Lotus bud-shaped anda Bell-shaped anda
ANDA – green
HARMIKA - red
CHATTRAS - purple
BASE or TERRACES - black
Lotus bud-shaped anda
Stepped terraces and redented bases. Two
or three square terraces rise to support a
deeply redented (that is, with cutout
corners) and tower-shaped base; this base
anda. The stepped terraces are a distinctive
element of the Thai stupa (shared with
Myanmar’s Bagan) and mark a clear push
away from earlier Sri Lanka prototypes.
the tower-like bases, which afford these
structures their elegance and vertical
seem to borrow from earlier Khmer prangs
(discussed in the next section). See yellow
highlights in Fig. 5.• No harmika. Unlike Sri
Lankan models, this style stupa does not
employ a harmika, affording it a more
integrated, delicate profile.
Wat Si Sanphet, Ayutthaya
Ayutthaya and Bangkok periods
e Thai civilization’s chief modification to the
Khmer prang was
to make it more delicate, thinner, and vertical
in emphasis. That said, the defining features
of the Thai prang include:
• More slender, vertical tower (
irst prangs in Thailand were built in Phimai and Khao Phnom
Rung and Lopburi between the early 10th century and the late 12th century,
when the Khmer kingdom was dominant.
After the Khmer Empire collapsed, the Thai building masters of the Sukhothai
Kingdom adapted the Prang form. They extended and developed it. The
building material was no more separate small sandstone blocks, instead the
Thais built the Prang in brick or laterite covered with stucco. And the Cella could
be reached only by stairs. An example for this is the Prang of the Wat
Mahathat in Phitsanulok. Later developments of the Prang suggested the Cella
only. The entrance door became a niche, in which was placed
the Buddharupa(Buddha statue), which had originally taken the central position
inside. For reasons of symmetry the niche was repeated on all four sides. On its
pinnacle was a Trishul, the "weapon of Indra".
A "more modern" Prang is a slim construction, like an ear of corn, which lets its
Khmer origin be only suspected. The best example is Wat Arun, the landmark
of Bangkok. AlsoWat Phra Kaeo has six thin Prangs arranged in a row. Another
example is the four Prangs arranged in all four directions around Wat
Pho in Bangkok, and the five Prangs in Wat Pichayart in Thonburi.
1. Temples and Monasteries
3. Houses/Dwelling Units
• Group of religious buildings and other
features (such as trees and lakes),
surrounded by a wall, and with at least
• Consist of two parts:
Thai Buddhist temple
a. Ubosot or Bot, (Ordination Hall)
b. Phra rabieng
c. Viharn (teaching Hall)
d. Chedi or Stupa (Reliquary Tower)
g. Sala Kan Prian
h. Ho rakang
i. Of equal importance may be a Bhodi Tree or a
Thai Buddhist temple
Most of the best known temples are in Bangkok, and these reflect the highly ornate
"Rattanakosin" style of the Chakri dynasty (late 18th century to the present day).
The main elements of the temple are as follows:
1. Bot/Ubosot 2. The Reclining Buddha 3. Main Stupas
4. Phra Mondop 5. The Gallery 6. Hermit's Ground
• The wall, often white washed, usually encloses a rectangular area. The
wall demarcates the temple compound, called putthawat, or the sacred
• Ideally the main entrance faces east.
Wat Phra Singh, the largest temple in Chiang Mai, northwestern
Thailand. (Luca I. Tettoni/Corbis)
• Thai Buddhist temple
• In most cases it is not
just one building, but
a collection of
buildings, shrines, and
monuments within a
courtyard that is
enclosed by a wall.
• Consecrated ordination hall of a Wat,
where new monks take their vows.
• Has six boundary stones (Bai Sema)
that define the limits of its sanctuary.
• Usually open only to the monks.
• Faces east and usually houses an altar
and one or several Buddha images.
Ubosot of Wat Plai Laem | Koh Samui
The Marble templehttp://www.bloggang.com/mainblog.php?id=lungpai
Ubosot at Wat Doi Suthep/
Wat Phra Boromathat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai
• Sacred marker spheres that will be buried during the
consecration of the ubosot.
• They demarcate the sacred space.
