No List Available. Rescuing Libyan Museums from Africom’s Oblivious: The Jamahiriya Museum of Tripoli

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Research paper by Pilar Gonzalo presented on 2006

Research paper by Pilar Gonzalo presented on 2006

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  • 1. NO LIST AVAILABLERESCUING LIBYAN MUSEUMS FROM AFRICOM’SOBLIVIOUS:THE JAMAHIRIYA MUSEUM OF TRIPOLIPilar Gonzalohttp://libyanmuseums.wikispaces.comMuseum Technologies. Fall 2006M.A. in Museum Professions
  • 2. 2Index1. Introduction........................................................................................................................31.1. Purpose of the research.............................................................................................31.2. Methodology.............................................................................................................41.3. Main Contextual Issues.............................................................................................61.3.1. Africa, AFRICOM and Libya .......................................................................61.3.2. Internet in Libya and Libya in Internet .........................................................81.3.3. Web2.0 as an Alternative ..............................................................................101.3.4. Impact on Museum Professions ....................................................................102. IDENTIFICATION: Detection and listing of Museums in Libya.....................................113. MAPPING: Geographical Identification of Museums in Libya........................................154. STANDARDIZATION: Organization of the Online Information about the JamahiriyaMuseum of Tripoli.............................................................................................................164.1. General Information..................................................................................................204.2. The Building.............................................................................................................204.3. History ......................................................................................................................204.4. Archive .....................................................................................................................194.5. The Collection ..........................................................................................................214.6. Images.......................................................................................................................214.7. Virtual Tour ..............................................................................................................214.8. Jamahiriya‟s Blog .....................................................................................................214.9. Research....................................................................................................................214.10. About Libya..............................................................................................................214.11. Conclusions and Recommendations.........................................................................225. PUBLICATION: Online Posting of the Research.............................................................236. References..........................................................................................................................24
  • 3. 31. Introduction1.1. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCHThis research will address two starting facts, the first is the lack of information aboutmuseums in Libya available in the website of the International Council of African Museums(AFRICOM,) and the second is the apparent lack of museum websites in Libya. As aconsequence of this, the objective of this study is overcoming both realities through, Complementing AFRICOM´s website by compiling, structuring, and improving theinformation available online about museums in Libya Gathering, locating and mapping in a reference document the museums in Libya Overcoming the gaps of Web1.0 by using a methodology based on Web2.0 tools as aflexible, interactive and participative alternative option Raising awareness about the online situation of Libyan Museums in comparison withother areas of the world by showing how uneven and disperse is the information aboutthem Underlining the importance and role of the Jamahiriya Museum at Tripoli andimproving its online visibility for an international and local audience Proving Web2.0 academic usefulness as a valid and effective research tool Encouraging museum professionals about the use of Web2.0 tools as an inexpensiveways of overcoming lack of IT personnel or electronic technology Creating a methodology model for small museums and museums from developingcountries which can afford for several reasons design and keep a website Finally, creating a reference document which will be subsequently published onlineunder a Creative Commons Non-Commercial Share Alike License
  • 4. 4Accordingly to these objectives, the final goal of this research is achieving anacademic reference document on Libyan Museums, focused on the specific example ofJamahiriya Museum at Tripoli, which intends to be a reference on the field of LibyanMuseums as well as a model for other museums located or involved in realities in whichhaving a website is a very difficult task. I will make a difference by accomplishing a primaryinvestigation and elaborating a reference study that will be made available online forresearchers, professionals and people interested in museums and Libyan culture. After thisresearch, the sentence “No List Available” will become an outdated portrayal of the museumsof Libya.1.2. METHODOLOGYThis study is structured in four main steps (Identification, Mapping, Standardization,and Publication.) The following steps, Identifying what and where are the Museums in Libya: search online and offline Listing them, specifying their location, and checking in a more specific way (by usingtheir names) their presence online in case some of them had their own website Placing the museums on the map of Libya Elaborating a reference document about the Jamahiriya Museum by using a basictemplate resembling a standard museum website, and providing in this waysystematized contents available online Making conclusions and best practices recommendationsAs stated before, the approach to this challenging topic will be done by using Web2.0tools as a flexible, interactive and participative alternative option to other traditional researchmethods and information sources, that in the specific case of Libyan Museums an accordingto their apparent lack of websites, seemed to be not enough effective. The idea is overcoming
  • 5. 5the weakness of Web1.0 –as the apparent lack of museum websites in Libya reveals inaddition to the lack of information available in the website of the AFRICOM – and being ableto access other online information resources about museums in Libya. I will accomplish thisgoal by using the alternative options that Web2.0 main tools provide. The ones used in thisresearch are, Flickr: Photosharing engine Wikipedia: Collaborative encyclopedia based on wiki technology YouTube: Videosharing engine Google Video Beta: Videosharing engine (in transition to be joined to YouTube as aunique source) Technorati: Informational syndication engine about post on blogs del.icio.us: Sharing engine of bookmarked online referencesThe highlights of these selected services are, in general terms, Being sharing and collaborative information services, which potentially providesmore personal visions and information than regular Web1.0 services Syndication options for updating information, which avoids cumbersome and time-consuming searches in the wide and increasingly growing world wide web Tools for specific searches, which also can be syndicated Their popularity among internet users, which assures a big scope on the searches inaddition to diverse and big sized potential information rangeIn addition to this Web2.0 tools, this research will also use another online resources:search engines such as Google and Google Scholar as well as online data bases (Art Index,art full Text, Lexis Nexis, and Groove Art Online.)
