Approach and landing procedures 2013


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Approach and landing procedures 2013

  1. 1. 03/06/20131Area Navigation - RNAVApproach And Landing ProceduresDavid Szymanski - ENACMay 2013PLAN• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBAS• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBASInstrument Flight Procedure?• Series of predetermined manœuvres byreference to flight instruments• These manoeuvres are based on facilities orway-points for aircraft proceeding according toInstrument Flight Rules ( IFR )REGULATION• ICAO regulation– DOC 8168-OPS/611 (Volume I and II) : procedure design– Annex 11 : Radio Navigation aids– Annex 14 : Aerodrome Design and Operations– Annex 4 : Charting– Annex 15 : Aeronautical Information Services• National regulation– France– USA, Canada– OthersDOC 8168-OPS/611• Design of instrument flightprocedures– En-route– Arrival– Approach– Departure• RNAV• ConventionalnavigationIAFIFFAFMAPTTPHOLDINGINITIAL INTERMEDIATEFINALMISSED APPROACHApproach segments
  2. 2. 03/06/20132Fixes and SegmentsStraight Radioguided segmentCurve radioguided segmentDead-reckoning segmentAIRCRAFT CATEGORY• Five categories : From A to E (H) :– Max and Min Speed (IAS) known by pilots and designers(regulation tables)• Possible speed limitation– Obstructions– ATC constraints– Environmental contraints– MUST be displayed on the chartINITIALAPPROACHFINALAPPROACHCIRCLING MISSED APPROACHMaximum speedCat.VatMin Max Min Max Max Initial andIntermediateFinalA <<<< 91 90 150 (110*) 70 100 100 100 100B 91 / 120 120 180 (140*) 85 130 135 130 150C 121 / 140 160 240 115 160 180 160 240D 141 / 165 185 250 130 185 205 185 265E 166 / 210 185 250 155 230 240 230 275SPEEDS TABLE : IASunit ktPROTECTION AREA• Protection area data– Nominal trajectory– Flight technical tolerances (FTT)– Fix tolerance– Wind effect• Segment protected by a protection areaFix 1Fix 2Fix 3FTT : Reaction delayBank delayConsecutive segments PLAN• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBAS• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBAS
  3. 3. 03/06/20133A BCDEFRNAV: AREA NAVIGATIONShorter Routes ….More Routes Possible ...RNAV approach trajectoryRNAV POSITIONING METHOD• The RNAV system– identifies the next waypoint,– selects the most appropriate source ofnavigation to determine its position– provides information to the auto-pilot to flyto the next waypoint.• An RNAV route can be flown manuallyWAYPOINT• Waypoints expressed in WGS84 coordinates– IAF, IF, FAF, MAPt, MAHF– Arrival or departure waypointFly-over waypointFly-by waypointWP1 : FLY-OVER WP2 : FLY-BYStabilization distances are necessaryALL RNAV TRAJECTORIES ARE CODEDINTO THE DATABASEOn board database••Aerodrome dataAerodrome data••Available navaidsAvailable navaids•Flight paths to follow(charts)
  4. 4. 03/06/20134Departure chartCFDFDFTFTFCODING INFLUENCECONSTRAINTSCONSTRAINTSHow to navigatePATH TERMINATORHow to navigatePATH TERMINATORPATHPATHTF : TRACK BETWEEN FIXESUsable by all systemsPreferential path terminatorDF : DIRECT TO FIX TF Protection
