KARAPSS are systems where physical products and services work together to form an offeringUCD is a design practice that shifts focus from the market to individual usersAgile practices support collaborative teamwork and quick response to change
PINARTo design such an innovation approach, we formulated an overarching research question, about how Agile and UCD could support innovation as design teams work towards sustainability through product and PSS development. Secondary questions to support the primary question are; what are the key strategies for success in product and PSS development for sustainability? And Which tools, concepts and practices can contribute to that success, and how?
PINARStrategies for succes are mainly under 3 topics; moving in the right direction, building resilience and providing business value.
PINARFirst strategy is moving in the right direction. Using the four SPs as design constraints and checking actions against them periodically helps to ensure that all detail-level design actions remain on a course towards full sustainability. We underline designing for the full system to help moving in the right direction; identifying all stakeholders, understanding the dynamic of causal relationships help identify opportunities and decisions to lead sustainability.
We’ve built on the idea of creating flexible platforms here with our second strategic guideline. It’s not only important to make something that can be built on in the future, it’s important to support continuous improvement. In stage-gate design processes, change becomes more expensive late in the process, as the design becomes more solid. To truly innovate and build flexible platforms, a process should keep a design open to change and new opportunities while managing risk.
EFFIEprovide business value is a strategic guideline. Discover opportunity through needfinding and system mapping. After they really understand what is human needs not just user needs, they can increase the market share and revenue. Design teams will also work efficiently through motivation, collaboration and prototyping. They can also get the return on investment from sustainability. Not only about the profit but also the reputation and brand value.Working with Lean teams lean production lean requirement is a way to reduce waste and improve quality.
So, after considering our baseline and strategies for both sustainability and innovation, we pulled key tools and concepts from SSD, UCD, and Agile and mixed them together into a magical formula. User centered design focuses on finding and answering user needs over marketing needs, and Agile methods support collaborative teamwork and response to change.
PINARWhen design teams backcast from a vision of success, they work towards a defined need, with upfront planning and designing, creating and priotizing measures to come closer to the success at each stepping stone. What we borrow from agile is...
PINARReflecting and adapting which turns the planning and doing structure into a circular iterative process, allowing the team to test and get feedback, building up on the previous iteration each time.
PINARdividingthe process into even smaller steps allows the team to consider functionality in small steps, reflecting regularly and integrating feedback to minimize/manage risks and strengthen the process and product. It is an evolutionary process.
Iteration 0 is a pre-planning stage that some agile practitioners use to get the team on the same page before starting a project. We see value in the opportunity to get the team thinking about the system, including stakeholders and sustainability risks, and to start them off with a shared high-level vision of success. This is also a good time to take care of administrative details like team formation and process planning.
KARAFirst, the team can sketch the system of whatever they are working with using life-cycle mapping and identifying stakeholders and potential partnerships along the way. The SLCA can be used to identify sustainability risks of an existing or competitive product. This mapping process reflects many ideas from the TSPDs, but is meant as a quick idea generator for the team to use and build on along the way.
As in the TSPDs, the market needs and human needs should be identified for all stakeholders. UCD practices can help guide needfinding and bring stakeholders to life as individuals for the design team to consider. In addition, we recommend distinguishing between user wants, functional requirements, and human needs.
Before the project begins, requirements should be discussed only at a high level. While backcasting warns us of scenarios, Agile guide us in defining detailed requirements only as knowledge is gained. This is part of remaining open to new opportunities and managing risk.
Lean, cross functional teams are formed, considering potential partnerships based on the system map.
Then the team would settle on practical details like iteration lengths and communication plans.
PINARAfter understanding the system and needs at iteration 0, the iterative cycles start where the teams plan for each small iteration, which could be few weeks depending on the project. Then they would work collaboratively and reflect on the process and progress, adapt and start planning for the next iteration.
PINARPlanning for the first iteration would be starting with the high level project vision decided at iteration 0, come up with a quick brainstorm with several ideas and prioritize initial tasks by using the strategic guidelines.
PINARAll team members meet everyday – face-to-face if possible, or using collaboration technology. They work collaboratively with users and all stakeholders regularly. They have sustainability as a goal so they can use sustainability questions from MSPD. Rapid prototyping helps design teams to test with users.
