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Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
Methods of paragraph development
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Methods of paragraph development

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Patterns of organizing ideas in a paragraph

Patterns of organizing ideas in a paragraph

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  • 1. Methods of here to add text Click Paragraph Development Click here to add text. Click here to add text. Click here to add text. Click here to add text. Click here to add text. Click here to add text.
  • 2. Paragraph Development  Development means to delve deeper into an idea  Immature writers avoid depth by giving in to generalities and repetition, resulting in bland writing  How to address development?  Look for statements that go unexplained  Read over your paragraph the way a potential reader might  “sense” where additional information is needed
  • 3. For Example: There are several reasons why summer is my favorite season of the year. For one reason, I like to go bike riding. For another, I like to play football. Furthermore, I enjoy going to cookouts. In addition, I like to travel. But most of all, I like to go swimming. Summer is my best season of the year.
  • 4. Read the expanded version of the same paragraph below:  My favorite season of the year is summer. For one reason, I enjoy riding my bike through the park on warm summer mornings with my best friend. Sometimes we ride slowly looking at all the pretty flowers or trees. When it is very hot, we ride as fast as we can so the cool breeze will cool us off. Not only is bike riding a fun thing to do in the summer, but it is also a great way to stay in shape.  In the summer time, I enjoy playing football at the park too. My friends and I play every night after dinner when the sun isn’t so hot. These football games are a lot of fun because everyone in the neighborhood plays and we always have a big game.
  • 5.  I also enjoy cookouts in the summer at my grandmother’s house. Juicy hot dogs and hamburgers, corn on the cob, and refreshing watermelon make the cookouts special. Best of all, I get a chance to see all my relatives. When the sun goes down and everyone is full, we just sit around and talk and laugh almost all night long.  Furthermore, summer is vacation time. Every summer my family and I go on long trips. Last summer we went to Disney World for two weeks. I think this was the greatest summer of them all. I’ll never forget the exciting rides, the beautiful sights, and the funny Disney characters.
  • 6.  But most of all, summer is my favorite season because I can enjoy my favorite sport, swimming, whenever I like. There’s nothing like splashing in the Hillhouse pool or a cool lake on a hot July afternoon. I guess if I had my choice, summer would stay all year long.
  • 7. The writer of this composition simply added words and phrases to his short sentences which answer some basic questions about the original short sentences. For example, look at the original first sentence:  For one reason, I like to go bike riding. Where does he go bike riding?  When?  With whom?  What do they do?  Why?
  • 8. Short sentences can be expanded or made into several sentences by adding words or phrases which answer the following questions:  Where? When? How? Why? With Whom? How Much?  How Many? What or Who? What do they do?
  • 9. Example of Paragraph Development Weak Example: It was the worst movie I've seen in a long time. It was really boring. The characters were undeveloped and the plot was one cliche after another. I should have just stayed home. I'm sorry I wasted six dollars on such a stupid film. Strong Example This movie is to cinema what Boone's Farm is to wine. It was about as action-packed as a tortoise clipping his toenails. The characters were more like caricatures and a four-year-old could have predicted the ending. Next time I'll give my six bucks to charity.
  • 10. Example of Paragraph Development Strong Example: I was disappointed by the movie. The soundtrack was tinny and flat, and when there was supposed to be silence you could hear popping sounds and white noise instead. There were little starts and skips in the film where the cuts had been badly pasted together. The picture itself was grainy and the colors were faded, as though you were seeing them through gray-tinted lenses. It didn't help that the springs had gone in my theater seat and one of them was poking into my leg the whole time.
  • 11. Example of Paragraph Development Strong Example: This movie is an insult to the intelligence of the audience. We are supposed to accept one improbability after another: that the hero, a private detective, is willing to take on the case out of the goodness of his heart; that the police are willing to freely share with him information on a case still under investigation; that the villain just happens to be the man who killed his parents when he was a boy. And of course the key witness turns out to be a leggy, rich, and unattached blonde who is wildly attracted to the detective.
  • 12. Narration  tells a story of an event or an experience. Good narration: 1. Reveals something of importance. 2. Includes all the important events of the story. 3. Brings the story to life with a detailed account of what happened. 4. Presents events in a clear order.
  • 13. Narrative Paragraph Example My most embarrassing moment happened when I was working in a Mexican restaurant. I was a hostess working on a busy Friday night. As usual, I was wearing a blouse and a long Mexican skirt. While I was taking some menus to a table, one of the waiters accidentally stepped on the hem of my skirt. I didn’t even feel it fall off, and I walked through the whole dining room in my slip! Almost every customer in the restaurant saw me without my skirt on!
  • 14. Description  Description creates a clear and vivid impression of the topic. Description translates your experience of a person, place, or thing into words, often by appealing to the physical senses. Good description: 1. Creates a main impression-an overall effect, feeling, or image-about the topic. 2. Uses concrete, specific details to support the main impression. 3. Uses details that appeal to the five senses.