  5. 5. 03/06/20135DF Protection Semi Area Width for RNAVRNAV 5 EnRoute 5.77 NmRNAV 1 / RNAV 2More than 30 Nm 5 NmLess than 30 Nm 2.5 NmRNPAPCHInitial/ Intermediate 2.5NmFinal 0.95NmMissed Approach 2 NmType of waypointPATH TerminatorCoding influenceNominal trajectoryProtection AreaPLAN• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBAS• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBASGNSS integrity monitoring• GNSS integrity monitoring techniques aim at monitoring GNSSpositioning• Large variety of techniques:– In an autonomous manner (ABAS) :• Using only redundancy of GNSS measurements (RAIM)• Using additional information from other sensors (AAIM)– Using a ground station (GBAS)– Using a network of ground stations (SBAS)ICAO GNSS CONCEPTGLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMAUGMENTATIONSATELLITEBASED(SBAS)GEOSTATIONARYEGNOSWAASMTSASGROUNDBASED(GBAS)ON BOARDABAS)A.A.I.MR.A.I.MGAGAN
  6. 6. 03/06/20136Approche GNSS : RNP APPROACH• RNP APCH = Sensor used GNSS with Augmentation• RNP 1 (1 NM of Accuracy) for initial, intermediate and missedapproach segments• RNP 0.3 for final• No vertical guidance :– LNAV• vertical guidance :–– Baro VNAV, SBAS, GBASBaro VNAV, SBAS, GBASWHICH AUGMENTATION FOR WHICH KINDOF APPROACH ?ABAS Non Precision Approach NPA+ VNAV: APproach with Vertical GuidanceAPV baroVNAVSBAS APproach with Vertical GuidanceAPV I and IIGBAS Precision ApproachPLAN• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBAS• Instrument flight Procedure• RNAV• GNSS Approaches:– LNAV (Lateral Guidance)– APV BaroVNAV (Lateral + Vertical)– APV SBAS– GBASNon Precision Approach : LNAVLNAV Protection Areas LNAV : OCH Computation• Assessment of Obstacles in ProtectionArea : Hobst• Add MOC (Minimum obstacle Clearance)– Same whatever the Aircraft Category• OCH = Hobst + MOC• Minima Box Line : LNAV
  7. 7. 03/06/20137RNAV NPA :LNAV Approaches• 2D RNAV = LNAV• RNAV system provideslateral guidance in finalsegment– ABAS as minimumHOW TO FLY VERTICALLY NPA ?• Two different ways to FLY vertically :– ‘Dive and Drive’– ‘Stabilized approach’• NO CONSEQUENCE on PROCEDUREDESIGNDIVE AND DRIVE• Descend immediately to not below minimum step-down fix altitude or MDA/H as appropriate.• Descent gradient < 15%• Missed approach initiated at, or before MAPt.STABILIZED APPROACH(CDFA)• Continuous descent gradient to– a point 50 ft above the threshold– taking regard of minimum crossing altitude at FAFand step-down fixes.• Missed approach initiated :– Visual reference not achieved approaching MDA/H– Not permitted below MDA/H at any time– Not permitted after MAPtCDFA50 FTMOCMDAMAPtDIVE and DRIVECDFA : A specific METHOD OF FLYING the FINAL approach segment of NPA onpre-determined approach slope with continous descent to DA (H)CDFA : Continuous Descent FinalApproach3°°°°FAFDive andDrive modeStabilizedapproach
  8. 8. 03/06/20138APV : Approach with Vertical GuidanceAPPROACH PROCEDURE WITH VERTICALGUIDANCE• APV Approach Procedure with Vertical guidance:An instrument procedure which utilizes lateral and verticalguidance but DOES NOT MEET the requirements establishedfor PRECISION APPROACH and landing operations• LATERAL and VERTICAL GUIDANCE in the FINAL segment• 2 Types– APV SBAS• SBAS receiver on-board– APV BaroVnav• ABAS + VNAV capabilityRNAV APV : SBASAPV SBAS Protection Area (1)APV SBAS Protection Area (2) APV SBAS (LPV) : OCH Computation• Based on ILS methodology• Obstacle Assessment Surfaces (W, W*, X, Y, Z)• Height Loss (HL) instead of MOC (Vertical Guidance)– Different Value for each Aircraft Category• When penetration of obstacleOCH = Hobst + HL• Minima Box Line : LPV– Different value per Aircraft Category
