PRESENT SIMPLEFORM: Affirmative.I/ you / we / they work as (a) teacher(s)He / She works* in a bankThe third person “s”: work ---- works1) teaches/ washes / boxes / kisses / does2) study ---- studies (however: play --- plays)
NEGATIVE:I / you / we / they don’t walk to schoolShe / he /it doesn’t work (3rd person sing)INTERROGATIVE:Where do you/they/we live?What does she/he do? (third person singular)
USES1) For habits or repeated actions*:Students usually walk to school.Does Paul always do his homework?I am never late for schoolWe usually have frequency adverbs or time expressions indicating frequency: every day, twice a month, from time to time, once in a while ….
2) Facts or states:We live in CórdobaHe works in a bank3) General truths about a person or the world:I speak three languagesThe sun rises in the east4) With a future sense: when we talk about “timetables, programmes..etc for public transport, cinemas…The bus leaves Plymouth at 1.30 and arrives in London at 13.45What time does the film start?
PRESENT CONTINUOUSFORM: Subject + to be + …ingI am listening* to musicAre you studying English?We aren’t learning Greek this year.-ing adding rules: listen – listeningsmoking, coming, writing (we drop the “e”)We double the last consonant:- running, stopping,- permitting, beginning,- travelling, programmingBe careful: studying, playing!!!!
USES:1) For an activity happening at the moment of speaking.What’s that smell? Something is burning.Why are you wearing that funny hat?.2) For an activity happening for a limited period of time at or near the present, but not necessarily at the moment.Please don’t take that book. Anne’s reading it.3) For future plans or arrangements:We are going to the cinema this evening.
STATE VERBS1- Verbs of mind:Know, understand, think*, believe, forget, remember, mean, doubt2- Verbs of emotion and feeling:like, love, hate, prefer, want, care3- Verbs of the five senses: They are used with “can”See, smell, taste, hear
4) Verbs of possession:have, own, belong That book belongs to me.5) Certain other verbs:A newspaper costs about 40p.Be careful! That bottle contains poison.depend, consist, seem
Pay attention!!!!:a) Think (= have an opinion)What do you think of classical music? I think it’s boringThink (= have in one’s thought)You aren’t listening to me. What are you thinking about?b) Have (=Posses)I have brown hairHave + noun (it implies activity)I’m having a bath / We are having dinnerc) See can be used in the continuous when it means “visit”:I am seeing the doctor tomorrow.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPE/CONTINUOUSFORM:We have lived in Cordoba for ages.We have been living in Cordoba for ages.How long have you lived in this town?How long have you been living in his town?We haven’t done much exercise lately.We haven’t been doing much exercise lately.
USES:1)Unfinished past: (for an action or state which began in the past and still continues): usually with for / since / how longI’ve been working for this company for ten years.(I have worked)How long have you been studying English? (have you studied)There is little or no difference between the simple or the continouos in this use. However, if the continuous is possible, English has a preference for using it. Certain verbs are not used in the continous:I’ve been a teacher for ten years.He’s had a car since he was 18.How long have you known Paul?
2) Present result: it refers to a past action and shows the result of that action in the present.She has broken her leg.(That’s why she can’t walk)Look! It has been snowing. (The ground is all white)In this use, the Present Perfect Simple emphasizes the completed task:I have painted the living room. It looks lovely now.The Present Perfect Continous is interested in the activity and in the things that happened as the activity was taking place: A: You’ve got paint in your hair. B: Oh! I’ve been painting the living room.
IMPORTANT!!A-As with all continuous tenses, the Present Perfect Continuous expresses duration. Certain verbs, by definition, do not suggest duration: die / start / begin / finish / stop / lose / breakThese verbs are usully found in the simple.B- If the object of the verbs has a quantity or number, only the simple is possible: I’ve eaten five pieces of toast this morning.
3) Experience. The Present Perfect is used to express an action which happened in the past and is finished, but we are not interested in when.A: Have you ever been in a car crash?B: Yes, I haveIf the time is stated and more details are given, the tense changes to the Past:A: When did it happen?B: In 2001. I was driving down a road when a car came….
What is the difference?1) I’ve lived/’ve been living in London for six years. I lived in London for six years.2) I’ve written two plays. Shakespeare wrote about 30.3) Peter has injured his ankle. Peter injured his ankle.