INNER MAN. MENTALISTIC . According to William James, all our obligations, all of what we call good and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are OUR constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires.BEHAVIORAL THEORYBF Skinner posits that values come from your personal experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad.ID EGO SUPEREGO. Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives – ID based dives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want – EGO based drives – and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not – SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value and what we prefer.LABELING THEORYAccording to this theory, things, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor bad per se. It is society which labels them as either good or bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, then it becomes good; when society labels it as bad, then it becomes bad.
Values defined the very purpose and the direction of the life of man. They are good, important, necessary and desirable in life. As part of man’s existence, they also provide significance to what an organization is. When values are chosen, men in societies and organizations will tend to live a purposeful, meaningful and satisfying life. Values can be learned and acquired through actual practice. Knowing the objectivity of values is very important since it requires a person to act on it and failure to respond to the call of the values, it is not actually the values that are destroyed but it is the man himself. Quality of life is obtain because of our values and they are part of our life being the one that impels to act, basis for our commitments and the grounds and standards for our manners, behavior and even expression, the norms and the principles of our lives and the criteria in appreciating beauty and other aesthetic considerations and other economic utilities.Through values, it generate and ought-to-be and an ought-to-do which are the basis for our responsibilities, obligations, beliefs and attitudes without being similar with those concepts.
An author, Martin Buber, provides that man is always in dialogue with the world. The inner being of man has a component of a being of response and ability, and it is freedom which is the precondition of man’s response to another, whether such is another human being, a thing, a particular event or in his belief of God. Buber further reiterates that the opposite of constraint is actually a communion meaning for man to be free is to be a person able to respond to the call of communion. Values are therefore experienced in a particular dialogic relationship of man as a being and as a person. Animals on the other hand are compelled by their biological need with the force of a natural physical law to satisfy their animalistic necessities but with values it calls for a free response from man. Hence, the experience of values is actually the experience of man.
The notion that values are created may not be true but it is discovered by man himself in his participation with the world. There are three diverse acts of man that makes him a unique person and these are (1) the act of reflection or our being a thinking man, (2) of the acts of ideation or abstraction, as our coming in as an essence from our being part of existence, and (3) the act of loving. Of the three, the last is the most important character of man as a person for man is really capable of loving. To love and even to hate are the basic acts of men of which all its other are coming from them. A person is one through what she loves and hates. Loving and hating are actually actions of the heart directed towards certain values and they are geared towards certain hierarchy of values. Hatred is not the opposite of love but it is Apathy and in the hierarchy of values, love direct us towards higher values while hatred to lower values.
In the hierarchy of values, the sensory values refer generally to what is pleasant and unpleasant, of technical and luxury values. Next to that are the vital values of what are noble and vulgar and these are what we called the values of civilization. The spiritual values of justice and injustice, of truth and falsehood and our appreciation of beauty and ugliness are the next to sensory and vital values. The highest are the values of what are holy and unholy. The spiritual and the holy values are values that refer to our being man and spirit. The above enumerated order or ranking of values are subjectively appreciated based on man’s concrete realization of the different kinds of values. Like hatred, it is a confusion of the heart for it wrongly changes the ranking of values. According to Scheles, what is good (positive) and evil (negative) cannot be found in the ranking of values but rather in their realization. An action is good if it chooses higher positive value rather than a lower or a negative value. In like manner, an action is evil if it prefers a lower or negative value instead of a higher or positive one. Logically, without action and man who act on it there is actually no moral good or evil will happen. Hence, moral values are actually personal values for they came from man himself. If what is good is actually a realization of higher values, what is spiritual and holy refer to our person. And if evil is the realization of lower values, the sensory and the vital values can be likened to animals. Therefore, good values enhance our being a person while evil degenerate our humanity. At the end, the moral act of doing good and evil is based on man and not on any moral authority. Through a model person, values derives an ‘ought to do’ and without a man to be emulated or modeled upon there will be no standards, norms, responsibility or obligations. In moral values, nothing can make a man good but the intuition of those exemplified by a model person whose love invites other to follow. Model persons are the way of value transformation of man in our society today.
