Food and energy


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Chapter of Biology class of Nutrition and sources of energy

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Food and energy

  1. 1. FOOD AND ENERGY FACT OR FICTION?a. Athletes need more proteins in their diets.b. The only salt in food is the one you add to it.c. As a part of a healthy diet, everyone should take vitamin supplements.d. You can go without water for longer than you can go without food.
  2. 2. WHY IS FOOD NEEDED?• Remember homeostasis?• FOOD PROVIDES ENERGY THAT IS NEEDED AND THE MATERIALS NECESSARY TO GROW AND REPAIR TISSUES.• NUTRIENTS: Substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential processes.
  3. 3. NUTRIENTS• SIX KINDS: • To measure energy, the – Carbohydrates unit is calorie. – Fats • 1 cal = the amount of – Proteins energy necessary to – Vitamins raise 1oC 1g of water. – Minerals • 1 Calorie = 1000 cal – Water • The more calories, the more energy.
  4. 4. CARBOHYDRATES (CHO’s)• Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen• Major source of energy: – 1g CHO’s = 4000 calories• Recommended ingestion: 50-60% of total Calories needed as CHO’s• Classified in: Simple and Complex.
  5. 5. FATS• High energy nutrients made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen; but has more than twice the energy of carbohydrates.• Classified as: – Unsaturated: Liquid at room temperature. – Saturated: Solid at room temperature.• No more than 30% of the Calories in your diet should come from fats.
  6. 6. PROTEINS• Nutrients that contain Nitrogen as well as Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. These are needed for tissue growth and repair.• Found in meat, poultry, fish, lentils and dairy products.• 12% of your diet should come from proteins.• Made of Amino Acids (AA’s): 20 different make up all proteins.• Essential AA’s: Comes only from food.• Complete/Incomplete: Depend on the number of AA’s in them.
  7. 7. NEEDED IN SMALL AMOUNTS… VITAMINS MINERALS• Act as helper molecules • Nutrients NOT made by in chemical reactions living things. inside the body. • Found in plants or animals• Water-soluble: You need that eat plants. to ingest them daily • Examples:• Fat soluble: Can be – Calcium Chlorine stored in fatty tissue. – Fluorine Iodine – Potassium Iron – Magnesium Phosphorus – Sodium
  8. 8. WATER• Makes up about 65- 70% of our body weight.• Needed for: – Digestion – Body fluids DRINK 2 LITERS A DAY (saliva, blood, sweat ) – Cell transport, etc.
  9. 9. THE FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID• Classifies food into six groups and indicates how many servings from each group should be eaten every day.
  10. 10. FOOD LABELS• Tells you in numbers, the nutrient content of a food so you can evaluate and compare.