Psychology In Leadership 3

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  • 1. Psychology in leadership
  • 2. Psychological Factors in Sport Activity – Pair activity Write why you think it is important to understand psychological factors when leading a sporting activity or being a sports leader. Be prepared to present your findings to the class
  • 3. Social loafing
  • 4. What is meant by the term ‘social loafing’?
  • 5. If I was pulling a rope?
  • 6. Case of the rope pulling contest • Rope Pulling: – As you add more and more people to a group pulling on a rope, the total force exerted by the group rose, but the average force exerted by each group member declined. (Ringlemann)
  • 7. Social Loafing BASIC PRINCIPLE The larger the number of individuals whose work is combined on a group task, the smaller is each individual’s contribution.
  • 8. Social Loafing • Ringelmann 70 Expected performance (1913, 1927) observed that men pulling on a 60 Force per person (kg) rope attached to a 50 dynamometer exerted 40 less force in proportion 30 to the number of people Actual performance 20 in the group: 10 The Ringelmann effect 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Group size (persons)
  • 9. Development of Team Cohesion Discussion Activity How could we ensure that we reduce the Riglemann effect as much as possible during the coaching of our sporting activities.
  • 10. Team dynamics and cohesion
  • 11. Cohesion Flipchart – group activity You have been named head coach a sports team in the college (your choice) What measures are you going to put in place to encourage cohesion. Present your findings to the class
  • 12. Team Dynamics • A group is two or more people • A group has a collective identity and a sense of shared purpose, mutual awareness • Successful groups has a strong collective identify. • They socialise, share ambitions and goals • They have good communication, value everyone's input
  • 13. Social or task
  • 14. Cohesion Pair activity What do you think influences Group cohesion? In pairs record your answers and be prepared to answer questions
  • 15. Group development • Stability - Cohesion develops the longer a group is together with the same members • Similarity- Cohesion develops when the more similar the group members are in terms of age, sex, skills and attitudes • Size - Cohesion develops more quickly in small groups • Support - Cohesive teams tend to have managers and coaches who provide support to team members and encourage them to support one another • Satisfaction- Cohesion is associated with the extent to which team members are pleased with each others performance, behaviour and conformity to the norms of the team
  • 16. Group formation
  • 17. Talent or blend • Michael Jordan – “Talent wins games, but teamwork championships” • Talented teams – playing poorly • Less talented teams - succeed
  • 18. Can you name any successful teams?
  • 19. What made these teams successful? Open your envelops Divide the contents up between the group Join the pieces together to compete the text
  • 20. In completing the task, did you? • A common vision • Clear and definite goals which go hand-in-hand with this vision • Members who share their understanding of strategy and tactics • Great inner discipline (meaning they act professionally together) • Players with characteristics which complement each other • A good division of roles among the players, with all members treated equally • Players who put the common good before their own interests • Players who take responsibility for the whole team, with everyone accepting mistakes as long as people do their best.
  • 21. What's the different between a group and a team?
  • 22. Team or Group? • Complex definitions • badminton class, karate club or exercise class as a “group”? • groups of people who play soccer or volleyball as a “team”? • A collection of people are not necessarily a group and a group is not necessarily a team
  • 23. How a group becomes a team • Evolutionary process • Teams are constantly changing and developing • Groups go through four stages of development (Tuckman, 1965) • Vary in duration and sequence for different groups
  • 24. Cohesion Card sorting activity – Groupwork Look at a Tuckman’s stages of group development and sort out the order in which they should be ranked. Be prepared to justify your choice
  • 25. Four stages of development Forming Storming Norming Performing
  • 26. Forming • 1st stage • Where members become familiar with other members • Team engages in social comparisons, assessing each others strengths and weaknesses • Individuals also try to determine if they belong to the group
  • 27. Storming • 2nd stage • Characterised by: – resistance to the leader, – resistance to control by the group – interpersonal conflict • Occurs when there is a established • Infighting can occur • Relieving stress will help
  • 28. Norming • 3rd stages • Conflicts are resolved and a sense of unity forms • Athletes work together to reach a common goal • Group cohesion occurs at this stage
  • 29. Cohesion • “the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group” (Festinger et al, 1950) • Many definitions • Cohesion comprises of: – Task cohesion – Social cohesion • Explains how teams overcome conflict to succeed (Carron, 1992)
  • 30. Performing • Final stage • Channel energies for team success • The team focuses on problem solving • Roles are well defined • Team members respect and encourage accomplishments