Much has been said about so-called negative Filipino traits. They have been blamed for the weak character of the Filipino; they are the culprits, the scapegoat of our failures, or at least, the explanation for lagging behind more successful Asian neighbors. I propose to take a second look at these so-called negatives in the Filipino psyche to determine whether there might be a positive aspect, a saving face, a silver lining behind the dark clouds. In attempting to see an ambivalence in our traits, I will use oriental yardsticks to measure success or failure for it would be unfair to use Western standards to evaluate our Filipino traits. For example, is a materially comfortable life with physiological ailments more successful than a materially deprived life without physical ailments? Is the image of Juan Tamad waiting for a guava to fall such a reprehensible, if not scandalous, picture? Is the similar image of Sir Isaac Newton, also resting under a tree, more refreshing? It is very Filipino to stress our minus points, to find fault in our behavior, to compare us unfavorably with Westerners by using Western standards. It is common to hear such names as BertongBukol, or IpengPilay or HusengNgongo. It seems that we take pleasure in underscoring our weaknesses, faults, defects, etc. Our standards are smallness, averageness, mediocrity; grandeur or grandness is not in the Filipino vocabulary. The West, in contrast, evokes: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, DerFührer, Il Duce, El Caudillo, Elizabeth Regina. We seem to enjoy being humble and meek, or what Friedrich Nietzsche called "the morality of slaves." There is something strange in the very way we look upon success. A person is not supposed to exert effort at the expense of sanity. We ridicule a person who teaches himself how to think and label him Tasio, the philosopher. We warn persons not to learn too much lest they be like Jose Rizal who was executed at the Luneta in 1896. Assertiveness is frowned upon because it smacks of pride and ruthlessness. Success to the Filipino, must come naturally; it should not be induced or artificially contrived. One should not be successful at an early age because that would mean exertion and hard work. Success must come very late in life, if it is to come at all. Filipino traits must be understood in the above context. Hence, they are considered negative only according to other yardsticks. The following Filipino traits show an ambivalence of positive and negative aspects.
PRECONDITIONAL STAGE: CHILDHOOD - is the phase wherein children comply with the values of those who assert power on them (parents, teachers, nuns, and priests).2. THE CONVENTIONAL STAGE: YOUTH- during the conventional stage or youth, adolescence identify with their peers, idols and teachers due to interpersonal communication.3. POSTCONVENTIONAL STAGE: ADULTHOOD - the people internalize the values they have imbibed in the first two stages without fear.
Human behavior and the underlying values, preferences, priorities, and manner of thought – collectively lumped into that system of social norms shared by a group of people known as “culture” – is often the result of several levels of system influences. Rather than stating that an individual person’s behavior is necessarily the result of only one particular system, it is best to recognize how several different systems work together to probabilistically determine or at least highly influence a person’s behavior and subsequently, the culture to which he belongs.Here is a listing of all 5 systems and their attributes:1. Natural Environment & Eco-System- Affects people collectively- Cannot be changed- Is represented by the influences of Climate, Terrain, Geography, Land Altitude, Land Fertility, Weather, other natural factors peculiar to the location where people live.- (you may superficially and temporarily “alter” climate by using air-conditioning, or do other “superficial changes” but it requires effort, energy, and technology)– (you may migrate to a different territory to get away from the original environment) 2. Societal System- Affects people collectively- Can be changed- System of Government, System of Laws, System of Law & Policy Enforcement, System of Education3. Sub-Community Group and Family System- Affects people collectively- Can be changed- Upbringing, Nurture, Family Values, Values of the Small Community4. Personal System- Affects people individually- Can be changed- Personal Beliefs, Personal Values, Personal Principles, Personal Decisions5. Hereditary & Genetic System- Affects people individually at the cellular/DNA level- Cannot be changed within one’s lifetime- Genetic Inheritance, genetic predisposition, behavioral tendencies / Temperament caused by genetic influence, innate abilities / talents*By understanding how these 5 different systems all influence human behavior, we also can better understand at which levels the challenges, advantages, disadvantages, and even dysfunctions are to be found as far as behavior and culture are concerned.It is in this way that it also becomes much easier to determine how to improve the competitiveness and survivability of a particular individual or group of people with respect to inducing the emergence of desired winning behaviors and thus to ultimately establishwinning cultures on the collective levels of the wider society, the sub-community group, and the family.It is also necessary to understand that these different systems are all arranged from macro to micro, in order to more easily understand why it is possible for there to be “exceptions to the rule.”For instance, certain societies within a particular environment may develop a particular predisposition to act in a certain way due to said environment. However, some societies may develop their own societal system that causes the people within that society (or country) to defy the natural tendencies as induced by the environment and thus behave differently. This is best seen within the context of how Singapore, despite being in the tropics where numerous societies within tropical regions are often expected to have national cultures that are usually uncompetitive & slothful, Singapore shines as an exception to the rule due to the manner in which its societal system was set up in order to defy the environmental influences of being in the tropics.Likewise, within a particular society having a collective culture, some sub-groups or families may defy the stereotypes because within their own small groups or family-units, collective systems are set up in such a way as to cause the members of said groups or families to behave differently from the mainstream. This is how the Filipino-Chinese,Mestizo-Sangleys (often known in modern times as “the Filipino Upper Classes”), and Mestizos-Criollos (often called “Tisoys”) do not always conform to national stereotypes due to differences in how these groups raise their children within their family-settings so that they end up exhibiting certain traits and behaviors that are oftentimes advantageous over the mainstream (such as fiscal consciousness, frugality, etc). This also explains how Ilocanos are stereotyped to be extremely frugal, despite the