid Stacey Finney Pakou Vang Intellectual Property Interim Program Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Officer Coordinator Officer Assistant Copyright Thomas Spahr Raj Gururajan Gina Melville Jan Dwyer Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Analyst Officer Denise Meade Randi Jenkins Intellectual Property Analyst Sharron Thompson
  19. 19. An infrastructure for technology management www.iphandbook.org
  20. 20. Three strategies Infrastructure to support technology transfer and industry collaborations Strong research base Networks with Culture supporting business development innovation in the resources – legal, investment university and faculty
  21. 21. Created a culture supporting innovation in the university, in the faculty and graduate students
  22. 22. Infrastructure to manage existing intellectual property assets (technology transfer office)
  23. 23. Developed networks with business development resources – legal, investment and entrepreneurship
  24. 24. Infrastructure to support technology transfer and industry collaborations Strong research base Networks with Culture supporting business development innovation in the resources – legal, investment university and faculty Preparation leads to surprises and success
  25. 25. research diversity driving innovation
  26. 26. research diversity driving innovation Soluble expoxide hydrolase Patent portfolio Celebrex, Vioxx
  27. 27. research diversity driving innovation
  28. 28. The university-based technology cluster university- Intellectual Property can be an important tool to support innovation AND Universities are important sources of innovation and IP What about agriculture?
  29. 29. Agricultural research – historically a public good… Subsistence crops for developing countries Specialty crops; low value traits; public breeders
  30. 30. Agricultural research – increasingly a private asset…
  31. 31. And patent claims are appropriating public science… US 2007/0022495 A1 patent application 1.A transgenic plant having an improved trait relative to a control plant, wherein: (a) the transgenic plant comprises a recombinant polynucleotide encoding a first polypeptide having a conserved domain at least 65% identical to the conserved domain of a second polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 110, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 131, 135, 139, 143, 147, 151, 155, 159, 163, 167, 171, 175, 179, 183, 187, 191, 195, 199, 203, 207, 211, 215, 219, 223, 227, 231, 235, 239, 243, 247, 251, 255, 259, 263, 267, 271, 275, 280, 284, 288, 292, 296, 299, 303, 306, 309, 313, 317, 321, 325, 329, 333, 337, 341, 345, 349, 353, 357, 361, 365, 369, 373, 377, 381, 385, 389, 393, 397, 401, 404, 406, 409, 413, 416, 419, 422, 425, 428, 431, 435, 439, 443, 447, 451, 454, 458, 462, 465, 468, 471, 475, 478, 482, 485, 489, 493, 497, 501, 505, 509, 512, 515, 519, 522, 526, 530, 534, 538, 542, 546, 550, 553, 557, 561, 565, 568, 571, 574, 577, 581, 585, 588, 591, 594, 597, 601, 605, 609, 613, 616, 620, 624, 628, 632, 636, 640, 644, 648, 652, 656, 660, 664, 667, 671, 674, 678, 682, 686, 689, 692, 696, 700, 704, 708, 712, 715, 719, 723, 727, 731, 734, 738, 741, 745, 749, 752, 756, 760, 762, 766, 770, 774, 778, 782, 786, 789, 793, 797, 801, 805, 809, 813, 816, 819, 823, 827, 831, 835, 839, 843, 847, 851, 855, 859, 863, 867, 871, 874, 878, 882, 886, 890, 894, 898, 901, 905, 909, 913, 917, 921, 925, 929, 933, 937, 941, 945, 949, 953, 957, 960, 963, 966, 970, 973, 976, 980, 984, 988, 992, 995, 999, 1003, 1007, 1011, 1015, 1019, 1023, 1027, 1031, 1037, 1041, 1045, 1049, 1052, 1056, 1060, 1064, 1067, 1071, 1075, 1078, 1081, 1085, 1089, 1093, 1097, 1101, 1104, 1108, 1112, 1116, 1120, 1123, 1126, 1130, 1134, 