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Joints Joints Presentation Transcript

  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 AQA Examinations AS / A Level Sport and Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Module 1 Part A Physiological Factors which Improve Performance04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.1
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Today we are going to concentrate on the joints in the human body. JOINT- A place where two or more bones meet.04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.2
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Types of Joints There are 3 main types of joint found in the body. 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints The bones at an immoveable joint cannot move - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull. 2. Slightly Moveable Joints The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move a little - they are held together by strong straps called ligaments and are joined by protective pads known as cartilage, e.g. the ribs. 3. Freely Moveable Joints At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely. They are also known as synovial joints, and are the largest group of joints found in the body, e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees.04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.3
  • Joints AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY STRUCTURE Fibrous: Have no cavity and are held together by fibrous connective tissue – e.g. the sutures of the skull bones Cartilaginous: Also have no cavity. There is cartilage between the bones of the joint. May be found between the vertebrae of the spine Synovial: Has a fluid filled cavity surrounded by an articular capsule. The articulating surfaces are covered in hyaline cartilage – e.g. the hinge joint of the knee04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.4
  • Joints AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY MOVEMENT Fibrous or synarthrosis: Does not allow any movement, which makes more sense when you know where in the body they occur, as they supply protection – e.g. for the brain Cartilaginous or amphiarthrosis: Allows only limited movement Synovial or diarthrosis: Is freely moving, as much as the shape of the articulating surface will allow.04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.5
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 658104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.6
  • Joints AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 JOINT / MOVEMENT TYPES Joint type Shape of joint Movement range Body place : articulating bones Ball + socket ball shaped bone fits 3 axes F/E AB/AD R C hip : femur, acetabulum of pelvis into cup shaped socket shoulder : scapula, humerus Hinge convex and concave 1 axis F/E knee : femur, patella, tibia surfaces fitting together elbow : humerus, radius, ulna Pivot ring shaped surrounding 1 axis R spine / atlas : odontoid process of axis a cone (turns head from side to side) elbow : proximal ends of radius and ulna Condyloid modified ball and socket 2 axes F/E AB/AD C knuckle joints of fingers : metacarpals, giving circumduction phalanges wrist : radius, carpals Saddle shaped like a saddle 2 axes F/E AB/AD C joint at base of thumb : carpal, giving circumduction metacarpal Gliding two flat gliding surfaces a little in all directions centre of chest : clavicle, sternum wrist : carpals ankle : tarsals spine : articulating surfaces of vertebrae04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.7
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 In the picture below the ball and socket joint at the hip allows the player to get height and then the ball and socket joint at the shoulder allows him to SLAM DUNK!!04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.8
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Hinge joint (the elbow) in use taking a set shot04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.9
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 The knee (HINGE JOINT) is used when flexing (bending) and extending (straightening) the leg to kick a football04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.10
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Spin bowling requires a complex movement of the wrist joint – what type of joint?04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.11
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Bowling underarm involves extension and flexion of the shoulder – what type of joint?04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.12
  • Knowledge of Joints AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 RELATIONSHIP of MUSCULAR SYSTEM to SKELETAL SYSTEM TENDONS FA S C IA a t t a c h m u s c le tt o b o n e a t t a c h m u s c le o b o n e c o n n e c t iv e t is s u e v ia P E R I O S T E U M v ia P E R I O S T E U M e x a m p le : e p im y s iu m e x a m p le :: a c h ille s tt e n d o n e x a m p le a c h ille s e n d o n M USCULAR ATTACH M EN TS L IG A M E N TS S P E R IO S T E A L a t t a c h b o n e tt oo bb oo nn ee ne e x a m p le : k n ee ee jj oo in tt n in LAYERS c r u c ia t e lig aa m ee nn tt ss lig m a t t a c h t e n d o n s t o b o n ee on AA PP O N EE U R O SS II SS ON URO aa f fla ttttee nn ee dd rrib bb oo nn la ib sshh aa pp ee dd ttee nn dd oo nn NAMES OF MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS example : biceps ORIGIN (static end) : coracoid process / glenoid fossa tubercle of humerus INSERTION (moving end) : tuberosity of radius (specific knowledge of origins and insertions will not be examined)04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.13
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Cartilage : Tendons: Ligaments: What’s the difference? Cartilage Tendons Ligaments Tough Attaches bone to muscle Attaches bone to bone Flexible Sturdy Elastic At end of bone Non elastic Stabilise Cushions Size changes depending on Made of many fibres muscle Anchor Strong04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.14
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Synovial Joints04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.15
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Types of Synovial Joints Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move. KEY Ball & Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.16
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Joints Synovial Joints • The articular capsule is a fibrous tissue encasing the joint, forming a capsule • The synovial membrane acts as a lining to the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid • The articular/hyaline cartilage covers the ends of the articulating bones • Synovial fluid fills the joint capsule nourishes and lubricates the articular cartilage04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.17
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Joints Synovial Joints • Ligaments are white fibrous connective tissues joining bone to bone, making the joint more stable • Bursa is found where tendons are in contact with bone. It forms a fluid filed sac between the tendon and bone and helps reduce friction • Articular discs of cartilage act as shock absorbers • Pads of fat act as buffers to protect the bones form wear and tear04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.18
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Synovial Joints Hip Joint Cartilage Ligament Ligament Synovial Fluid Pelvis Capsule Synovial Membrane Femur04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.19
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Ball-and-Socket Joint Condyloid Joint • hip • between metacarpals • shoulder and phalanges 8-904/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.20
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Gliding Joint Hinge Joint • between carpals • elbow • between tarsals • between phalanges 8-1004/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.21
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Pivot Joint Saddle Joint • between proximal • between carpal and metacarpal of thumb ends of radius and ulna 8-1104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.22
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Shoulder Joint • ball-and-socket • head of humerus • glenoid cavity of scapula • loose joint capsule • bursae • ligaments prevent displacement • very wide range of movement 8-1504/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.23
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Elbow Joint • hinge joint • trochlea of humerus • trochlear notch of ulna • gliding joint • capitulum of humerus • head of radius • flexion and extension • many reinforcing ligaments • stable joint 8-1704/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.24
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Hip Joint • ball-and-socket joint • head of femur • acetabulum • heavy joint capsule • many reinforcing ligaments • less freedom of movement than shoulder joint 8-1904/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.25
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Knee Joint • largest joint • most complex • medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur • medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia • femur articulates • strengthened by many anteriorly with patella ligaments and tendons • modified hinge joint • menisci separate femur • flexion/extension/little and tibia rotation • bursae 8-2104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.26
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Sporting Movements 8-2304/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.27
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Which Movements? • Look through the following slides and consider the types of joint, movement allowed in each of the sporting activities shown.04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.28
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 658104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.29
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  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Name the joint, type of joint and movement occurring – as marked by the arrows in each of the following pictures.04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.37
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 658104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.38
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 658104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.39
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  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 6581 Name each joint and the movement occurring at it. Now do the same for each of the slides that follow04/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.42
  • AQA AS / A Level Physical Education AS 5581 A 658104/07/11 Previous Next AS Module 1A.43
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