Reading in Different Ways for Different Purpose Scanning : to find specific information. Skimming : to understand the author’s general idea or ideas. Reading closely : to pay more attention to the details.
Comparing different ways of reading
Pre-reading strategy Identifying the topic : A topic is usually aword or short phrase describing the general subject of the reading. A topic answers the question: “ What is this reading about?” Eg: Title of reading 2: “Basic advertising techniques”
Pre-reading strategy Using your general knowledge : to connect the ideas in the reading to what you already know about the topic of the reading Eg: history – dates, start at the earliest time => move to more recent time History Ah , dates, time order
Pre-reading strategy Using information about Where a reading is from: Where did the reading come from? Who did write it? Where is a reading from?
Pre-reading strategy Using subtitles to find specific information: Eg: Reading 3 on page 29
Reading strategy Understanding the Use of Examples Identifying the Organization of a Reading Identifying the Author’s Main Idea Identifying Important Ideas in the Reading
Reading strategy Understanding the Use of Examples: Specific example is often easier to understand than abstract idea. Eg: Use “Military ad” to show how advertisements were used to gather workers.
Reading strategy Identifying the Organization of a Reading: Some common types of organization are: * Problem-solution * Comparison of two things * Chronological (time) order * Cause & effect Eg: How is reading 1 organized?
Reading strategy Identifying the Author’s Main Idea: Two steps can help you find the main idea of a reading : The main idea is not too general or too specific. Eg : Reading 2: “Basic advertising techniques” (page20) & question (page 24)
Reading strategy Identifying Important Ideas in the Reading Important ideas: support the main idea or offer general statements about one of the aspects of the main ideas. They do not usually give information about specific facts or examples Eg: on page 25 Where are the important ideas?
Vocabulary strategy 1. Using Internal Definitions: Three words and phrases are often used to signal that an internal definition is coming: That is ( … product were being mass-produced, that is, made in large quantities) Or (…advertising has gone through several schools of thought, or philosophies) In other words (…spoken words are often very emotional, we must first translate them. In other word, we do not see words as reality)
Vocabulary strategy Sometimes, an explanation is found between commas or in parentheses. Ex1: The French have a marketing strategy that sums up position: “Cherchez le creneau” (Look for the hole”). Ex2: Early consumer advertising was basically “caveat emptor” (Let the buyer beware). Sometimes, no signal is given. A definition may simply occur later in the sentence that contains the word. Ex: Advertiser in the 1960’s changed to a new approach, solf - sell advertising .Solf - selldepends less on describing the product and more on how the product will make the consumer feel.
Vocabulary strategy 2. Using General Meaning : Even when the text does not give you an exact definition of a word, you can often guess the general meaning of the word Ex: the word “ disturbing” in paragraph 6 (page21) 3. Recognizing Technical Words: Sometimes specialized vocabulary or technical words and phrases are used in quotation marks (“ “). These marks show that the author is using these words in a special way. Eg: “stopping power” in Reading 3
Essential Vocabs Example: A picture of lovely mountain scene may be used in a cigarette advertisement. (Cigarette have no connection to mountains but the advertiser hopes that readers will make an emotional connection between the two.) => The picture of mountain is called “borrowed interest” photo because it seems to connect the product (cigarettes) with the photo (mountain) but is actually unrelated to it. Note: To ad = advertise/advertize, advertising, advertisement, advertiser.
To advertise = to call attention to; Syn: To publicize.
Advertising: the business of drawing public attention to goods and services.
Advertisement: public promotion of some product or service.
Advertising Campaign: an organized program of advertisements.
Advertising Department: the division of a business that is responsible for advertising.
Striking grammar spot
Noun-clause A noun clause is the one which can function as a noun or noun phrase in a complex sentence and which begins with conjunction that (1), an interrogative word (2) or conjunctiontsif/whether (3).
A noun clause can be a subject of a verb:
In these three case, What was being advertised wasn’t products.
