MICRO-CLIMATESTUTTGART-A CASE STUDYPintu SainiBP/552/2011
Stuttgart-a case study• Stuttgart is the capital of the GermanLand of Baden-Würtemburg and hasa population of approximately 600,000. The city islocated in the centre of an industrialRegion.• The citys location has a significantinfluence on its local climate withvariables including radiation, temperature, humidity,precipitation and wind affected.• Development on the valley slopes have made thesituation worse by preventing air from moving throughthe city, which contributes to the urban heat islandeffect.
A topographical map of Stuttgart highlights the city’s valley setting.Source: Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart
• Stuttgart has a mild, temperate climate with warmsummers that are moderate enough to allow wineproduction on valley slopes.• The mean summer temperature is 18ºC, mean wintertemperature -1ºC.• Wind speeds are generally low, which along with theurban heat island effect, contributes to poor air quality.• Stuttgart’s climate is mostly affected by altitude; theurban core can have winters with no snow, while thesurrounding hills can have up to 54 days of coverage.Stuttgart-a case study
• Stuttgart has been planned to exploit the role of naturalwind patterns and dense vegetation in reducing problemsof overheating and air pollution.• A Climate Atlas was developed for the region, presentingthe distribution of temperature and cold air flowsaccording to the city’s topography and land use.• Based on this, a number of planning and zoningregulations are recommended which aim to preserveopen space and increase the presence of vegetation indensely built-up areas.Stuttgart-a case study
The primary objective of the planning recommendations informedby the Climate Atlas 2008 for the region of Stuttgart is• To facilitate air exchange in the city• Enhance cool air flow from the hills towards the urban areas onthe valley floor.• This is to be achieved by specific measures aimed at themaintenance and enhancement of open spaces and provisionof vegetation.• The measures are targeted at locations that have an importantrole in air movement and air exchange across Stuttgart.• In general, no development is allowed that would obstruct air-flow in key strategic areas,• Felling of trees over a certain size is banned, and green roofs,green facades and other solutions are promoted in denselydeveloped areas.Stuttgart-a case study
• A key element of the Atlas is an area classification based onthe role that different locations play in air exchange andcool air flow in the Stuttgart region.• This is defined topography, development density andcharacter, and provisionof green space.• Eight categories of areasin this manner, and foreach of them differentplanning measures andrecommendations areprovided.Stuttgart-a case study
Planning Recommendation Map for the Region of Stuttgart.Source: Verband Region Stuttgart (Klimaatlas Region Stuttgart, Ed.: Verband RegionStuttgart 2008)
The following principles form the basis for the planningrecommendations :• Areas of vegetation have an important effect on the local climate,due to cooling and shading. Therefore, vegetation should beprovided to surround developments and larger, connected greenspaces should be created or maintained throughout developed areasto facilitate the air exchange.• Valleys serve as air delivery corridors and should not be developed.• Hillsides, and gullies and ridges on hillsides, should remainundeveloped, especially when development exists in valleys, sinceintensive cold- and fresh-air transport occurs here.• Urban sprawl is to be avoided.• The development of commercial and industrial enterprises shouldensure that the residential areas in the immediate vicinity do notsuffer from heightened emissions of air pollutants.Stuttgart-a case study
• In Stuttgart, over 39 per cent of Stuttgart’s surface area has beenput under the protection of nature conservation orders; a record inthe whole of Germany.• As a result of greening actions, greenery covers more than 60percent of the city.• Stuttgart contains 5,000 hectares of forests and woodland, 65,000trees in parks andopen spaces and35,000 street trees.Stuttgart-a case study
• 300,000 m2 of rooftops have been greened and 32 out of 245kilometres of tram tracks have been grassed.• In line with the city development vision, 60 hectares of greenfieldland previously earmarked for development has been cut from the2010 land development plan to protect existing green space.Stuttgart-a case studyGreen roofs are a keycomponent for mitigationof the urban heat islandeffect in city centres.