Learning experiences


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The Philippines Experience

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Learning experiences

  1. 1.  Model by Taba – inclusion of selection and organization of learning experiences as an important step in the curriculum development in achieving a wider range of objectives besides those of knowledge and understanding.  Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) – consider curriculum experiences as the instructional component of the curriculum which indicates the interaction between teacher, learner and instructional materials for achieving the goals of the school.  Argumentation between the content and experiences when combined constitute the whole learning package. Learning takes place through experiencing content mediated by social processes.
  2. 2.  a learner experiences the content of the book while reading it  understanding is facilitated by discussing the content of what has been read with others  vicarious experiences of different learners will vary depending on past experiences, beliefs, interests and motivation. There will always be a variation in the knowledge and understanding of objects, people and events as well as their relationships even while reading the same book.
  3. 3. • Teaching methods as lecture, discussion, demonstration, laboratory work, etc. are planned by the teachers to bring about the type of learning intended by the lesson.
  4. 4. • Educational activities such as film viewing, going on field trips, discussing animals in the laboratory, etc. are planned to provide learning experiences needed to achieve the goals of instruction.
  5. 5. Considers the major interconnected elements:  • Inputs  • Throughputs (process)  • Outputs that comprise the educational system (Fig. 1). This basic system is a technical framework used in the field of engineering which is influenced by the systems theory, systems analysis, systems engineering and cybernetics.
  6. 6. Curricula prepared under this orientation describe : the interaction of human resources (curriculum specialists, trainers, teachers, students, administrators, consultants),
  7. 7. physical resources (instructional materials, equipment, plant facilities, audio-visual aids) , as well as financial resources (funds needed for planning, training prior to implementation, actual and evaluation of the curriculum) with the throughput or process (curriculum and instruction) to produce the desired outputs.
  8. 8. The systems-managerial approach emphasizes the managerial/leadership and supervisory aspects of curriculum in the implementation and organization processes. The school leader has to be competent in performing the following self-explanatory functions to ensure the successful implementation of the curriculum:  • Motivate interest of all stakeholders.  • Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders.  • Arbitrate conflicting interests of various groups.  • Synthesize divergent viewpoints.  • Identify common vision and goals.  • Encourage unity of purpose.  • Translate abstract ideas into concrete ones.
  9. 9. • Clarify vague ideas. • Organize and implement in-service programs. • Communicate timely and accurate information to all stakeholders. • Procure needed materials. • Monitor curriculum implementation. • Organize and implement a mechanism for periodic evaluation. • Create a climate of innovation and change.
  10. 10. Under the systems-managerial view, curriculum development acquires more comprehensive and more dynamic meaning , may be viewed as a never-ending process which requires incremental or even major changes in some elements of the system that guarantees the quality of the inputs, the processes and the outputs. The improvement is accomplished through the effective and efficient interaction between the inputs and the processes of the system which is the function of management. Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) grouped the innovations focused on organizations under five categories: 1.) Personnel 2.) Instructional media 3.) Instructional groups 4.) Grading 5.) Schools The feedbacks indicate whether the quality of inputs and processes as well as their interaction produces the desired quality of results which becomes the basis for change and innovation which the society expects the school admin to initiate and pursue on a continuing basis.
  11. 11. This model emphasizes the role of administrators and supervisors in ensuring the effective and efficient operation of the school system. Curriculum is the major system and the other processes related to it such as supervision (motivation, leadership styles, communication and decision- making) , instruction and evaluation are subsystems. The planning, programming, budgeting system (PPBS) developed by Rand Corporation may be applied in education where the main system considered is the curriculum. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – another engineering and business planning practice described by Ornstein and Hunkins developed by the US Department of Justice. The progress and delays in the program implementation are determined quantitatively , computed and analysed with regular and continuous updating of the progress reports which reflects changes in schedule, problems in the implementation and achievement rates vis-à-vis the performance targets.An important aspect of the entire process is the evaluation of the effectiveness of the system which provides the basis for the subsequent improvement in the operation.
  12. 12. • Beauchamp’s (1975) curriculum development model identifies 5 critical decision-making areas. The following are the crucial stages for planning which correspond to the curriculum development approach for SEDP: 1.) Determining the setting for curriculum engineering: country, school, classroom. 2.) Selecting key players and their involvement in the planning process: curriculum specialists, teachers, administrators, students, lay citizens and non-teaching staff 3.) Establishing procedures in developing the curriculum design 4.) Determining implementation procedures 5.) Evaluating the curriculum which involves four dimensions: evaluation of teacher’s use of the curriculum; evaluation of the student outcomes; evaluation of the curriculum design; evaluation of the curriculum system.
