2THE NATURE OF LEARNER LANGUAGE By. Rod Ellis Oxfort University Press, 2003 Yayuk Fitriani 2201410004 Universitas Negeri Semarang
ERROR AND ANALYSISThere are good reason for focusing on error: They are conspicuous feature of learner language It is usefulfor teacher to know what error learner make. It is possible that making errror may actually help learner to learn when self-correct the errors they make.
IDENTIFYING ERRORIdentify errors we have to compare thesentense learners produce with what seemto be the normal or ‘correect’ sentences inthe target language which correspond withthem.
DISTINGUISH ERRORS AND MISTAKE Errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge; they occur because the learner does not know what is correct. Mistake reflect occasional lapset in performce; they occur because, in a particular instance the learner in unable to perform what he or she knows.
DECRIBING ERRORSThere are several ways of doing this: Classify errors into grammatical categories. Identify general ways in which the learners’ utterences differ from the reconstructed target- language utterence. Omission Misinformation Misordering
Omission leaving out the an item that is required for an utterances to be considered grammatical. Misinformation using one grammatical form in place of another grammatical form. Misordering putting the words in an utterance in the wrong order.
EXPLANING ERRORS Errors are, to a large extent, systematic and, to a certain extent, predictable. Not all errors are universal. Some errors are common only to learner who share the same mother tongue or whose mother tongue manifest the same linguistic property.
ERROR EVALUATION The purpose of the error analysis is to help kearners learn an L2, there is need to evaluate serrors. Some error , know as the global error, violate the overall atructureof a sentence and for this reason may make it difficult.
THE PURPOSE OF THE ERROR ANALYSIS IS TO HELP LEARNERS LEARN AN L2, THERE IS A NEED TO EVALUATE ERRORS.There are 2 kind of errors: Global error Local error
DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS Silent period The early stages of L2 language. Acquisition order learner do begin to learn the grammar of the L2. Sequence of acquisition when learners acquire a grammatical structure they do so gradually, moving trough a series of stages en route to acquiring the native-speaker rule.
SOME IMPLICATIONThe conclusions that reached from the study oflearner errors, L2 acquisition is : Systematic To a large extent Universal Reflecting ways in which internal cognitive mechanism control acquisition Irrespective of the personal background of learners.
VARIABILITY IN LEARNING LANGUAGELearners’ language systematic variableThe variability of learners using in L2: Linguistic context Situational context Psycholinguistic context
At any given stage of development, learnerssometimes employ one form and sometimes another.Example : Yesterday the thief steal the suitcase Yesterday the thief stealing the suitcase
We have already seen evidence ofsystematic variability. Learners’ choice ofpast tense marker (progressive form orcorrect past tense form) depends, in part, onwhether the verb refers to an event, anactivity , or a state.
We have already seen evidence ofsystematic variability. Learners’ choiceof past tense marker (progressive formor correct past tense form) depends, inpart, on whether the verb refers to anevent, an activity , or a state.
Learners also vary the linguistic forms they use inaccordance with the situational context. In thisrespect, learners are no different from nativespeakers, when the native speaker of English aretalking to friends, for example, they tend to speakinformally, using colloquial expression. Incontrast, when they are talking to someone they donot know very well they tend to use formallanguage.