  • 6. 6Finally, other offline sources (regular academic ones such as, books, articles andpublications) will be used to polish and complete the information gathered.1.3. MAIN CONTEXTUAL ISSUES1.3.1. Africa, AFRICOM, and LibyaRegarding to museums activities and even a general international interest and focus, Icould be said that Africa is the forgotten continent. Despite its enormous size, Africa‟sinternational presence is remarkable low. This fact affects to all aspects of daily life in thoseareas in which hunger, wars or illnesses are letting Africans develop their lives. In thiscontext, speaking about internet and digital technologies could seem unnecessary and evenshallow. However, it is my belief that improving the professional environment of Africanmuseums could be a way of improving life in Africa.Regarding internet, in Africa there is a significant lack of developed technicalinfrastructure, which increases even more the lower levels of Africa‟s international presence.According to Ken Feingold1, the main problems to access the web in most parts of the webare, Local phone service is metered and most internet providers charge for time or datatransferred (not only expense of time but also money) Bandwidth severe limited Need of specially configured browsers and hardware1Feingold, Ken. “ERROR 404: File not Found.” Leonardo Special Issue. Fifth Annual New York Digital Salon.17 Nov. – 13 Dec. 1997, School of Visual Arts, New York. pp. 449-490.
  • 7. 7This will have a major impact not only on the topic itself but also on the researchprocess, as it is fundamentally based on online published information and on the use ofinternet to gather the information needed and as a publishing goal itself.Internet access could be considered a luxury in Africa, not to mention museumsowning websites with updated information. As a consequence of this, and even regardless tobudgets, museums in Africa seem not having enough tools to develop their presence online.In addition to this, museums‟ potential online audiences share the same access andonline presence problem. The optimistic assumption that the Web is “Universally accessible”turns into a very different reality in Africa. In addition to this, the motivation to do a majoreffort in launching websites is lesser because creating online audiences for Art Museums inAfrica is a more than hard challenge.However, all these technical difficulties that surely will come up during my researchprocess will also underline my commitment to do it. It is my belief that internet is one of thebest tools to implant in Africa as it permits to overcome expensive physical infrastructuresand the information can be speeded on real time all over the world. That is why I want tocontribute on that.AFRICOM, the International Council of African Museums, was established in theyear 2000 as a result of the evolving of the program for Africa of the same name supportedby the International Council of Museums (ICOM.)2It main mission is contributing toimprove and develop the museums‟ world in Africa. In accordance with Chapter IV, Article19.1 of the AFRICOM Statues, the regions of Africa are defined as follows: North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Egypt2Abungu, Lorna. “From the Director…” Africom News, Issue #5, 2006.
  • 8. 8 East Africa: Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda,Burundi West Africa: Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, SierraLeone, Liberia, Cote dIvoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria Central Africa: Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, EquatorialGuinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Gabon, Sao Tomé Southern Africa: Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana,Namibia, Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa Indian Ocean Islands: Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion,MayotteConsequently, Libya is one of the six countries of North Africa Region and it is underthe scope of AFRICOM‟s activities.All the countries of the North Africa Region share with Libya certain characteristics,their location on the Mediterranean coast which means the African connection with Europeand Asia and an Arabic cultural background.Libya is 90% Sahara Desert and hosts a population of no more than 6,000,000habitants. The country is led by Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi under a dictatorial regimesince 1969 and its currency is stronger than the Euro. I can guess that the specific politicalsituation under a long dictatorship had part of responsibility in the current situation about itsmuseums and its websites. However, in case it is the reason for the internal situation,AFRICOM should contribute to overcome it as it is part of their mission and, as this paperwill demonstrate, need of a bit of commitment and imagination.1.3.2. Internet in Libya and Libya in InternetAs in the rest of Africa, internet in Libya is an important issue. Regarding to this, thearticle, “Libya, The Internet in a Conflict Zone” is a good portrait of the internet status in