general tendency of most mainstream Filipinos to be spendthrift, even though many Ilocanos have already migrated to other areas and no longer live in the relatively barren and infertile homeland of Ilocandia which was responsible for shaping their frugal nature.Likewise, if and when a person is born into a dysfunctional family where there is chaos and disorder and no proper parental guidance nor family role model to aspire to, this model also explains how it is possible for an individual person to decide to defy his family’s dysfunctional system and still turn out successful due to extreme willpower and a strong, well-developed personal system.More importantly, it should also be recognized that well-developed collective systems (systems at the societal and small group & family level) can even drive people to succeed despite their lack of genetic endowments. As it is, in the Confucian-influenced East Asian cultures of the Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Vietnamese, as well as others bearing similar influences, one’s genetic predispositions are – within their cultural paradigms – said to count for little or are often seen as irrelevant, as their paradigm for achieving success rests more with hard work and effort. As such, genetic endowments are seen merely as a bonus in such cultures. Each and every person is expected to work his or her hardest to succeed, despite whatever hereditary background they may have, be they the children of street-cleaners or PhD’s in Physics. For such Confucian cultures, “genius”, which in Mandarin is “Tian Tsai” (天才) – literally Heavenly (天) Gift (才), is not an excuse to slack off and take it easy, and instead, so much more is expected of a genius or extraordinarily-gifted person.(This also has echoes in the Protestant Ethic)From the perspective of many East Asian cultures’ paradigms, failure is not the result of one’s innate deficiencies but is rather a result of not having worked hard enough. This paradigm is most observed with the kinds of ancient classical proverbs that the Chinese have (which are often hung as decorative calligraphic scrolls) and are often shared with other cultures of the Sinosphere, including Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Rather than exalting innate abilities or in-born intelligence, ancient Chinese proverbs or key words exalt perseverance (持之以恆), hard work (功夫 – “Kung Fu”, which in the West is thought to mean “Martial Arts”), continuous improvement (改善 – “Gaishan” in Mandarin, “Kaizen” in Japanese), continuous learning (學無正竟), and of course, the all-important virtue of discipline (訓練).It must be realized that culture change by itself can never happen unless a corresponding system change is made. This is simply because of the numerous systems that influence and probabilistically determine human behavior and ultimately, human culture. Before we can change culture, we need to know what the different systems are and how they influence behavior:1. Natural Environment & Eco-SystemThe Natural Environment and Eco-System in which a group of people first form their cultural identity has a profound effect on how such people may behave, think, and see the world.2. Societal SystemThe same thinker from the Age of Enlightenment who talked about Climate and the Eco-System’s effects on human behavior, Montesquieu, also mentioned that the manner in which a society is run (its “System of Governance”) also helps to shape culture. More importantly, Montesquieu did not dismiss the possibility of people from warmer countries becoming disciplined, frugal, forward-looking, and more logical, because as long as the societal system (including the system of government) is carefully-designed to constantly provide the right incentives to promote the desired behaviors to emerge among the people as well as appropriate disincentives that would prevent the emergence of undesirable ones, then the people from such warmer countries can learn to exhibit the same or similar “winning culture” that has often been observed among civilizations from colder climates.As it turns out, while the Baron de Montesquieu did in fact observe that the Eco-System – climate, geography, and other aspects of the environment – affect the temperaments and customs of a group of people, he did not believe in rigid determinism. As such, he did not believe that the effects of the environment and the resulting cultural inclinations (especially the dysfunctional ones) could not be resisted and mitigated.3. Sub-community Group and Family SystemIt is important for people to realize that the reason why the Jewish Diaspora, Overseas Chinese, the Lebanese diaspora, the Armenian diaspora, the Sindhi diaspora, and many others are hugely successful ethnicities is not because their cultures emerged as having the right traits of success by chance. Instead, the real fact is that many of these successful groups ended up with their “Winning Cultures” often as the result of their sub-community systems and strong and effective systems of family upbringing which molded their behaviors while they were still young.4. Personal SystemSome people are more hard-working than others even if they are in a group or family of sloths. Some people do 180 degree turns in how they manage their lives, despite the people around them. These behavioral and mindset shifts are often the results of the personal system that a single individual may set up for him/herself. No doubt, such changes at the personal system involve whole lot of self-discipline and self-control.Does a person reward himself after he does well on an exam by treating himself to ice-cream? Or does he treat himself to ice-cream regardless of whether he does well, passes, or fails? Does he deny himself certain indulgences like playing video games if he hasn’t accomplished his work yet? Or does he play video games regardless of whether he has accomplished his work or not? Does he reward himself with a brand new luxury car (or two) if, as CEO of the company he just recently took charge of, was able to turn it around for the better? Or does he buy it/them anyway, never mind that he hasn’t done anything at all to deserve such a reward?5. Hereditary & Genetic SystemPeople’s behavior tends to be influenced by genetics. Studies on identical twins separated at birth and raised by different families has revealed the extreme similarities in temperament and personality of such twins so that psychologists have confirmed that nature does have a profound influence on a person’s behavioral or personality tendencies.Unfortunately, there’s not much we can do about our genes. We are what we are born with. All we can do, however, is to try our best to take advantage of whatever good traits our genes have given us, and work as hard as we can to fight against our unfortunately genetically-embedded negative tendencies.Since I would prefer to delve more on the importance of culture and culture-change, making mention of the genetic level and how the hereditary system influences behavior helps for us to know what our inherent strengths and weaknesses are in order that we may modify our behaviors to take advantage of such strengths and avoid or suppress the weaknesses.
