Assignment 4:How the Americas Change-The Long 19th Century

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  • 1. History 141, summer 2011
    Shannon lopez
    Assignment 4:How the Americas Change:The Long 19th Century
  • 2. The Americas in the 19th Century
    The ‘word of mouth’ from one immigrant to their families that remained behind in their home country about the opportunities that awaited them in America brought mass migration
    Americans believed it was their obvious destiny to occupy all of North America
  • 3. The Americas in the 19th Century, Cont.
    With the westward expansion brought division and aggravation between regions in the United States in regards to slavery and whether the settlers could extend it to the new territories.
    The Civil War was not a direct result of the conflict of slavery moving westward, but with the northern states victory ending slavery and ensuring that the United States would remain united politically.
  • 4. The Little Ice Age
    • This time spanned 6 centuries and brought colder temperatures to various parts of the world due to climate shifts
    • 5. Famine and malnutrition made the population more susceptible to disease such as the Bubonic plague, malaria, influenza, and St. Anthony’s Fire
    • 6. The various causes that have been theorized are: reduced radiation from the sun; volcanic erruptions; colder water circulating in the ocean
    • 7. Climatologist explain that humans are susecpitable to the slightest change in temperature and the little ice age gives us an idea of what this could cause
  • Prince Maximilian zuWied and Karl Bodner journeyed up the Missouri river in the 1800s
    Maximilian’s journal observations and Bodner’s sketches and watercolors are important to descendants of Native American because they preserved true to life depictions of their ancestors and help them reconstruct their early traditions
    Bodner’s lifelike sketches of the natives and landscapes were validated by Maximilian’s extensive note taking of the persons role, clothing and the use of the objects they held.
    Frontiers of the Americas
  • 8. Knife dueling in the Brazilian cattle frontier was not just picking fights with total strangers, it could more accurately be compared to a symbolic use of violence that random criminal acts
    This system of honor played a big role at the time. This system depended on external displays of masculinity and public reputation
    It was a measure of how well a person was playing his role in life and each actor judged the others performance.
    Frontiers of the Americas,Cont.
  • 9. Crossroads of Freedom
    The Battle of Antietam, fought September 17, 1862, was a bloody day in the Civil War for both sides
    The casualties for both the Union side and Confederate side totaled over 23,000
    Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, it was a significant enough victory to give President Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation
    It was also a significant enough defeat for the British not to back up the Confederacy
  • 10. Crossroads of Freedom
    George B. McClellan
    George B. McClellan became general in chief on November 1, 1861 after Winfield Scott retired.
    McClellan brought a high degree of organization to his army and greatly improved its morale by his frequent trips to review and encourage his units
    He was a perfectionist and was afraid to risk failure, so as seen throughout the course of his role in the war he rather not risk anything at all.
    Lincoln became increasingly impatient with McClellan's slowness to attack the Confederate forces
    The reason for McClellan's reluctance was that, as in previous battles, he was convinced he was outnumbered
    When McClellan failed to pursue Lee aggressively after Antietam, Lincoln ordered that he be removed from command
  • 11. Crossroads of Freedom, Cont.
    “The Dead of Antietam”
    This exhibit was a display of the photographs taken by Northerners Alexander Gardner and James Gibson after their arrival to Antietam 2 days after the battle
    The studio in New York City belonged to Mathew Brady; it gave the public the opportunity to witness the devastation that resulted from the battle
    A New York Times reporter wrote on October 20, 1862, “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along streets, he has done something very like it.”