  • 9. 9Lybia despite have been published in 2004. This article was published in the issue, “TheInternet in the Arab World. A New Space of Repression?” of the magazine of The ArabicNetwork for Human Rights Information, and it underlines the close connection betweeninternet development in Libya and the political situation of the country under MohammadMuammar Al-Qadafi‟s dictatorship.According to the text it seems that the situation is less repressive than in othercountries such as Saudi Arabia, although censorship in addition to banning and blockingwebsites in opposition to the regime is a common practice,It is difficult for the Libyan government to roll back the privileges it grantedits information society and to do what other Arab governments have done:grant a single company a monopoly over Internet service provision so as tolimit the availability of oppositional websites and their impact on Libyancitizens3.Despite this presumed censorship climate, I personally do not find any reason to banLibyan Museums from the internet when, indeed, some of them are tributes to theMohammad Muammar Al-Qadafi‟s figure.Possible reasons to ban Libyan Museums‟ online presence could be the nudity ofsome of the Greek and Roman sculptures or just lack of interest on the topic. Anotherexplanation to this lack of websites and online presence of Libyan Museum could have noconnection with political issues and being just because of lack of technical infrastructure.With the aim of avoiding speculations I contacted Ms. Lorna Abungu, ExecutiveDirector of AFRICOM to get accurate information about the impact of the internet in Libyaon the Libyan Museums‟ online presence, as well as to know the specific reasons why thesemuseums are not listed by AFRICOM. Unfortunately, I did not receive any answer to myquestion. However, in other occasions I have got quick and kind responses from AFRICOM‟s3“Libya, the Internet in a Conflict Zone.” The Internet in the Arab World. A New Space of Repression? ArabicNetwork for Human Rights Information (http://www.hrinfo.net/en/reports/net2004/libya.shtml)
  • 10. 10Executive Director, so I can infer that there is some issue between Libya and theadministration of AFRICOM and that is why Ms. Abungu did not answer my informationrequest email.In addition to this absence in AFRICOM, Libya is not listed in the followingremarkable websites and institutions for African Culture, Africalia: http://www.africalia.be ICOM National Committees: http://icom.museum/nationals.html Observatory of Cultural Policies in Africa: http://ocpa.irmo.hr/index-en.html Africa Union: http://www.africa-union.org1.3.3. Web2.0 as an AlternativeResearching about a country such as Libya, deeply marked by its dictatorship and itsAfrican-Arab condition and location, is researching about a very little trendy topic.Accordingly, the academic sources are limited. On the other hand, and as noted in the article,“Libya, The Internet in a Conflict Zone,”4internet is a wonderful vehicle to avoidestablishment ways of information. That is why lots of websites opposed to the politicalsituation in Libya raised their voices from the outside.Under the „web 2.0′ umbrella: blogs, wikis, Flickr, del.icio.us, and all kinds ofnetworking software are increasingly used in current life. Web2.0 tools -such as Flickr- arebased on the idea of exchange and collaboration and that is why these tools are becoming auseful source for academic research on current or less popular topics.In the case of Libyan Museums, not even listed by AFRICOM, an organizationspecifically committed to the development of museums in Africa, the standardizedinformation available online is really limited. That is a strong reason to turn to Web2.0 as theexpression of individuals instead of established organizations.4“Libya, the Internet in a Conflict Zone.” Ibid.
  • 11. 111.3.4. Impact on Museum ProfessionsThis research is important to museum professionals because it will constitute areference document in the field. There is lack of organized and updated online informationabout of museums in Libya. A document like this will facilitate access to basic information ofLibyan Museums to professionals from other parts of the world. In addition to this, it willincrease the sense of more cohesive museum environment among museums professionals atLibya.In addition to this, providing museums, museum professionals, researchers, and artdealers with a reference tool about Libyan Museums will surely contribute to deter the illegaltrade in artworks from this area of the world. In fact, Kamal Shtewi, main responsible of theJamahiriya Museum has denounced the lack of security in the museum as well as the lootingrisk and he demands more security cameras inside the building. According to Rana Jawad inthe article “Libia teme por su patrimonio robado,” this risk is not specific of the JamahiriyaMuseum: because of this the Sabratha Museum had to send its most valuable works to othermuseums in Egypt5.2. IDENTIFICATION: Detection and Listing of Museums in LibyaLibya is one of the six countries with not list of museums available in AFRICOM‟swebsite, in addition to: Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & Principe, and Somalia. Thereason for specifically choosing Libya among all them is because Libya shares moresimilarities than any of the rest with my cultural background as a Spaniard. Regarding thescope and time limitations of this paper, I thought it was the most feasible one.5Jawad, Rana. “Libia teme por su patrimonio robado.”BBC Tripoli Mundo, Cultura.“(http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_4957000/4957662.stm)