Hiya (shame) Negative, because it arrests or inhibits one's action. This trait reduces one to smallness or to what Nietzsche calls the "morality of slaves", thus congealing the soul of the Filipino and emasculating him, making him timid, meek and weak. Positive, because, it contributes to peace of mind and lack of stress by not even trying to achieve.
Saving FaceNegative, because, being closely related to hiya and kasi, it enables a person to shirk responsibility. One is never accountable for anything. Positive, because one's psyche is saved from undue embarrassment, sleepless nights, remorse of conscience. It saves one from accountability or responsibility. This trait enables one to make a graceful exit from guilt instead of facing the music and owning responsibility for an offense.
Pakikisama (group loyalty) Negative, because one closes one's eyes to evils like graft and corruption in order to conserve peace and harmony in a group at the expense of one's comfort. Positive, because one lives for others; peace or lack of dissension is a constant goal.
Bahalana (resignation) Negative, because one leaves everything to chance under the pretext of trusting in Divine providence. This trait is really laziness disguised in religious garb. Positive, because one relies on a superior power rather than on one's own. It is conducive to humility, modesty, and lack of arrogance.
Utangnaloob (indebtedness) Negative, because one overlooks moral principles when one is indebted to a person. One who is beholden to another person will do anything to please him, thinking that by doing so he is able to repay a debt. One condones what the other person does and will never censure him for wrongdoing. Positive, because it is a recognition of one's indebtedness. This trait portrays the spirit behind the Filipino saying, "He who does not know how to look to the past will never reach his destination."
Discuss the indigenisation movementThat Bayanihan is not only centered in the Tagalog speaking nation
1. ThatBayanihan is an old word
DUMAUG: FILIPINO VALUES: ITS UNIVERSALITY WITH HUMAN DIGNITY
FILIPINO VALUES POLITICAL/ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM
FILIPINO VALUES POLITICAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMSUCCESS OR FAILURE OF ASTATE OR ORGANIZATION
VALUE CLARIFICATION PROCESS• Value is chosen freely.• It is chosen among alternatives• There is celebration• There is public affirmation of choice • The value must be acted upon • Acting must be repeatedly done • Value should enhance one’s development
CLASSIFICATION OF VALUES: ECONOMIC VALUES BEHAVIORAL VALUES SOCIAL VALUES NON-SOCIAL & SELF-CONCERN VALUES MORAL & SPIRITUAL VALUES
• The “Inner Man” or Mentalistic Theory of Values by William James • The “Outer Man” ortheories Behavioral Theory of Valueson the by BF Skinner • The “Id” ; “Ego” ; “Superego”origins Theory of Values andof values Preferences by Sigmund Freud • The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism Theory of Values
VALUES ARE DISCOVERED BY MAN INHIS PARTICIPATION WITH THE WORLD
“Bayanihan is derived from the root word Bayani first appeared in 1745 in a manuscript titled “Vocabulario de la LenguaTagala” by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucarwhich means Obra Comun or group work.” Magpabayani is another related word.
“The spirit that binds us together as one nation cannot be that of a class conflict, as Marxism would have it, or Adam Smith’s capitalist principle oflaissez faire (each one for himself), but the power which has transported,even in pre-Hispanic times, one whole house on the shoulders of people committed to help a friend in need: the spirit of Bayanihan, the word expressive of our Solidarity – working together as one nation. Raul J. Bonoan, S. J.”
COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEXFilipino Value Type If Lacking/Absent Surface Value HIYA AMOR PROPIO KAPALARAN PAKIKISAMA BAHALA NA UTANG NA LOOB BAD PANINIWALA PAGPAHALAGA SA DIYOS SA PAMILYA PAKIRAMDAM LOOB BAYANIHAN WORSE Core Values KAPWA WORST COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEX
B. F. SKINNER: SYSTEM THATBEYOND FREEDOM & DETERMINESDIGNITY OR INFLUENCE VALUES