  9. 9. 03/06/20139APV SBAS integrity• Final Approach segmentintegrity through a FASData Block (including CRC)• FAS Data Block in the SBASSystem• Publication of FAS Datablock in AIPAPV SBAS :LPV Approaches• APV SBAS = LPV• RNAV systemprovides lateral andvertical guidance infinal segment– SBASRNAV APV : Baro VNAVAPV Baro VNAV : Protection AreaAPV Baro VNAV OCH Computation• Temperature dependant• Obstacle Assessment Surfaces (FAS, HorizontalPlane, Z)• When penetration of obstacleOCH = Hobst + MOC• Minima Box Line : LNAV / VNAV
  10. 10. 03/06/201310APV Baro VNAV :LNAV / VNAV• APV Baro VNAV = LNAV /VNAV• RNAV system provideslateral and guidance in finalsegment• Vertical guidance throughBarometric altimeter• RNAV System:– ABAS + VNAV systemAPV Baro VNAV : On going criteria• On going criteria for Baro VNAV :– Consistency with all vertical guidance (ILS,MLS, SBAS, GBAS)– Use of HL instead of MOC– Different Position of surfaces regardingexisting criteriaRNAV Precision Approach : GBASAPV GBAS (LPV) : OCH Computation• Same principle as SBAS• Obstacle Assessment Surfaces (W, X, Y, Z)• Height Loss (HL) instead of MOC (VerticalGuidance)• When penetration of obstacleOCH = Hobst + HLRNAV GBAS : PRECISIONAPPROACH• LATERAL and VERTICALGUIDANCE in the FINALsegment– Only with GBASaugmentation• FAS Data Block send byground station to Aircraft↸↸↸↸PRECISIONAPPROACH•Horizontal guidance•Vertical guidanceFAFMAPtOCHMOCHLOCHFAPDHDHMDHMDHNON PRECISIONAPPROACH•Horizontal guidanceAPPROACH withvertical guidance
  11. 11. 03/06/201311SUMMING UPType of approachType ofguidanceMDA or DA Minima lineNPA lateral MDA LNAVAPV baroVNAVLateralVerticalDA LNAV/VNAVAPV SBASLateralVerticalDA LPVPALateralVerticalDATitle of procedure :GLS• Approaches are based on GNSS– In PBN vocabulary : RNP APCH– In AIS document : RNAV (GNSS)• All different vertical guidance in one chart(same Final + missed approach)PublicationCaptureregionCapture RégionIAFIAFIAFIFFAFMAPt70°INITIALSEGMENTINTERMEDIATESEGMENTFINALSEGMENTCaptureregionTF codingY BAR DESIGN CONCEPT•Flight time reduction•Aligned on runway centerline•Improve visualization ofmarkings and lightings•Easy use ( piloting ,nomisunderstanding )Y BAR Concept KEY POINT• Standardization• Easy design• All GNSS receivers NPA certified couldproceed T or Y procedure
  12. 12. 03/06/201312• Provide a vertical guidance– ILS , APV BARO-VNAV, APV SBAS• Provide a constant descent in finalapproachFor CFIT PREVENTIVE MEASUREKEY POINT CONCLUSIONS• Different GNSS Approaches• Only RNP APPROACH (NO RNAV)• GNSS approaches : NPA, APV and PA– Using augmentation:» NPA : LNAV (ABAS)» APV : - SBAS = LPV- BaroVNAV = LNAV / VNAV» PA : GBAS• Obstacle assessment based on surfaces whenvertical guidance is provided (AV and PA)GNSS+VNAV+ABAS receiverBARO VNAVWASS / EGNOS+SBAS ReceiverAPV SBASComputed verticalguidance andbarodependantGeometric verticalguidance based onsatellite informationNavigation Sensors associated with MDAand DAMDH higher than 300ftNPA : GPSHAL : 556mHAL : 40mVAL : 50m300ft< DH < 250ftAPV1 : SBASHAL : 40mVAL : 35m300ft< DH < 200ftLPV200 : SBASEGNOS, GalileoHAL : 40mVAL : 15 to 10m200ft = DHGBAS catIHAL : Horizontal Alarm LimitVAL : Vertical Alarm Limit