  • 12. 12Regarding the searching process, the idea of this study is not describing theexploration practice, but the results. In other words, this paper only describes and analyzesthe results, as far as the searching process basically consisted on typing in search engines‟boxes increasingly specific words as I was finding more specific information about the topic.However, I can add a few notes about it.The main portrayal about the searching process is that it has being really time-consuming, as there was not any reference place from where starting the research. In additionto this, the different languages used in Libya, as well as in the web, made this searching jobeven more time-consuming and cumbersome.Far to be easy, this work has been complicated and bulky, because of the lack ofinformation and reference sources of all kind. Although Web2.0 tools have been crucial tofind information about some of them, social tagging made my search process a compendiumof different languages, possibilities and imagination. In this sense, I have to finally mentionthe idea of social tagging and folksonomy as one of the main features of Web2.0 tools.Folkosonomy, as stated by Wikipedia English is,A folksonomy is an Internet-based information retrieval methodologyconsisting of collaboratively generated, open-ended labels that categorizecontent such as Web pages, online photographs, and Web links. A folksonomyis most notably contrasted from a taxonomy in that the authors of the labelingsystem are often the main users (and sometimes originators) of the content towhich the labels are applied. The labels are commonly known as tags and thelabeling process is called tagging6.Regarding my experience, although folkosonomy is useful and praiseworthy to offerdifferent perspectives and ways of understanding a unique reality, it has being revealed as afair inaccurate searching method. However, it is true that thanks to the social tagging7I wasable to find information which would probably have been hidden to me. In this sense, the6“Folkosonomy.” Wikipedia, English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy)7“Social Tagging.” Wikipedia, English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_tagging)
  • 13. 13promises of the pursued Semantic Web or Web3.0 to transform contents in to knowledge arecurrently a chimera,The Semantic Web is about two things. It is about common formats forinterchange of data, where on the original Web we only had interchange ofdocuments. Also it is about language for recording how the data relates to realworld objects. That allows a person, or a machine, to start off in one database,and then move through an unending set of databases which are connected notby wires but by being about the same thing.8Despite the limitations of social tagging, which can be defined as an extensive sourceinstead and intensive one, it is my belief that imagination is probably one of the main toolsfor researchers, especially when the specific study is a primary research like in this case.Although cumbersome, I have to conclude that the searching process of museums has been areal adventure. Whenever I found a museum totally “hidden” in Google or in academicpapers, the idea of being making a difference for museums and museum professionals, wastaking shape.That is why I am really pleased about the results obtained, because they are a first stepin the Libyan Museums environment, complementary information for AFRICOM, and amodel for non wealthy institutions. This humble but significant step forward is the very valueof primary field investigations such as this.After an intense and meticulous search on the cited Web2.0 tools, I have foundindications of the existence of the following museums in Libya, Apollonia Museum, Apollonia Cyrene Museum, Cyrene Germa Museum, Germa Ghadames Museum, Ghadames Jamahiriya Museum, Tripoli8“Semantic Web.” World Wide Web Consortium. (http://www.w3.org/2001/sw)
  • 14. 14 Leptis Magna Museum, Leptis Magna Museum of Islamic Art, Benghazi Museum of Islamic Art, Tripoli Qasr Libya Museum, Qasr Libya Sabratha Museum, Sabratha Slonta Museum, Slonta Tocra Museum, Tocra Tolmeita Museum, Al MarjAfter this achievement, I consider that AFRICOM‟s website is not treating LibyanMuseums in equal terms as museums from other African countries. The absence of thesemuseums referenced in its website is something that should be changed on behalf of theAFRICOM‟s main mission and the international museum environment.
  • 15. 153. MAPPING: Geographical Identification of Museums in LibyaAfter realizing that there are numerous and significant museums in Libya, moreover,which are internationally competitive in terms of the quality of their collections, it is mybelief that one of the Libyan Museums‟ most urgent needs is projecting a professional groupimage. In this sense, one of the first steps is achieving a group image by placing them onLibya‟s map and providing accurate directions. According to this, I have created aninteractive map which not only locate the different Libyan Museum settlements, but alsoprovides basic information about each one available in Web2.0 tools.
