12 principles of memory

12,596 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
12,596
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,021
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

12 principles of memory

  1. 1. 12 PRINCIPLES OF MEMORY How to get more out of your studying and test preparation
  2. 2. 1. SELECTIVITYTRYING TO LEARN EVERYTHING IS NOT POSSIBLE AND NOT REASONABLE.BY USING SELECTIVITY, YOU CAN IDENTIFY WHAT IS IMPORTANT TOFOCUS ON AND WHAT CAN BE IGNORED. SELECTIVITY IS THE PROCESSOF IDENTIFYING AND SEPARATING MAIN IDEAS AND IMPORTANT DETAILSFROM A LARGER BODY OF INFORMATION. SELECTIVITY HELPS YOUDECIDE WHAT TO SURVEY IN A CHAPTER, WHAT TO HIGHLIGHT IN YOURTEXTBOOK ,WHAT INFORMATION TO PUT IN YOUR NOTES, AND WHAT TOSTUDY FOR A TEST.
  3. 3. 2. ASSOCIATIONASSOCIATION IS THE PROCESS OF FORMING VISUAL OR AUDITORY CUESTO LINK TOGETHER TWO OR MORE ITEMS OR CHUNKS OF INFORMATIONTO PROCESS IN MEMORY. ASSOCIATIONS ARE AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENTOF COGNITIVE PROCESS. WORKING MEMORY CREATES ASSOCIATIONS ONA REGULAR BASIS. AN EXAMPLE OF ASSOCIATION IS THE MEMORYDEVICE: “SUPER MAN HELPS EVERY ONE” TO REMEMBER THE FIVEGREAT LAKES IN ORDER FROM WEST TO EAST (SUPERIOR, MICHIGAN,HURON, ERIE, AND ONTARIO).
  4. 4. 3. VISUALIZATIONVISUALIZATION IS A POWERFUL MEMORY TOOL, ESPECIALLYFOR VISUAL LEARNERS, BECAUSE IT PRESENTS INFORMATIONIN A VISUAL OR GRAPHIC FORM. THE PROCESS OFVISUALIZATION INVOLVES MAKING PICTURES OR “MOVIES” INYOUR MIND.
  5. 5. 4. ELABORATIONELABORATION IS THE PROCESS OF THINKING ABOUT, PONDERING, ORWORKING WITH AND ENCODING INFORMATION IN NEW WAYS.ELABORATION FORCES YOU TO MOVE BEYOND ROTE MEMORY. WHENYOU USE ROTE MEMORY FOR RECALLING TEXTBOOK INFORMATION, SUCHAS A SERIES OF STEPS OR A FORMULA FOR A MATH EQUATION, YOU MAYFIND YOURSELF UNABLE TO RESPOND TO QUESTIONS THAT PRESENT THEINFORMATION IN A FORM OTHER THAN THE EXACT FORM YOUMEMORIZED. HOWEVER, BY ELABORATING ON THE INFORMATION ANDENCODING AND USING IT IN A VARIETY OF WAYS, YOU MOVE BEYOND THELIMITATIONS OF ROTE MEMORY.
  6. 6. 5. CONCENTRATIONTO CONCENTRATE IS THE ABILITY TO BLOCK OUT DISTRACTIONS INORDER TO STAY FOCUSED ON ONE SPECIFIC ITEM OR TASK. YOU CANSTRENGTHEN YOU ABILITY TO CONCENTRATE BY BEING AN ACTIVELEARNER. ACTIVE LEARNING IS THE PROCESS OF USING A VARIETY OFSTRATEGIES THAT ACTIVELY INVOLVE OR ENGAGE YOU IN THE LEARNINGPROCESS. LEARNING TO CONCENTRATE RESULTS IN A DISCIPLINED ANDATTENTIVE MIND THAT IS RECEPTIVE TO THE LEARNING PROCESS.
  7. 7. 6. RECITATIONRECITATION IS A POWERFUL MEMORY TOOL THAT INVOLVES THEPROCESS OF EXPLAINING INFORMATION CLEARLY, OUT LOUD IN YOUROWN WORDS, AND IN COMPLETE SENTENCES WITHOUT REFERRING TOPRINTED MATERIALS. READING THE MATERIAL OUT LOUD ENCODES THEINFORMATION LINGUISTICALLY AND USES AN AUDITORY CHANNEL INTOYOUR LONG-TERM MEMORY.
  8. 8. 7. INTENTIONIT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW HOW YOU LEARN, WHAT YOU NEED TO LEARN,AND WHICH STRATEGIES WORK BEST FOR YOU AND THE SPECIFICLEARNING TASK INVOLVED. ONCE YOU KNOW THIS, YOU CAN USEACTION-ORIENTED OR GOAL-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR TO ACTIVATE YOURMEMORY. INTENTION IS THE PROCESS OF CREATING A PURPOSE OR AGOAL TO ACT OR PERFORM IN A SPECIFIC WAY. IT INVOLVES SETTING ALEARNING GOAL THAT CLEARLY STATES WHAT YOU PLAN TO ACCOMPLISHAND A PLAN OF ACTION THAT SHOWS HOW YOU INTEND TO ACHIEVE YOURGOAL.
