Nanocomputing

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This Slide show is about nano computing,for more info visit www.pioneermagazine.tk

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Nanocomputing

  1. 1. Nanocomputing
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Broad overview of nanotechnology and specifically nanocomputing will be presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Special attention given to a certain important area in nanocomputing. </li></ul><ul><li>After the presentation you should have a good general knowledge of nanotechnology, and nanocomputing. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Flow of Discussion <ul><li>Overview of nanotechnology and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Associated risks and ethical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to nanocomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on quantum dots and cellular automata </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotech at the University of Central Florida </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nanotechnology <ul><li>Can be defined as the development and use of technology on an extremely small scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, any technological creation ranging in size from 0.1 to 100 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>One nanometer is a millionth of a millimeter (a billionth of a meter). </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the use and manipulation of molecules and atoms themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Size places nanotechnology between the worlds of classical and quantum mechanics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Applications of Nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotech can be viewed as being part of an interdisciplinary area. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to it’s nature, nanotech involves the work of scientists in chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, computer science, and numerous related fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to say what nanotechnology is and/or will be a part of; too numerous to mention. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas ranging from computing and medicine, to stain resistant textiles and suntan lotions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nanotech: Science or Sci-Fi? <ul><li>Aside from existing and near-future developments, nanotech has its roots in obscure and near-science-fictional thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Although dominated by business today, revolutionary minds such as Richard Feynman and Eric Drexler (considered the father of nanotech) conceived of ideas that would be considered science-fiction by the average person. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanometer-sized “assemblers” that would build other products and work together. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nanotech: Science or Sci-Fi? <ul><li>Self-replicating machines that would take in feedstock and produce self-replicas, among other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Created the notion of “grey goo” </li></ul><ul><li>Idea that run-away self-replication or mutation could cause an enormous disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the possibility of nanobugs or nanobots used as weapons. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Risks of Nanotechnology <ul><li>As further advancements are made, numerous risks can and likely will arise alongside its benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Far-off possibility of previously-mentioned grey goo catastrophe. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of assemblers and similar nanobots in constructing both conventional and super-weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of previously-inconceivable and undetectable spying. </li></ul><ul><li>Other invasive uses that individuals or the public aren’t aware of. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethical Considerations <ul><li>Nanotechnology raises some very important issues. </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, as more and more nano-based technologies increase, scientists working on them will likely encounter issues that will require sound ethical deliberation and decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>The nanocomputing subfield is no different. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example <ul><li>Say hypothetically that you are assigned to work on a project for some government or private business. </li></ul><ul><li>Your specific job is to help construct a highly-efficient nano-processor that will be integrated into a system used to collect and store massive amounts of personal data of unknowing citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>What would you do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally – be a whistleblower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfishly – don’t risk your job, proceed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luckily, enough professionals in this relatively new field are ethically-aware enough to have some guidelines down (e.g.-self-replicating machines). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nanocomputers <ul><li>Simply defined as computers whose components are small enough to be measured in nanometers, and which are integrated in a highly-dense manner on this same scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Seems likely to be part of the natural progression of computers (transistors, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Transistor expected to reach a minimum size in the future, therefore new techniques or structures will be needed to continue advancements in both speed and storage-size of computers (e.g.-Moore’s Law). </li></ul><ul><li>The field which will bring about quantum and molecular computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum computing: Solving a 64-bit encryption key today, about 2 64 operations (292.5 years) versus 64-qbit quantum computer taking one operation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Semiconductors <ul><li>Semiconductor->Transistors->Integrated Circuit </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transistor <ul><li>Acts as a switch, or an amplifier of signals </li></ul><ul><li>Collector, Base, Emitter </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quantum Dots <ul><li>Highly promising outlook in nanocomputing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Artificial atom,” allows an electron to be contained inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Operates on “wireless” principle, versus other directions taken in nanocomputing. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses electrical fields, or the natural repulsion of electrons to transmit signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Component making up... </li></ul>
  15. 15. Quantum Cellular Automata <ul><li>Cells composed of quantum dots, arranged next to each other on a semiconductor material. </li></ul><ul><li>A cell receives two electrons (that can’t escape) when created. </li></ul><ul><li>A signal is propagated down the line by a cell influencing its neighbor (or neighbors). </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial, as it works on an extremely small scale (allowing dense components), and uses very little power. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example – Basic Propagation quantum dot electron cell
  17. 17. Example – Majority Gate
  18. 18. Example – Common Logical Gates AND OR X Y X Y X AND Y X OR Y
  19. 19. Nanotech at UCF <ul><li>Nanoscience Technology Center </li></ul><ul><li>Located at Research Pavillion </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of dollars in funding </li></ul><ul><li>Working with numerous organizations and industries </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace, Physics, Biomolecular Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Nanotechnology is a relatively new field tying together numerous disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Has some sci-fi aspects that need to be explained to the general public, to gain more acceptance as time progresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanocomputing is a promising field and is the likely direction computers will be headed. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotech is popping up in academic institutions all around the world. </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>McCarthy, Wil. Hacking Matter . New York: Basic Books, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Montemerlo, Michael S., J. Christopher Love, and James C. Ellenbogen. Overview of Electronic Nanocomputers . MITRE Nanosystems Group. 17 Feb. 2005. <http://www.mitre.org/tech/nanotech/nano_elect_ovw.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Murch, Richard. Nanocomputing: When Will It Happen? InformIT.com. 10 Dec. 2004. 17 Feb. 2005. <http://www.informit.com/articles/article.asp?p=354352>. </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix, Chris, and Eric Drexler. Safe exponential manufacturing . Nanotechnology, 15(8): 869-872, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Shukla, Sandeep K., and R. Iris Bahar(edited). Nano, Quantum and Molecular Computing . Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Walus, Konrad. QCADesigner – Basic QCA Tutorial . 4 Apr. 2004. 18 Feb. 2005. <http://www.qcadesigner.ca/tutorials/QCATutorial.html>. </li></ul>

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