  13. 13. The development of the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) under the SEDP is shown in Fig.2. The critical phases are : • Initiation • Implementation • Institutionalization • Evaluation All components of the different phases require competent leaders and skillful managers who will orchestrate the efficient utilization of all human and material resource inputs. The SEDP came about to continue the program started by PRODED (Gonzales, 1989).
  14. 14. The findings (1989) revealed poor student performance in high school science, mathematics and communication arts, ineffective teaching, inadequate facilities and instructional materials contributing to unsatisfactory academic performance and poor internal efficiency of the secondary education system.
  15. 15. . These conditions were brought about by confusion on the orientation of the curriculum, poor teacher preparation, teachers overloaded with teaching and other functions, neglect by classroom supervisors, low salaries of teachers, lack of minimum standards for the curriculum requirements, and the language of instruction among others.
  16. 16. Solving the problem in Secondary Education System: • Revision of the Revised Secondary Education Program (RSEP) in 1984 implemented with a package of curriculum support. Issued raised were: - Was secondary education intended to prepare the students for college work? - Was it a training ground for specific vocations or for gainful employment requiring the development of specific skills? - Was the aim of secondary education to generate knowledge or the transmission of basic knowledge and skills? The participants came to the following agreements about secondary education which became the basis of NSEC as shown in Fig.3. 1.) Secondary education should fulfil the requirements for entry to college and/or field of work 2.) Secondary education should provide progression in the development of the individual through more advanced learning experiences than those in the elementary curriculum
  17. 17. 3.) Human character has to be strengthened to enable the individual to cope with the changes/pressures in the environment 4.) Secondary schools should provide leadership in the total development of the individual 5.) The goal of secondary education is excellence 6.) Secondary education should provide the kind of leadership the country needs. 7.) Secondary students need guidance in the exercise of participatory citizenship 8.) Secondary education should encourage students to initiate development in their own communities in order to reduce migration to the cities creating imbalances in population distribution.
  18. 18. The development of SEDP involved planning and writing workshops with multi-sectoral representations, secondary education professionals, educational researchers from the Bureau of Secondary Education of DECS, subject supervisors, subject department heads, teachers, subject specialists from the universities and curriculum development centers and other resource persons. The participants prepared the guidelines for the nationwide curriculum try out the next school year (1985-1986). The team developed the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC), which became the basis for the development of instructional materials for use by the students (textbooks) and teachers (teacher’s manual). Teachers from selected private and public secondary schools trained under specialists to use the materials developed for the 1st year. The feedback obtained from the pilot testing of the textbooks and the teacher’s manual provided an important input in the finalization of the instructional materials. The instructional materials for the succeeding year levels (2,3,4) were developed in the following years.
  19. 19. The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC), which was an output of the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) was implemented on staggered basis beginning with the 1st year curriculum in school year 1989-1990. In 1991, nationwide monitoring was conducted to determine the extent of the initial implementation of the NSEC intended to determine appropriateness of sequencing, unit credit, time allotment, medium of instruction, textbooks, activities, teacher’s load, teacher training, grading system and intervention mechanisms and the problems encountered by the students, teachers, principals, and supervisors. This initial monitoring scheme pointed to: a.) The need for a more intensive information dissemination about the new curriculum b.) Follow-up monitoring on the identified weaknesses, c.) Availability and use of equipment
  20. 20. The development of the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) involved the same process as that for PRODED and SEDP. The DepEd organized planning and writing workshops with multi-sectoral representations, basic education professionals, experts from the various colleges of education across the country, educational researchers, subject supervisors, subject department heads, and other resource persons. Since BEC is only restructuring, the curriculum is still based on the Minimum Learning Competencies (MLC) with greater emphasis on lifelong learning through meaningful learning (constructivism) and the integration of values in all areas. This emphasis is shown in the restructured basic education curriculum framework in Fig. 4.
  21. 21. • Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. • This model is influenced by the philosophical and intellectual works of Dewey (1916), Morrison (1926) and Bode (1927) • Became popular in 30’s and 50’s (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1988) • Attempts to analyse and synthesize historical development, cultural demands and philosophical ideas including issues and trends • Curriculum boundaries expand to traditional aspects of teaching-learning, evaluation, structure of disciplines, guidance, study of education and administrative procedures. • After the 50’s it lost its appeal to curricularists when the major interest shifted to structure of disciplines and qualitative methods. Ornstein and Hunkins (1988) argue that because of the cognitive demands of the approach, it often overwhelms new students who are lack of background information , philosophical and theoretical insights on the subject.
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