  • 16. 164. STANDARDIZING: Organization of Online Information about theJamahiriya Museum of TripoliOne of the main highlights regarding the research process on the Jamahiriya Museumof Tripoli is the different names used to denominate it. These are the different denominationsfound, Tarabulus Museum Museum of Tripoli National Museum of Tripoli Jamahiriya Museum Red Castle Al-Saray MuseumWonderful night image obtained from the websitehttp://www.q8castle.com/vb/showthread.php?t=8006&page=2 (This image only can be found if the search ismade in Arabic)
  • 17. 17In fact, all these different names mean the same in some cases although in differentlanguages or refer to different uses and physical characteristics of the museum and/or thebuilding.This lack of consensus in the way of calling this museum happens because of thespecific history of the building regarding its different uses and because of the multilinguallandscape of the city. In addition to this, Web2.0 tools use to offer a diverse approach totopics as users are different and with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.The Jamahiriya Museum at Tripoli is an outstanding museum which unfortunatelydoes not have its own website. In addition to this, as stated before there is a shameful lack ofinformation about it by significant organizations focused on African culture and museums.There are numerous proves about the importance of this museum. UNESCO, mentorof this museum, has available online some of the documents about the creation of thismuseum. The fist one is a preparatory study made in 1977 titled “National Republic Museumof Libya” elaborated by: Jan Jelikek, Ivan Ruller and Peter Sewell as a commission forUNESCO9. Another document available online regarding UNESCO‟s commitment with theJamahiriya Museum is, “Agricultural Galleries Planned for the Libyan National Museum: aninterview with Dr. Jan Jelinek.10,” which depicts the specific plans for these galleries andtheir significance. In addition to this, UNESCO is publishing online the address given by Mr9Jelinek, Jan; Ruller Ivan and Peter Sewell. “National Republic Museum of Libya.” UNESCO, 1977.(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0002/000248/024894eb.pdf)10Jelinek, Jan. “Agricultural Galleries Planned for the Libyan National Museum: an interview with Dr. JanJelinek.” Museum, #143, vol. XXXVI, nº 3, 1984. UNESCO.(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001273/127342eo.pdf#60790)
  • 18. 18Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Director-General of Unesco, on the occasion of the inaugurationof the National Museum of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in Tripoli, 10 September 198811.There are also some articles underlining Jamrihiya‟s significant role and collection, asthe titled, “The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Museum: A first in the Arab World” written byMounir Bouchenaki at the magazine Museum published by UNESCO12.These are some examples of how standard academic sources can prove the importanceof this museum in addition to the fact that its absence on the AFRICOM‟s website issomething not fair according to its quality.But not only academic sources are giving proves about the relevance of Jamahiriya‟scollection. According to Wikipedia, “The Jamahiriya Museum, built in consultation withUNESCO, may be the countrys most famous museum. It houses one of the finest collectionsof classical art in the Mediterranean”13In addition to this, sources from tourist companies use to depict Jamahiriya‟s quality.The following information is an extract from the Lonely Planet Online Guide “LibyanEclipse 2006”14,11Mayor Zaragoza, Federico. “Inauguration of the National Museum of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya KeynoteAddress.” UNESCO. Tripoli, 10 September, 1988.(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000805/080502eo.pdf)12Bouchenaki, Mounir. “The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Museum: A first in the Arab World.” Museum, #143, vol.XXXVI, nº 3, 1984. UNESCO. (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000857/085703eo.pdf#85688)13“Libya.” Wikipedia. English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libya#_note-56)14“Libyan Eclipse 2006.” Tripoli and the Northwest. Lonely Planet.(http://www.lonelyplanet.com/journeys/feature/pdf/libyan_eclipse.pdf)
  • 19. 19One of the finest collections of classical art in the Mediterranean is housed inTripoli‟s Jamahiriya Museum (Phone: 3330292; Martyrs Sq; adult/child3/1LD, camera/video 5/10LD; h9am-1pm Tue-Sun). Built in consultation withUnesco, it‟s extremely well designed and provides a comprehensive overviewof all periods of Libyan history. If time is limited, you may want to restrictyourself to those galleries that provide context to the places you‟re most likelyto visit. Most of the galleries are located on the ground floor, which covers,among other subjects: Saharan rock art (Gallery 4); the Garamantian empire ofWadi al-Hayat (Gallery 5); artefacts from Cyrene and Greek Libya (Galleries7 and 8); and the exceptional displays covering Roman Leptis Magna andSabratha (Gallery 9). On the 2nd floor, the sections on Islamic architecture(Galleries 15 to 19) and the Libyan ethnographic exhibits (Gallery 20), withsome fine sections on Ghadames, are also excellent. The museum once formedpart of the 13,000-sq-metre Al-Saraya al-Hamra (Tripoli Castle or Red Castle;Phone: 3330292; Martyrs Sq; adult/child 3/1LD, camera/video 5/10LD; h.9am-1pm Tue-Sun), which represented the seat of power in Tripolitania fromthe 7th until the 20th centuries. Tripoli Castle has a separate entrance.If tourist guides are able to report about this museum, there is no apparently logicalexplanation to AFRICOM‟s lack of information about this museum. To solve this issue, Ihave compiled all the significant information available online about this museum and I haveimitated the structure of a standard museum website. With this document I try to prove thatnot only there is information about this museum, but also that common people‟s initiativesare in this case more insightful and helpful than some of the organizations supposed to be incharge of Libyan Museums.The following is the map with all the relevant information I was aware of as it looksin the interactive presentation. Below, there are listed the contents and their links.