EFFIEDuring reflecting on progress and process, they check in with users, all stakeholders, measure progress against expectations, check against system maps and SLCA and revise them when necessary.
EFFIEBefore the next iteration, deciding on what to keep doing, stop doing and what could be done better are three basic questions to go through together with brainstorming new ideas sparked by new knowledge.
A product launch doesn’t signal the end of this process. We are building stepping stones to sustainability. A product can always be improved, or services may be added to create value or facilitate relationships in the product system. In addition, there should be ways of collecting and integrating customer feedback.
A needs-driven agile innovation approach for sustainable product and PSS development Kara Davis, Pinar Öncel, Qingqing Yang
SUCCESS an innovation approachthat guides design teamstowards sustainable product and PSS developmentusing UCD and Agile methods
RESEARCH QUESTIONS RQ 1. How can design practices drawn from Agile and User-Centered Design support innovation as design teams work towards sustainability through product and product-service system (PSS) development? RQ 1.1. What are the key strategies for success in product and PSS development for sustainability? RQ 1.2. Which tools, concepts, and practices can contribute to that success, and how?
STRATEGIES for SUCCESS move in the RIGHT DIRECTION build RESILIENCE provide BUSINESS VALUE
STRATEGIES for SUCCESS move in the RIGHT DIRECTION freedom mobility use the 4SPs identity style-user wants design for the full system protection safe water understanding information about water quality and safety satisfy human needs not just user needs subsistence water
buildRESILIENCE STRATEGIES for SUCCESS regularly reflect and adapt stay open to new opportunities reflect adapt reflect adapt reflect adapt ... launch! next ... allow flexibility in design process manage risk
STRATEGIES for SUCCESS provideBUSINESS VALUE discover opportunity through needfinding and system mapping work efficiently through motivation, collaboration and prototyping lean = less waste ROI from sustainability
THE MAGIC FORMULA KEY TOOLS andCONCEPTS UCD User research Needmapping/personas Rapid prototyping User testing SSD Backcasting/ABCD 4 sustainability principles System mapping/TSPDs SLCA MSPD sustainability questions Agile Iteration 0 Iterative cycles Collaboration Openness to change Lean Team satisfaction and motivation
THE MAGIC FORMULA STEPPING STONES to SUCCESS do plan do plan
THE MAGIC FORMULA STEPPING STONES to SUCCESS reflect adapt adapt reflect
ITERATION 0 high-level pre-planning agree on SUCCESS and INITIAL GOALS A way to drink beverages while on the go. An earth and people-friendly way to carry a beverage around? A way to refill a beverage? A washable, reusable aluminum container with a screw cap? BACKCASTING from PRINCIPLES ≅ AGILE avoid detailed planning upfront
ITERATION 0 high-level pre-planning agree on SUCCESS and INITIAL GOALS A way to drink beverages while on the go. An earth and people-friendly way to carry a beverage around. (product + service?) A way to refill a beverage. (service) A washable, reusable aluminum container with a screw cap.- too detailed! BACKCASTING from PRINCIPLES ≅ AGILE avoid detailed planning upfront
ITERATION 0 high-level pre-planning set up TEAM and PARTNERS marketing client manager partner other stakeholders? industrial designer engineer
ITERATION 0 high-level pre-planning agree on PROCESS how long should each iteration take? how will we communicate?
ITERATION 1, 2, 3 … n PLANfor this iteration ADAPT WORK collaboratively REFLECT on progress and process
ITERATION 1, 2, 3 … n PLANfor this iteration Prioritized measures “An earth and people-friendly way to carry a beverage around” marketing client Small enough to carry Watertight manager partner industrial designer engineer
ITERATION 1, 2, 3 … n WORK collaboratively with sustainability as a goal regular communication w/ users and stakeholders MSPD -----------------? -------------? ------------------? --------? 10 minute daily meetings use MSPD for sustainability questions rapid prototyping
ITERATION 1, 2, 3 … n REFLECTon progress and process client partner measure progress against expectations check against maps/ revise maps check in with users and stakeholders
New measures Quickly brainstorm new ideas sparked by new knowledge. Fits in purse! Screwtop Refill at gym?
LAUNCHand MAINTAIN Services Takeback mechanisms, partnerships with other brands and distributors Products Tooth brushes, razors, and dishware made from #5 plastic develop related services, new versionsof products, collect and respond to feedback.