Model by Taba – inclusion of selection and organization of
learning experiences as an important step in the
curriculum development in achieving a wider range of
objectives besides those of knowledge and
Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) – consider curriculum
experiences as the instructional component of the
curriculum which indicates the interaction between
teacher, learner and instructional materials for achieving
the goals of the school.
Argumentation between the content and experiences
when combined constitute the whole learning package.
Learning takes place through experiencing content
mediated by social processes.
a learner experiences the content of the book while
understanding is facilitated by discussing the content of
what has been read with others
vicarious experiences of different learners will vary
depending on past experiences, beliefs, interests and
There will always be a variation in the knowledge and understanding of
objects, people and events as well as their relationships even while
reading the same book.
• Teaching methods as
lecture, discussion, demonstration, laboratory work, etc. are
planned by the teachers to bring about the type of learning
intended by the lesson.
• Educational activities such as film viewing, going on field
trips, discussing animals in the laboratory, etc. are planned to
provide learning experiences needed to achieve the goals of
Considers the major interconnected elements:
• Throughputs (process)
that comprise the educational system (Fig. 1). This basic
system is a technical framework used in the field of engineering
which is influenced by the systems theory, systems analysis,
systems engineering and cybernetics.
Curricula prepared under this orientation describe :
the interaction of human resources (curriculum specialists,
trainers, teachers, students, administrators, consultants),
physical resources (instructional materials, equipment, plant
facilities, audio-visual aids) ,
as well as financial resources (funds needed for planning, training
prior to implementation, actual and evaluation of the curriculum)
with the throughput or process (curriculum and instruction) to
produce the desired outputs.
The systems-managerial approach emphasizes the managerial/leadership and
supervisory aspects of curriculum in the implementation and organization
processes. The school leader has to be competent in performing the following
self-explanatory functions to ensure the successful implementation of the
• Motivate interest of all stakeholders.
• Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders.
• Arbitrate conflicting interests of various groups.
• Synthesize divergent viewpoints.
• Identify common vision and goals.
• Encourage unity of purpose.
• Translate abstract ideas into concrete ones.
• Clarify vague ideas.
• Organize and implement in-service programs.
• Communicate timely and accurate information to all
• Procure needed materials.
• Monitor curriculum implementation.
• Organize and implement a mechanism for periodic evaluation.
• Create a climate of innovation and change.
Under the systems-managerial view, curriculum development acquires
more comprehensive and more dynamic meaning , may be viewed as
a never-ending process which requires incremental or even major
changes in some elements of the system that guarantees the quality of
the inputs, the processes and the outputs. The improvement is
accomplished through the effective and efficient interaction between
the inputs and the processes of the system which is the function of
Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) grouped the innovations focused on
organizations under five categories:
2.) Instructional media
3.) Instructional groups
The feedbacks indicate whether the quality of inputs and processes
as well as their interaction produces the desired quality of results
which becomes the basis for change and innovation which the
society expects the school admin to initiate and pursue on a
This model emphasizes the role of administrators and supervisors in
ensuring the effective and efficient operation of the school system.
Curriculum is the major system and the other processes related to it
such as supervision (motivation, leadership styles, communication and
decision- making) , instruction and evaluation are subsystems.
The planning, programming, budgeting system (PPBS) developed by
Rand Corporation may be applied in education where the main
system considered is the curriculum.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – another
engineering and business planning practice described by Ornstein and
Hunkins developed by the US Department of Justice. The progress and
delays in the program implementation are determined quantitatively ,
computed and analysed with regular and continuous updating of the
progress reports which reflects changes in schedule, problems in the
implementation and achievement rates vis-à-vis the performance
targets.An important aspect of the entire process is the evaluation of
the effectiveness of the system which provides the basis for the
subsequent improvement in the operation.
• Beauchamp’s (1975) curriculum development model identifies 5
critical decision-making areas. The following are the crucial stages for
planning which correspond to the curriculum development approach
1.) Determining the setting for curriculum engineering: country,
2.) Selecting key players and their involvement in the planning
process: curriculum specialists, teachers, administrators, students, lay
citizens and non-teaching staff
3.) Establishing procedures in developing the curriculum design
4.) Determining implementation procedures
5.) Evaluating the curriculum which involves four dimensions:
evaluation of teacher’s use of the curriculum; evaluation of the student
outcomes; evaluation of the curriculum design; evaluation of the
The development of the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC)
under the SEDP is shown in Fig.2. The critical phases are :
All components of the different phases require competent leaders and
skillful managers who will orchestrate the efficient utilization of all
human and material resource inputs. The SEDP came about to continue
the program started by PRODED (Gonzales, 1989).