  • 20. 20General Information• Location: http://www.world66.com/lib/map/handle?loc=africa|libya|tripoli• Hours and Admission:http://www.world66.com/africa/libya/tripoli/museums/castlemuseum• The African Alhambra:http://www.ciao.es/Castillo_rojo_de_Tripoli_Assai_al_Hamra_Tripoli__Opinion_1079073The Building• Image of the Old Building:http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Libya/West/Tarabulus/Tripoli/photo378556.htm• Images of the New Building:http://archnet.org/library/images/thumbnails.tcl?location_id=2400• Architect: http://archnet.org/library/parties/one-party.tcl?party_id=586• Documents: http://archnet.org/library/pubdownloader/pdf/4708/doc/dpt0652.pdfHistory• A First in the Arab World:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000857/085703eo.pdf#85688
  • 21. 21Archive• Preparatory Study by UNESCO (1977):http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0002/000248/024894eb.pdf• Agricultural Galleries Planned for the Libyan National Museum: an interviewwith Dr. Jan Jelinek:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001273/127342eo.pdf#60790• Address by Mr Federico Mayor, Director-General of Unesco, on the occasion ofthe inauguration of the National Museum of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya(Tripoli, 10 September 1988):http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000805/080502eo.pdfThe Collection• Contents and Distribution:http://www.araldodeluca.com/root/campagne/scheda.asp?lingua=ING&id=62• The National Museum at the Guardian Unlimited:http://travel.guardian.co.uk/article/2006/mar/09/libyaImages• Set at Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/h4ppy/sets/72057594134911178/• Mosaic Atlas:http://www.mosaicatlas.com/atlassite.aspx?RegionID=74&LocationID=240• Jorge Tutor Set 1: http://www.jorgetutor.com/libia/tripolimuseo1/tripolimuseo.htmSet 2: http://www.jorgetutor.com/libia/tripolimuseo2/tripolimuseo.htm• Galen Frysinger: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/tripoli_libya_museum.htm• Ioannis Logiotatidis: http://www.pbase.com/logios/museum• Wild Focus Images: http://www.wildfocusimages.com/gallery/829593• Trek Earth:http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Libya/West/Tarabulus/Tripoli/photo497749.htmVirtual Tour• YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3b79LjYI0BYJamahiriya’s Blog• Tripoli and the Outstanding Jamahiriya Museum:http://www.h4ppy.com/blog/2006/04/tripoli-and-outstanding-jamahiriya.htmlResearch• The Society for Libyan Studies: http://www.britac.ac.uk/institutes/libya/index.html• Archaeological and Cultural Trips: http://www.farhorizon.com/Africa/libya-archaeology-culture.htm• Les Richesses Archeologiques de la Lybie:http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7571032763416162868&q=valpard&pl=true• Jamahiriya Fighting Looting in Libyan Museums:http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_4957000/4957662.stm• UNESCO: Museums in the Arab States: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26399&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  • 22. 22About Libya• Geography: http://www.maplibrary.org/stacks/Africa/Libya/index.asp• Culture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Libya• Photographic Tour of Libyan Museums:http://www.montada.com/showthread.php?p=3788760• Libya in Images: http://www.peterlanger.com/Countries/Africa/Libya/index.htm• Wold Heritage at Libya: http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/ly• Libya, the Land of the Colors: http://www.alnawi.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-3231.htmlConclusions and RecommendationsThe main conclusion obtained after my research is that by doing it, I have been able toestablish a starting online reference point for the academic environment and general publicinterested in the Libya museum environment and specifically, the Jamahiriya Museum. Inaddition to this, these are other specific conclusions, The museum reality in Africa and Libya is rich, diverse and multilingual, and it isdirectly affected by the need of a better technological infrastructure There are numerous and significant museums in Libya, internationally competitive interms of the quality of their collections The lack of information available online has no relation with the size and the qualityof Libyan museums‟ collections Libyan Museums need to project a professional group image. One of the first stepscould be placing them on Libya‟s map and providing accurate directions. The Jamahiriya Museum deserves a better placement in the international museumlandscape and a first step to achieve that should be creating a website Standardization of the name of the museum: Choosing a clear name of the museumand branding the museum. Web2.0 tools are a proved way of gathering and offering information online whenother reasons are blocking online official information Web2.0 tools can make a difference in the museum world. Small museums and/orwith small budgets can overcome the boundaries of expensive technologies byapproaching their presence online thanks to Web2.0 tools. In addition to this, their