• There will be nine luk nimit buried, one at the centre, four at
the corners and four at the cardinal points in the middle of
each side of the building.
b. PHRA RABIENG
• Cloister like-galleries around the Bot/Ubosot
• Along the walls of the Phra Rabieng are Buddha images and
some times religious furniture.
Mural Paintings depicting Ramakien epic (Thai
version of the Hindu epic, Ramayana)
• Sermon hall and is usually the busiest building in a Wat and
open to everyone (provided the visitor behaves according to the
• Holds an altar and one or several Buddha images.
• Hall similar to the Ubosot, but with no Sema stones.
• Houses various Buddha images and is used as a preaching hall
and as a place for prayer and meditation.
• There may be more than one Viharn in a temple complex.
Wat Suthat Thep Wararam
• Inside the viharn is a Buddha image either seated or standing.
• Located at the far end of the hall and face east, for that is the
direction that Buddha achieved Enlightenment.
KU (Miniature chedi)
• Reliquary where the small
principal Buddha image is place
to enhance its presence.
• Composed of three superimposed tiers, with the lowest tier over
• Number of tiers range from one to four, with three being the most
common and each tier may comprise of two or three sections.
• Lowest section is close to the ground, and spreads out like a mother
hen spreading her wings to protect her chick.
• Bargeboard that covers the end of the gable, preventing the tiles
from falling off.
• Decorated like a downward sloping body of the naga, with its
head rearing up.
• The naga's scales which project up is called the bai raka.
CHOFAS “Sky Cluster”
• Horn or bird-like finials
seen on the roof ridges of
• Often decorated with little
bells that tinkle in the
• Design is in the form of a
stylised garuda, which is
meant to be grabbing the
tail of the naga that flows
down both sides of the
bargeboard, pan lom.
• Front gable of the viharn is usually highly decorated.
• May also be divided into rectangular panels.
HU CHANG “Elephant ears”
• Eave-brackets along the
outer wall of the viharn.
• Triangular piece of wood that
is often highly ornamented.
• Design can be in the form of
intertwining naga, the
monkey king Hanuman, or
the mystical bird kinnari or
other mystical beast.
NAGA - Nak Sadung and Makara
• Representation of a mystical serpent that according to the holy
scripts sheltered the Buddha while he was meditating.
• Temple – found on the edge of the roof or especially in Lanna
(North of Thailand) temples, flanks the staircase that ascends to
the Viharn or Bot.
• Sculptures - it is depicted sheltering the head of the Buddha with
• Also called sum khong,
• Elaborate decorative arch
over and framing the
Wat Phra Keo, the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok
• Pair of lions guarding the entrance of a viharn.
• Chiang Mai - often made in the Burmese style.
• Myanmar - named chinthe
• Domed edifice, under
which relics of the
Buddha or revered
religious teachers are
d. CHEDI /PRANG
• Types of Chedi:
1. Bell – shaped style Chedi
2. Square Chedi
3. Indented Chedi
4. Suwanna Chedi, Prang
5. Suwanna Stepped Chedi
1. Bell-shaped style
Phra Pathom Chedi, Nakorn Pathom,
• Tallest Chedi in Thailand. with a base
diameter of around 233 m. and a
height of more than 120 m.
2. Square Chedi
• Northern Thailand
balances a smaller dome
on a high square base,
each side has a niche
carved with Buddha
• Sits on a terrace or
platform, often with an
enclosed walkway for
devotees to make ritual
Wat Jed Yod, Chiang Mai
3. Indented Chedi
• Small dome balanced
on a square base with
Wat Arun (Temple of Dawn),
Wat Arun (Temple of the Dawn)
4. Suwanna Chedi - Prang
• Ayutthayan or Khmer style of reliquary, found all over
central Thailand from the Khmers..
• Shaped like a corn cob standing on top of a square or
cruciform building, with an entrance on one side.
Phra Prang Sam
5. Suwanna Stepped Chedi
• Found in Northern Thailand
• Square stepped base, with 5
tiers above, each of the four
faces containing 3 Buddha
Phrathat Haripunchai, Lamphun
Wat Chamathevi, Lamphun
Chedi Liem, Chiang Mai
• Bejeweled sacred umbrella
that sits at the topmost part of
• Burmese influence to the
• CHAT - Gilded parasols also
adorn the four corners of the
walkway surrounding the
• Burmese-style sacred
filigree parasol that are
usually installed at the
corners of the railings
enclosing the chedi.