1138, 1142, 1145, 1148, 1151, 1154, 1157, 1161, 1165, 1169, 1173, 1177, 1181, 1185, 1188, 1192, 1195, 1199, 1203, 1207, 1211, 1215, 1219, 1222, 1226, 1229, 1233, 1236, 1240, 1243, 1247, 1251, 1254, 1258, 1262, 1266, 1269, 1273, 1277, 1281, 1285, 1289, 1293, 1297, 1300, 1304, 1308, 1311, 1314, 1318, 1322, 1326, 1330, 1334, 1338, 1342, 1346, 1350, 1354, 1358, 1361, 1365, 1369, 1372, 1376, 1380, 1384, 1388, 1392, 1396, 1400, 1404, 1408, 1411, 1415, 1419, 1423, 1427, 1431, 1435, 1439, 1443, 1446, 1449, 1452, 1455, 1459, 1463, 1467, 1470, 1474, 1477, 1481, 1488, 1492, 1495, 1499, 1503, 1507, 1511, 1515, 1519, 1522, 1526, 1530, 1533, 1537, 1541, 1545, 1549, 1553, 1557, 1561, 1565, 1568, 1572, 1576, 1579, 1583, 1586, 1589, 1593, 1596, 1598, 1602, 1604, 1608, 1611, 1614, 1617, 1620, 1624, 1628, 1632, 1636, 1640, 1645, 1648, 1652, 1656, 1660, 1664, 1668, 1672, 1676, 1680, 1684, 1688, 1692, 1696, 1700, 1704, 1707, 1711, 1715, 1719, 1722, 1726, 1729, 1733, 1737, 1741, 1745, 1749, 1753, 1757, 1761, 1765, 1769, 1773, 1777, 1781, 1785, 1789, 1793, 1796, 1800, 1803, 1806, 1809, 1812, 1816, 1820, 1824, 1827, 1831, 1835, 1838, 1841, 1844, 1846, 1850, 1853, 1857, 1861, 1865, 1869, 1873, 1877, 1881, 1885, 1889, 1893, 1897, 1901, 1904, 1908, 1912, 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1935, 1939, 1943, 1949, 1957, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998; and 1999-2007; (b) the improved trait is selected from the group consisting of larger size, larger seeds, greater yield, darker green color, increased rate of photosynthesis, more tolerance to osmotic stress, more drought tolerance, more heat tolerance, more salt tolerance, more cold tolerance, more tolerance to low nitrogen, early flowering, delayed flowering, more resistance to disease, more seed protein, and more seed oil relative to the control plant.
  32. 32. … which creates IP challenges for public research and missed opportunities for crop development. 70 proprietary technologies (40 US patents) IP uncertainty High transaction costs Kryder, Kowalsky & Kratigger, 2000
  33. 33. IP in Agricultural Research and Innovation IP (patents) can be difficult to navigate – especially for public sector institutions that don’t have the history, experience or resources. Public-private partnerships require up-front agreements that address intellectual property rights. The first step in a project intended to be commercialized is understanding and addressing the IP dimensions of the project. PIPRA was established as a resource for public researchers and institutions.
  34. 34. PIPRA's founders wanted to created a partnership of public institutions To enable access to agricultural technologies and the underlying IPRs To develop IP strategies that will have the highest impact on the development of new technologies – especially for specialty crops and developing countries To develop high standards of IP management To leverage its broad base of experience for capacity building in developing countries
  35. 35. www.pipra.org abbennett@ucdavis.edu PIPRA’s world headquarters at the University of California, Davis
  36. 36. Ag-Biotechnology R&D in Latin America and the Caribbean Private Firms 22% Public R&D Centers 29% Public An even greater responsibility for the to both public sector Universities 49% initiate and participate in completing the agricultural biotechnology R&D pipeline 78% Latin American R&D Developed in Public Sector * Survey includes Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela Graphs constructed from data from: Trigo, et al. Agricultural Biotechnology and Rural Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Inter-American Development Bank, 2000

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