  • 23. 23embrace of such technologies will surely project a more engaging profile to theiraudiences, as they will be aware that museums care about their visions and feedback. Web2.0 can be a helpful academic source of information. In fact, now I can say that Iwas able to transform all the individual initiatives online in a reference paper.PUBLICATION: Online Posting of the ResearchFor disseminating the contents of this map and contributing to the goals of this paper,I have posted online the map and the information about the Jamahiriya Museum of Tripoli.For that purpose and addressing the main basis of these research based on Web2.0 tools, Ihave chosen the wiki technology. That is why I have created a wikispace specifically focusedon the objectives of this paper that I have called Lybian Museum and I have made availablein this internet address,http://libyanmuseums.wikispaces.comIn addition to this, I have done some postings online including this research as part ofthe contents of my blog e-artcasting. Sociable Technologies in Art Museums (http://e-artcasting.blogspot.com.) This blog is part of a whole research project called „lamusediffuse,‟a collaborative team exploring the forms, impact, and possibilities of electronic technologiesin contemporary culture. “We are a group of Fulbright Scholars from different parts of theWorld directed by Pilar Gonzalo, sharing a common interest in improving lives forindividuals by improving access to culture through digital technologies and their creations.”Under this identity, I have disseminate this project in some blogs, such as, Ly-Hub http://libyans.blogspot.com/2006/12/map-of-museums-in-libya.html Museums on the Web http://conference.archimuse.com/blog/286 KhadijaTeri http://khadijateri.blogspot.com/2006/12/libyan-museums.html#comments
  • 24. 24ReferencesWebsitesArchives and Museum Informatics http://www.archimuse.comArt Museum Network http://www.amn.orgCIMI Consortium for the Computer Interexchange of Museum Informationhttp://www.cimi.orgComputers and the History of Art (CHArt) http://www.chart.ac.ukdel.icio.us http://del.icio.us/Global Museum http://www.globalmuseum.orgGroup on Museum Information Centres (CIDOC)http://www.willpowerinfo.myby.co.uk/cidoc/infocent.htmICOM Handbook of Standards. Documenting African Collectionshttp://icom.museum/afridocICOM Museum Directories List http://icom.museum/museum_directories.htmlICOM Red List Africa http://icom.museum/redlist/afrique/english/intro.html#redlistInternational Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property(ICCROM) http://www.iccrom.orgInternational Council of African Museums (AFRICOM) http://www.africom.museumInternational Council of Museums (ICOM) http://icom.museumMusematic http://www.musematic.netMuseum Computer Network http://www.mcn.eduMuseumblogs http://www.museumblogs.orgMuseums and Computers Group http://www.museumscomputergroup.org.ukMuseums and the Web http://www.archimuse.com/conferences/mw.htmlSchool of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) http://www.soas.ac.ukSouthern Africa Development Community Association of Museums & Monuments(SADCAMM) http://icom.museum/affiliates/sadcamm.html
  • 25. 25Swedish Africa Museum Program (SAMP)http://www.natmus.cul.na/projects/samp/samp.htmTechnorati http://www.technorati.comThe Annual Journal of Record of the Society for Libyan Studies. Society for Libyan Studies,London. http://www.britac.ac.uk/institutes/libya/libstud.htmlUNESCO DigiArts Portal http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=1391&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlUnited Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)http://www.unesco.orgVirtual Library Museum Pages. A Distributed Directory of Online Museumshttp://palimpsest.stanford.edu/icom/vlmpWikipedia http://www.wikipedia.orgBlogsDigital Africa http://digitalafrica.blogspot.come-artcasting. Sociable Technologies in Art Museums http://e-artcasting.blogspot.com/KhadijaTeri http://khadijateri.blogspot.com/2006/12/libyan-museums.html#commentsLy-Hub http://libyans.blogspot.com/2006/12/map-of-museums-in-libya.htmlMany2many. A Group Weblog on Social Software http://many.corante.comMuseums on the Web http://conference.archimuse.com/blog/286Online References“Folkosonomy.” Wikipedia, English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy)“Libya, The Internet in a Conflict Zone.” The Internet in the Arab World. A New Space ofRepression? Arabic Network for Human Rights Information(http://www.hrinfo.net/en/reports/net2004/libya.shtml)“Libya.” Wikipedia. English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libya#_note-56)“Libyan Eclipse 2006.” Tripoli and the Northwest. Lonely Planet.(http://www.lonelyplanet.com/journeys/feature/pdf/libyan_eclipse.pdf)“Semantic Web.” World Wide Web Consortium. (http://www.w3.org/2001/sw)“Social Tagging.” Wikipedia, English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_tagging)
