Four Confucian classes: sholars ( si ), peasants ( nong ), artisans ( cong ), and merchants (thuong ) .
Basic administrative and social unit – the village.
Appearance of three main cities: Hue (preeminent administrative city, where the Emperor resided), Ha Noi (strategically well positioned, capital until now), and Sai Gon (prominent for commercial reasons).
Typical painting hasn’t developed in pre-colonial Vietnam, so it’s part was taken by wood-block printing;
The themes were immutable but varied from familiar rural surroundings as well as from mythological and historical sources, but all carried a symbolism meant to convey wishes; to impart moral lessons; or to satirize.
Depending on its function can be divided in three categories: religious (pagodas , communal houses and deified national-hero temples), military (citadels), and civilian (imperial palaces, habitations of peasants and mandarins, infrastructure, etc.);
Geomancy dictated the choice of the site and the orientation of the building
Rice has long been the staple of Viet cuisine (the verb “to eat” in Vietnamese is anc com – literately, “to eat rice”) and is eaten steamed; its flour is used to make noodles, rice paper, etc.; rice was fermented into fish paste; and finally distilled to make a variety of alcoholic drinks.
Most important fruits: bananas, oranges, grapefruits, lemons, mangoes, papayas, jackfruit, durian, and pineapples.
Most widely used vegetables and legumes: soy, convolves, potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, shallots, garlic, and ginger.