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Humans Don't Scale - the future of the Internet of Things
 

Humans Don't Scale - the future of the Internet of Things

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A talk to the Cambridge University Computer Laboratory, by Pilgrim Beart (currently a Visitor there) on 21st January 2013.

A talk to the Cambridge University Computer Laboratory, by Pilgrim Beart (currently a Visitor there) on 21st January 2013.

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    Humans Don't Scale - the future of the Internet of Things Humans Don't Scale - the future of the Internet of Things Presentation Transcript

    • Humans don’t scaleThe future of the Internet of Things Pilgrim Beart pilgrim@beart.org.uk SN31
    • Today: my perspective on IoT• What is it?• Why is it (not) happening now?• Interesting problems I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 2
    • My background Smart Energy Analytics Smart Heating Smart Appliances Smart Home Information Remote Control Analysis on how I & when I use energy • Heating • Appliances • Lights to help understand my bill and advice • Cooling • Locks on how to save. • Hot water • Security • Cameras 3
    • “Smart” => Connected + = 4 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • Every day seems brings a newinternet-connected thing/service 5 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • IoT means more than just“internet-connected-things”
    • Why now?• Trend: from Products->Service – Enduring service relationship (vs. one-time sell) – Easier UX – SmartPhone App – Remote access & control (for humans & machines)• Barriers falling – Increasing availability of Internet dial-tone – Falling costs of connecting• ARM: huge growth in embedded licenses I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 7
    • Why hasn’t IoT taken-off yet?• Everyone solving just their own problems – 1:1 applications (for that one product only) – Machine-to-human applications• Everyone building complete architectures• “The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from” – 3rd-party parts today don’t just interoperate• Humans (engineers) still have to get involved in making services & things work together ... and humans don’t scale I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 8
    • 9I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • 10I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • “me-centric” approach inhibits multiple API’s different from everyone else’s scaling inhibits network-effect Tech:MB/s, People:Dev’t, Commercial:Lock-in 11 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • “It’s not what’s in the boxes that matters, it’s how they are connected” Toby Jaffey 12I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • 13I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • Thing Thing Thing Thing Thing ThingThing Thing Thing Thing 14 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • API representations & paradigms• Data representations – JSON – XML – database schema• API paradigms – RESTful – PubSub (topic broker) • Broker-centric – AMQP (RabbitMQ etc.) – MQTT (mosquitto) • Distributed – ØMQ POLLING – Socket.IO • Available open source • Available as Cloud – Cloud.IO, Iron.IO, PubNub…• … plus many proprietary ones I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 15
    • Unlikely everyone will agree on a singlestandard/framework for IoT connectivity…but they don’t need to• Can glue different API’s together automatically iff they share common semantics I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 16
    • “Connected” at what layer? • At layer 7 we have the application, by definition unique since it’s where the value is added • Somewhere in layer 6-7 is where some common IoT conventions could really help. • Layers 3 & 4 are TCP/UDP/IP by definition, since we are talking about the Internet of Things • Layers 1 & 2 will vary, and we want to insulate App writers completely from that 17 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • Minimum semantic connectivity (not an ontology) • A lingua franca for machines • Can’t possibly envisage all uses – So inventing a superset is doomed to failure • So identify minimum common subset – i.e. the intersection of sets, not the union!Common to all applications… Common to all PHYs… COM COM MON MON I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 18
    • Common problems =>Common semantics• For Data – Enumerate data “channels” of a Thing – (name, type, value) – Data rates, push vs. pull etc.• For Managing Things – ID – Commissioning • Securely attaching to LAN, WAN & services – Topology (child devices) – Upgrades• …ideally all built on a small set of canonical types I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 19
    • Semantics isn’t just for connectivityComms stack: DB stack: Rules: Application Application Rules Common Common Common Semantics Semantics Semantics JSON BSON Rules Engine MQTT Storage SSL TCP IP 20 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • Today we have vertical platforms … Security Lighting Energy Heating Telecare … UI’s UI’s UI’s UI’s UI’s Apps Apps Apps Apps Apps Scale Scale Scale Scale Scale Testing Testing Testing Testing Testing Device Device Device Device Device Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Data Data Data Data Data Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Device Device Device Device Device Persistence Persistence Persistence Persistence Persistence Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Gateways Gateways Gateways Gateways Gateways Devices Devices Devices Devices Devices 21 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • IoT requires horizontal platforms … Security Lighting Energy Heating Telecare … Directory Directory Directory Directory Directory & Auth & Auth & Auth & Auth & Auth UI’s UI’s UI’s UI’s UI’s Apps Apps Apps Apps Apps Scale Scale Scale Scale Scale Testing Testing Testing Testing Testing Device Device Device Device Device Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Mgmt Data Data Data Data Data Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Warehouse Device Device Device Device Device Persistence Persistence Persistence Persistence Persistence Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Skyhooks Gateways Gateways Gateways Gateways Gateways Devices Devices Devices Devices Devices 22 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • I’m an engineer, so…REDUCING IT TO PRACTICE 23 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • Start with the customer: What do IoT customers want?1. Scale to millions (of users & of sensors) - cost-effectively – i.r.o. $0.10/user/month or $0.01/sensor/month with per-minute updates2. Easy to manage – subset of 1): scaling practical only if cost-effectively managed*3. Reduced Time- and Cost-to-market – minimal engineering time, minimal NRE costs*4. 3rd-party enablement (ecosystem) – end-devices and gateways can be added without IoT core code changes* – agnostic (no lock-in)5. Reliable6. Secure7. Rapid evolution of every part (but stable architecture)*because Humans Don’t Scale I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 24
    • To prove it, build it Component Implementation Directory & Auth (Ab)use DNS? UX HTML+Websockets? Data representation JSON/BSON API paradigm MQTT/AMQP/ØMQ? Data warehousing & TempoDB & MongoDB Persistence Device Mgmt, Apps Async (node.js?) Device Raspberry Pi? mBed? PHY 6LoWPAN? Important principle: Every part of this can be swapped-out for an alternative (proves it’s open). Ideally, prove that by implementing 2 alternatives for each. 25 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi!
    • What next• IoTA, led by ARM, to break down IoT silos. – Current focus: • Semantics • Security • Management – Bidding for TSB-funding • Any CL projects of relevance to our bid? I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 26
    • Interesting problems (to me!)Most aren’t unique to IoT. But we need automation because Humans Don’t Scale• General Semantics (what existing frameworks can we ride on?)• Scaling++: see what breaks & fix it – Fun Hobby: run client+server on “infinitely elastic cloud” and let them rip each other apart! – Memcached doesn’t help writes (REDIS, Mongo etc.) – Sharding good for writes, but manually precomputing reduces• Debugging distributed systems – e.g. Google’s Dapper• Getting data to the right place automatically – Gossip protocols – Migration as the norm • Constantly take advantage of latest Cloud services • Backup as an intrinsic property of the architecture, not of a particular database technology• “Rules” that move automatically to run in the right place – Even partition automatically too• Energy efficiency• Nodes in a Pubsub graph start to look like neurons… I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 27
    • Thanks for listening• Please do introduce relevant colleagues Pilgrim Beart pilgrim@beart.org.uk SN31 I’m in CUCL room SN31 Mondays & Tuesdays – come & say hi! 28