  • 26. 26Abungu, Lorna. “AFRICOM: Connecting Africas Heritage to the World,” Archives andMuseum Informatics: Museum and the Web 2006 Demonstration.http://www.archimuse.com/mw2006/abstracts/prg_315000669.htmlAbungu, Lorna. “From the Director…” Africom News, Issue #5, 2006.Abungu, Lorna; Monda, Lwarence; Ombachi, Geroge. “Connectivity, Collaboration andCulture: Challenges of African Museums on the Web,” Archives and MuseumInformatics: Museum and the Web 1999 Paper. pp. 1-7.http://www.archimuse.com/mw99/papers/abungu/abungu.htmlAfrica Union (http://www.africa-union.org)Africalia (http://www.africalia.be)Bouchenaki, Mounir, (1989), "The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Museum: a first in the Arabworld", UNESCO, Museum Architecture: beyond the <<temple>> and ... beyond(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000857/085703eo.pdf#85688)Feingold, Ken. “ERROR 404: File not Found.” Leonardo Special Issue. Fifth Annual NewYork Digital Salon. 17 Nov. – 13 Dec. 1997, School of Visual Arts, New York. pp.449-490.Goodnow, Katherine J. & Natland, Yngvar. “Storytelling and the Web in South AfricanMuseums,” Archives and Museum Informatics: Museum and the Web 2002 Paper.http://www.archimuse.com/mw2002/papers/goodnow/goodnow.htmlICOM National Committees (http://icom.museum/nationals.html)Jawad, Rana. “Libia teme por su patrimonio robado.”BBC Tripoli Mundo, Cultura.“(http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_4957000/4957662.stm)Jelinek, Jan. “Agricultural Galleries Planned for the Libyan National Museum: an interviewwith Dr. Jan Jelinek.” Museum, #143, vol. XXXVI, nº 3, 1984. UNESCO.(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001273/127342eo.pdf#60790)Jelinek, Jan; Ruller Ivan and Peter Sewell. “National Republic Museum of Libya.” UNESCO,1977. (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0002/000248/024894eb.pdf)Komen, Joris. “Lifevest under your seat - an African museum networking initiative takesoff,” Archives and Museum Informatics: Museum and the Web 1998 Abstract.http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/abstracts/komen.htmlMagara, Elisam. Digitisation of Community Indigenous Knowledge in Developing Countries:A Strategy for Uganda, in J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds.). Museums and the Web2005: Proceedings, Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 31,2005 at http://www.archimuse.com/mw2005/papers/magara/magara.htmlMayor Zaragoza, Federico. “Inauguration of the National Museum of the Libyan ArabJamahiriya Keynote Address.” UNESCO. Tripoli, 10 September, 1988.(http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000805/080502eo.pdf)
  • 27. 27Meyer, Renate. “Digitising African Oral Narratives In a Global Arena,” Archives andMuseum Informatics: Museum and the Web 2004 Paper. pp. 1-12.www.archimuse.com/mw2004/papers/meyer/meyer.htmlMonda, Lawrence. “Kenya & the Web: Challenges of Connectivity,” Archives and MuseumInformatics: Museum and the Web 1999 Demonstration.http://www.archimuse.com/mw99/abstracts/prg_1024.htmlMonda, Lawrence. “The Game Prototype of the Kenyan Cultural Database,” Archives andMuseum Informatics: Museum and the Web 2001 Demonstration.http://www.archimuse.com/mw2001/abstracts/prg_100000602.htmlObservatory of Cultural Policies in Africa (http://ocpa.irmo.hr/index-en.htm)Pennington, Scott & Plichta, Bartek. “Bringing Less Commonly Spoken Language ResourcesOnline: Galleries of West African Culture and Languages,” Archives and MuseumInformatics: Museum and the Web 2003 Demonstration.http://www.archimuse.com/mw2003/abstracts/prg_200000733.htmlRellie J., 10 Years On: Hopes, Fears, Predictions and Gambles for UK Museums On-line, inJ. Trant and D. Bearman (eds.). Museums and the Web 2006: Proceedings, Toronto:Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 1, 2006 athttp://www.archimuse.com/mw2006/papers/rellie/rellie.1.htmlSamis P. and Pau S., „Artcasting‟ at SFMOMA: First-Year Lessons, Future Challenges forMuseum Podcasters broad audience of use, in J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds.).Museums and the Web 2006: Proceedings, Toronto: Archives & MuseumInformatics, published March 1, 2006 athttp://www.archimuse.com/mw2006/papers/samis.htmlVon Appen K., Kennedy B. and Spadaccini J., Community Sites & Emerging SociableTechnologies, in J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds.). Museums and the Web 2006:Proceedings, Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 1, 2006 athttp://www.archimuse.com/mw2006/papers/vonappen.htmlPrinted referencesAnnabi, Chédia; Betu Kumetsu, Marcel; Chieze, Valérie [et al.]. Handbook of Standards:Documenting African Collections. Paris: ICOM, 1996. Web Version(http://icom.museum/afridoc)Chieze, Valérie. “Computerized inventorying of museum collections in Africa.” MuseumInternational, UNESCO, Paris, n° 181 (vol. 46, n°1), 1994, pp.30-33.Cubitt, Sean. “Orbis Tertius,” Third Text n. 47, Summer 1999. pp. 3-10.Feingold, Ken. “Error 404: File not found,” Leonardo Special Issue. Fifth Annual New YorkDigital Salon. 17 Nov. – 13 Dec. pp. 449-450.
  • 28. 28Mubiana Luhila, Lydia and A. Koranteng, Alain Godounou. “New direction in Africa.”Museum International, UNESCO, Paris, n° 188 (vol. 47, n°4), 1995, pp.28-34.Négri, Vincent. Autonomy of Museums in Africa. Paris: ICOM, 1995.Nnakenyi Arinze, Emmanuel. “African museums: the challenge of change.” MuseumInternational, UNESCO, Paris, n° 197 (vol. 50, n°1), 1998, pp. 31-37.Oguibe, Olu. “The digital other. The Virtual Third World,” Flash Art, May-June 1999. p. 63.