  • 15. Descriptive Paragraph Example The subway is an assault on your senses. You walk down the steep, smelly steps on the subway platform. On the far right wall, a broken clock show that the time is four-thirty. You wonder how long it has been broken. A mother and her crying child are standing to your left. She is trying to clean dried chocolate syrup off the young child’s face. Farther to the left, two old men are arguing about the most recent tax increase. You hear a little noise and see some paper trash roll by like a soccer ball. The most interesting thing you see while you are waiting for your subway train is a poster. It reads “Come to Jamaica.” Deep blue skies, a lone palm tree, and sapphire waters call you to this exotic faraway place.
  • 16. Illustration  Uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point. Good Illustration: 1. Makes a point. 2. Gives detailed and specific examples 3. Gives enough examples to get the point across. Insert Your Name Place logo or logotype here, otherwise delete this text box.
  • 17. Illustrative Paragraph Example Although they don’t consider it stealing, many people regularly take things from their jobs. The most common items to disappear are pens and pencils that the employees almost unconsciously stuff into their purses and pockets. Over time, they may accumulate a lot of them. Another big item is all kinds of paper: pads of lined paper, little notepads, and file folders. Finally, one of the most significant ways people steal from their employers is by taking home samples of products the company makes. Employees think they are entitled to these products and even give them to friends. These examples many not seem like stealing, but the results are the same: extra costs to the company, which may result in lower pay raises.
  • 18. Definition  Explains what a term means. It uses denotation or connotation 1. Tells readers what term is being defined. 2. Presents a clear and precise basic definition. 3. Uses examples to show what the writer means. 4. Uses words and examples that readers will understand.
  • 19. Definition Paragraph Example According to The American Heritage Dictionary, gossip is a “trivial rumor of a personal nature,” but this definition makes gossip sound harmless. At first, gossip might not seem so bad. One person tells a second person something about someone, and that second person tells a third person, and so on. The information passes from person to person. However, gossip is much more than just information and rumor. As the rumor continues, it grows and changes, People do not know all the facts, so they add information. As the gossip goes from one person to another, the damage continues, and the person who is the subject of the gossip can’t do anything to answer or protect himself or herself. Because the potential damage may range from hurt feelings to a lost career, gossip is much worse than simply a “trivial rumor.”
  • 20. Classification  Organizes, or sorts, people or items into categories. A good classification paragraph: 1. Make sense of a group of people or items by organizing them into categories. 2. Uses useful categories. 3. Uses a single organizing principle. 4. Gives examples of what fits into each category.
  • 21. Classification Paragraph Example Test questions generally fall into categories, depending on how they are answered: objective and subjective. The first kind, objective questions, have definite right and wrong answers. Multiple choice, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions are objective. Although they can be tricky because of their wording, most students prefer objective questions. The answers are already there, and the student just has to choose the right one. Subjective test items, such as short-answer and essay questions, have no single correct answer. There is a range of possible responses. Students have to know the information in order to answer each question, and they have to present it in their own words. You can make a lucky guess on an objective question, but a subjective question doesn’t offer much hope for a student relying on dumb luck.
  • 22. Comparison & Contrast  Show similarities and differences among people, ideas, situations, or items. They are used to explain two subjects and help you decide between two options. 1. Uses subjects that have enough in common to be compared/contrasted. 2. Serves a purpose- either to help readers make a decision or understand subjects. 3. Presents several important, parallel points of comparison/contrast. 4. Arranges points in a logical organization.
  • 23. Compare & Contrast Paragraph Example When they get lost while driving, women and men have very different ways to find the right route. As soon as a woman thinks she might be lost, she will pull into a store or gas station and ask for directions. As she continues on, is she’s still not sure of the directions, she will stop again and ask someone else for help. Until they know they are on the right track, women will continue to ask for directions. In contrast, men would rather turn around and go home than stop and ask for directions. First, a man doesn’t readily admit he is lost. When it is clear that he is, he will pull over and consult a map. If he still find himself lost, he will again pull out that map. Either the map will finally put the man on the right route, or – as a last resort – he will reluctantly stop at a store or gas station and let his wife go in and ask for directions. Many battles of the sexes have raged over what to do when lost in the car.
  • 24. Cause and Effect  Explain what made an event happen and what occurred as a result. 1. Clearly distinguish between cause and effect. 2. Give clear and detailed examples of causes and/or effects.
  • 25. Cause & Effect Paragraph Example Much to her surprise, lottery winner Sylvia Lee found that sudden wealth was a mixed blessing – the results were both good and bad. After her win was announced, she was constantly hounded by people who wanted to sell her something. She got an unlisted phone number, but the more aggressive salespeople just camped out on her doorstep. Another negative result was that people started treating her differently. “I was shocked,” said Lee. “Everyone from the checkout clerk at the supermarket where I’ve shopped for years to my next-door neighbor acted as though I had changed. I’m still the same; I’ve just got money now.” Lee admits, though, that most of the changes have been positive. “It’s really a relief not worrying about money all the time. I actually went on my first shopping spree ever, and it was great.” Lee expects that other new and unexpected results of her sudden wealth are yet to come, but she’s not discouraged: so far, at least, the pluses far outweigh the minuses.

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