  9. 9. 8. BIG AND LITTLE PICTURESTHE MEMORY PRINCIPLE OF BIG AND LITTLE PICTURES IS SOMETIMESREFERRED TO AS SEEING “THE FOREST AND THE TREES.” IF YOU FOCUSONLY ON THE FOREST, YOU MISS THE MEANING AND BEAUTY OFINDIVIDUAL TREES. IF YOU FOCUS ONLY ON A FEW INDIVIDUAL TREES,YOU MISS SEEING HOW ALL THE TREES TOGETHER MAKE A FOREST. THEMEMORY PRINCIPLE OF BIG AND LITTLE PICTURES IS A PROCESS OFIDENTIFYING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INFORMATION. THE “BIG PICTURES”ARE THE SCHEMAS, THEMES, CONCEPTS, AND MAIN IDEAS. THE “LITTLEPICTURES” ARE THE SUPPORTING DETAILS, SUCH AS FACTS, DEFINITIONS,EXAMPLES, OR PARTS OR COMPONENTS OF A LARGER CONCEPT. BOTHHIGHER AND LOWER LEVELS OF INFORMATION ARE IMPORTANT IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
  10. 10. 9. FEEDBACKFEEDBACK IS THE PROCESS OF VERIFYING HOW ACCURATELY ANDTHOROUGHLY YOU HAVE OR HAVE NOT LEARNED SPECIFIC INFORMATION.FEEDBACK INVOLVES A SEQUENCE OF STEPS: GOAL—ACTION—FEEDBACK—COMPARISON—RESULTS. SO YOU SET YOUR LEARNINGGOAL, DEVELOP A PLAN OF ACTION TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL, SELF-QUIZTO TEST YOUR RECALL OF THE INFORMATION, COMPARE YOUR MEMORYWITH YOUR NOTES OR TEXTBOOK, AND EXAMINE YOUR RESULTS TODETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT YOU KNOW THE INFORMATION. ONE OFTHE KEY PARTS OF THE MEMORY PRINCIPLE OF FEEDBACK INVOLVESUSING SELF-QUIZZING, A PROCESS OF TESTING YOURSELF SO YOU CANRECEIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OFYOUR UNDERSTANDING.
  11. 11. 10. ORGANIZATIONTHE PROCESS OF CREATING MEANINGFUL, LOGICAL STRUCTURE ORARRANGEMENT OF IDEAS AND INFORMATION IS THE MEMORY PRINCIPLEOF ORGANIZATION. ORGANIZE INFORMATION IN NEW AND MEANINGFULWAYS BY REORGANIZING, REGROUPING, OR REARRANGING INFORMATIONIN NEW WAYS HELPS YOU EXAMINE THE INFORMATION MORE CAREFULLY,CONNECT IMPORTANT IDEAS, PERSONALIZE THE INFORMATION, HOLDINFORMATION LONGER IN YOUR MEMORY, AND INCREASECOMPREHENSION, CONCENTRATION, INTEREST, AND MOTIVATION.CATEGORIZE THE INFORMATION BY MAKING LISTS, USE A PATTERN TOORGANIZE INFORMATION (SUCH AS CHRONOLOGICAL, SPATIAL, ETC.),AND USE A NEW METHOD TO PRESENT INFORMATION (SUCH AS VISUALMAPPING, FORMAL OUTLINES, CORNELL NOTES, MNEMONICS, ETC.)
  12. 12. 11. TIME ON TASKWHEN YOU ALLOCATE SUFFICIENT TIME AND SPACE CONTACT TIMEEFFECTIVELY TO LEARN COURSE MATERIAL, YOU ARE FOLLOWING THEPROCESS OF TIME ON TASK. HOW YOU USE TIME AND HOW MUCH TIMEYOU SPEND ON LEARNING AFFECT THE QUALITY OF YOUR LEARNINGEXPERIENCE AND DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT YOU WILL REMEMBERTHE INFORMATION. OBVIOUSLY THE MORE TIME YOU SPEND ONLEARNING NEW MATERIAL AND MAKING SURE YOU SPACE THAT TIME INSUCH A WAY THAT YOU DON’T HAVE TO CRAM AT THE LAST MINUTE, WILLENSURE YOU REMEMBER THE INFORMATION. USE EFFECTIVE TIMEMANAGEMENT TO HELP YOU MONITOR AND USE TIME EFFECTIVELY. DONOT RUSH THE LEARNING PROCESS AND PLAN SUFFICIENT STUDY TIMEFOR EACH COURSE.
  13. 13. 12. ONGOING REVIEWONGOING REVIEW IS THE PROCESS OF PRACTICING PREVIOUSLYLEARNED INFORMATION. EVEN THOUGH INFORMATION IN LONG-TERMMEMORY IS CONSIDERED TO BE PERMANENT, WITHOUT ONGOINGREVIEW, INFORMATION CAN FADE. ONGOING REVIEW IS A CRUCIAL STEPIN THE LEARNING PROCESS...IT IS THE FINAL STEP OF MOST READING,NOTE TAKING, AND STUDY SKILL STRATEGIES. INCLUDE TIME EACH WEEKTO REVIEW PREVIOUSLY LEARNED INFORMATION. REMEMBER PRACTICEMAKES PERFECT.
  14. 14. SOURCE:• Wong, Linda. Essential Study Skills. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2009. Print.

×