• Parasols are usually gilded.
e. MONDOP (Mandapa)
• Square, open-sided pavilion with a multi-tiered pyramidal roof
rising to a peak.
• Baldachin structure that has in some temples been erected above
the library with the sacred Buddhist scripts.
(Library or Manuscript repository)
• Handwritten Buddhist manuscripts are stored.
• Usually very small, same style as the viharn and ubosot, but
lavishly decorated building.
• Central Plains - often sits on columns in a pond.
• Northern Part - built raised up from the ground, to keep it away
from termites and damp.
f. HO TRAI
The library is often built on piles in
a pond to prevent bugs to destroy
the sacred texts.
• Recognizable because it has a
The Royal Crematorium
• Prepared for the royal cremation of
Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani
Vadhana, Krom Luang Naradhiwas
Rajanagarindra, November 15, 2008.
• Represents Viman celestial abode of
the gods that stands on the summit
of Sumeru, the majestic mountain,
spine of the universe in the
Traibhumi (the three planes of
existence) in Buddhist cosmology.
h. HO RAKHANG (Bell
• The bell is struck to call the
monks to devotions, to
announce time (it is struck
for noon, after which monks
are not allowed to eat) or to
announce the stopping of
work for the day.
In some big temples and
monasteries, there may also
be a gong tower, or a
combination of bell and
• In some big temples and
monasteries, there may also
be a gong tower, or a
combination of bell and gong.
Huge gong at
Wat Phra That
i. SALA GAN PARIAN
• Open-sided pavilion or preaching hall.
• Bangkok-style structure that is only found occassionally in
• Some Viharns are built in this style.
• Contained within the wall surrounding the temple complex.
• Living quarters of the monks
1. KUTI (Living quarters)
May also contain the following:
1. HO RAKANG (Bell tower)
2. SALA KAN PRIAN (Preaching or Sermon hall)
• Kitchen building where food can be prepared by lay people, and
• Originally a small structure, built on
stilts, designed to house a monk,
with its proper size (4.013 x 2.343 m).
• Apartment building with small rooms
for the monks - Modern
2. Rattanakosin Buddhist temples.
WAT PA MAHA CHEDI KAEW and its associated
building including the crematorium, Sisaket province
Use of 1 million glass recycled bottles. Mixture of green Heineken and brown
local Chang beer collected since 1984.
Ayutthaya Historical Park
The Grand Palace Chakri Maha Prasat Hall
• Built by king Chulalongkorn (RAMA V)
• Used for the reception of foreign ambassadors.
• Blend of European and Thai architecture
Wat Phra Kaew “Heaven and Earth”
Built as the royal temple within the Grand Palace, same as the Ayutthaya
tradition. The temple has no residing Buddhist monks, but was meant as
the spiritual center of the kingdom and the site for major royal ceremonies.
2. Emerald Budha
3. Main Stupa
4. Phra Mondop
5. Royal Pantheon
7. Srcipture Hall
8. Ankor Wat Model
10. Ho Phra Nak
Vinmanmek Palace (Cloud
• Believed to be the world
largest building made
entirely of golden teak.
• Originally constructed on
Srichang Island in the Gulf
of Siam by King Rama V (
King Chulalongkorn) but In
1901, was moved to its
Royal Palace at Bang Pa-In
• Dates from the reign of King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910), when most
of the buildings standing today were constructed between 1872 -
• Similar in design to those of commoners except that they were generally
closer to the ground and had more decorative features.
• Tamnak Daeng or “Red House”built by King Rama I as a residence for one
of his queens, originally in Ayutthaya style but acquired more Rattanakosin
elements during several moves.
• King Rama V presented the house to the museum as a reminder of an
architectural style then becoming rare.
• Elevated on stout round posts
• Steep roofs with curved bargeboards
• Paneled walls leaning slightly inward
• Various components are prefabricated to enable easy dismantling
• House consists of a single unit with an outside veranda, while
those accommodating larger families might have several separate
units arranged around a central platform.
Central plains houses
• Decorative carved
element as a top roof
• Mostly carved from
teakwood widely used
in North Thailand, the
former kingdom of
• Horns of the water
Residence of Her Royal Highness the Princess Mother
“Mae Fah Luang”, Doi Tung, Chiang Rai/North Thailand