The findings (1989) revealed poor student performance in high school
science, mathematics and communication arts, ineffective teaching,
inadequate facilities and instructional materials contributing to
unsatisfactory academic performance and poor internal efficiency of
the secondary education system.
. These conditions were brought about by confusion on the orientation
of the curriculum, poor teacher preparation, teachers overloaded with
teaching and other functions, neglect by classroom supervisors, low
salaries of teachers, lack of minimum standards for the curriculum
requirements, and the language of instruction among others.
Solving the problem in Secondary Education
• Revision of the Revised Secondary Education Program (RSEP)
in 1984 implemented with a package of curriculum support. Issued
- Was secondary education intended to prepare the students
for college work?
- Was it a training ground for specific vocations or for gainful
employment requiring the development of specific skills?
- Was the aim of secondary education to generate
knowledge or the transmission of basic knowledge and skills?
The participants came to the following agreements about
secondary education which became the basis of NSEC as shown in
1.) Secondary education should fulfil the requirements for entry
to college and/or field of work
2.) Secondary education should provide progression in the
development of the individual through more advanced learning
experiences than those in the elementary curriculum
3.) Human character has to be strengthened to enable the
individual to cope with the changes/pressures in the
4.) Secondary schools should provide leadership in the total
development of the individual
5.) The goal of secondary education is excellence
6.) Secondary education should provide the kind of
leadership the country needs.
7.) Secondary students need guidance in the exercise of
8.) Secondary education should encourage students to
initiate development in their own communities in order to
reduce migration to the cities creating imbalances in population
The development of SEDP involved planning and writing workshops with
multi-sectoral representations, secondary education professionals,
educational researchers from the Bureau of Secondary Education of
DECS, subject supervisors, subject department heads, teachers, subject
specialists from the universities and curriculum development centers
and other resource persons. The participants prepared the guidelines
for the nationwide curriculum try out the next school year (1985-1986).
The team developed the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC),
which became the basis for the development of instructional materials
for use by the students (textbooks) and teachers (teacher’s manual).
Teachers from selected private and public secondary schools trained
under specialists to use the materials developed for the 1st year.
The feedback obtained from the pilot testing of the textbooks and the
teacher’s manual provided an important input in the finalization of the
instructional materials. The instructional materials for the succeeding
year levels (2,3,4) were developed in the following years.
The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC), which was an output
of the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) was
implemented on staggered basis beginning with the 1st year curriculum
in school year 1989-1990.
In 1991, nationwide monitoring was conducted to determine the extent
of the initial implementation of the NSEC intended to determine
appropriateness of sequencing, unit credit, time allotment, medium of
instruction, textbooks, activities, teacher’s load, teacher training,
grading system and intervention mechanisms and the problems
encountered by the students, teachers, principals, and supervisors.
This initial monitoring scheme pointed to:
a.) The need for a more intensive information dissemination about
the new curriculum
b.) Follow-up monitoring on the identified weaknesses,
c.) Availability and use of equipment
The development of the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) involved the
same process as that for PRODED and SEDP. The DepEd organized
planning and writing workshops with multi-sectoral representations,
basic education professionals, experts from the various colleges of
education across the country, educational researchers, subject
supervisors, subject department heads, and other resource persons.
Since BEC is only restructuring, the curriculum is still based on the
Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC) with greater emphasis on
lifelong learning through meaningful learning (constructivism) and the
integration of values in all areas. This emphasis is shown in the
restructured basic education curriculum framework in Fig. 4.
• Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in
• This model is influenced by the philosophical and intellectual
works of Dewey (1916), Morrison (1926) and Bode (1927)
• Became popular in 30’s and 50’s (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1988)
• Attempts to analyse and synthesize historical development,
cultural demands and philosophical ideas including issues and
• Curriculum boundaries expand to traditional aspects of
teaching-learning, evaluation, structure of disciplines, guidance,
study of education and administrative procedures.
• After the 50’s it lost its appeal to curricularists when the major
interest shifted to structure of disciplines and qualitative methods.
Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) argue that because of the cognitive
demands of the approach, it often overwhelms new students who
are lack of background information , philosophical and theoretical
insights on the subject.