A noun clause can be an object of a verb:
Many advertisers believed that the consumer couldn’t think about more than one point at a time
A noun clause can be a subject complement:
One of the first principles that you must understand in advertising is that it is limited in both time and space
A noun clause can be an object of a preposition:
Mary is not responsible for what Billy did.
A noun clause (but not a noun) can be an adjective complement:
Everybody is sad that Billy drowned.
Adverbial clause An adverbial clause is aclausethat functions as an adverb
Adverbial clauses of time
Adverbial clauses of reason
Adverbial clause of place
Adverbial-clause Adverbial clauses of time In this approach, psychology becomes important, since ads aim at people’s emotion rather than their intellect. ( page13) Adverbial clauses of reason I’m better because I’m small ( page 14) Adverbial clauses of place:
Reading 1 : A Very short History Of Advertising The beginning of advertising in the west The first time ad were used in the time of Roman Empire. Two thousand years later, these same types of ads were still being used to promote events such as plays and recruiting for the military. Advertising remained the same until the early 19th century. Ex: Shoes shop advertisement. => In these three cases, what was being advertised wasn’t product. It’s service advertising.
Reading 1 : A Very short History Of Advertising Product Advertising in The United States At the beginning of the 19th century, product advertising began because for the first time products were being mass-produced. Law of advertising was born.
Reading 1 : A Very short History Of Advertising Hard-Sell Advertising : The 1940’s and 50’s was the era of the hard-sell approach in the United States. Ads depended on repetition. Advertisers believed that the consumer couldn’t think about more than one point at a time.
Reading 1 : A Very short History Of Advertising Soft-Sell Advertising : Advertisers in the 1960’s changed to a new approach , soft-sell advertising Soft-sell depends less on describing the product and more how the product make the consumer feel. The idea of positioning.
Reading 2 : Basic Advertising Techniques Advertising is limited in both time and space. It must be get the consumer’s attention, identify the product, and deliver the selling message => In order to do this ad often breaks the rules of grammar, image & even society.
Reading 2 : Basic Advertising Techniques Two kind of mental process: intellectually & emotionally We generally process copy in ads intellectually because both reading and listening are thinking processes. The mind also interprets drawing and paintings intellectually. (drawing and paintings are not the things themselves) We process photographs emotionally.
Reading 2 : Basic Advertising Techniques Two basic ways of presenting a sales message: Intellectual presentation Uses ideas to get consumers to buy a product or service Has a lot of copy, has few illustrations, and not usually appear on TV If they have any illustrations, they will probably drawings or paintings
Reading 2 : Basic Advertising Techniques Two basic ways of presenting a sales message: Emotional presentation The ads focuses on the buyer’s social, psychological or economic needs. Some of the most effective ads today are ones that use an emotional presentation.
Reading 3 : Characteristics Of Good Ads Introduction : “Stopping power” : the combination of characteristics that makes readers stop, notice, and read an advertisement. How are photographs & illustrations used in effective ads? What characteristics and techniques are the most common?
Reading 3 : Characteristics Of Good Ads Methodology: Morgan Advertising Performance Studies are conducted in this way Reader are asked to look at a magazine when they first receive it . Two weeks later , they are asked to look at it again. Researchers then ask them which advertisements they remember from their first reading . Researcher may also ask several other questions about the advertisements articles or editorials in the magazine . The first 100 answers received are used in the study .
Reading 3 : Characteristics Of Good Ads Findings: Photographs and illustrations : Size of illustration Subject of illustration Descriptive Copy : Copy has a lot of “ stopping power” ;but, it’s an essential part of advertising because after reader stop to look at the advertisement , they will read the copy to know the benefits of the product. Headlines : In addition to the photograph or illustration , the headline is also a key element for getting the reader’s attention .
SELF-REFLECTION Advertising in our life
Advertising in our life
The roles of advertising
The influence of advertising in our life
Negative influence Advertising infuences people’s behavior in a negative way How people buy the product Eg: medicine, beauty product How they look at themselves Eg: some girls want to be thin like girls in ads