Lev Vygotsky‘s BiographyLev Vygotsky was born on November 5,1896 inWestern Russia and died in 1934. His father , SemiL`vovich, founded the "Society of Education inGomel", and held a wide range of active interestsincluding foreign language ,history, literature,theater, and art. His mother was educated as ateacher . Both parents were fluent in several foreignlanguages.
Vigotsky was first educated as lawyer at theMoscow University . After graduation he startedteaching science at various institutions. Also hestudied a range of topics while attendinguniversity which were sociology, linguistics,philosophy. However , his formal work inpsychology did not begin until 1924 when heattended the Institute of Psychology in Moscowand began collaborating with Alexei Leontiev,Alexander Luria, and others.
Contributions to PsychologyLev Vygotsky is considered a seminal thinkerin psychology, and much of his work is stillbeing discovered and explored today. Part ofthis was because his work was oftencriticized by the Communist Party in Russia,and so his writings were largely inaccessibleto the Western world. His premature death atage 38 also contributed to his obscurity.
Sociocultural theoryLev Vygostsky also suggested that humandevelopment results from a dynamicinteraction between individuals and society.Through this interaction, children learngradually and continuously from parent andteachers. This learning, however, can varyfrom one culture to the next. It is important tonote that Vygotskys theory emphasizes thedynamic nature of this interaction.
Application of the Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Some schools have traditionally held ainstructionist model in which a teachertransmits information to students. In contrast,Vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contextsin which students play an active role inlearning.
Elements of Socio-cultural Theory Children, especially toddlers and preschoolers , often speak aloud to them selves as they are trying to understand something. This self-talk helps them to work things out in their own minds .
The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to anyone who has better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner , with respect to a particular task , process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, trainer , or older adult, but the MKO could also peers, a younger person , or even computers.
Zone of Proximal Development According to Vygotsky, the zone of proximaldevelopment is "the distance between theactual developmental level as determined byindependent problem solving and the level ofpotential development as determined throughproblem solving under adult guidance, or incollaboration with more capable peers."
1. Scaffolding : requires that an instructor shows by examples how to solve a problem , while controlling the learning environment so that students can take things step by step expanding their base of knowledge without excessive frustration.
Lev Vygotsky establishes that there aretwo types of mental functions : the lower and the upper. Lower mental functions: are those with which we are born, are the natural functions and are genetically determined. Behavior derived from lower mental functions is limited; It is conditioned by what we can do. These functions we limited our behavior to a reaction or response to the environment.
The higher mental functions: are acquired anddeveloped through social interaction. Given that theindividual is in a specific society with a culturespecific. The higher mental functions aredetermined by the way of being of that society: thehigher mental functions are culturally mediated. ForLev Vygotsky, greater social interaction, moreknowledge, more possibilities for action, morerobust mental functions.
Lev Vygotsky believes that human development is a process of cultural development, being the activity of the man engine in the process of human development. The concept of activity in this way acquires an especially important role in his theory. For him, the process of formation of the higher psychological functions will be through practical and instrumental, but not individual activity, but in the interaction or social cooperation.
Now we know more about Vygotsky’s life and theories. We learn that the language is also crucial and interrelated with the action, providing an additional tool used both to reflect on and direct behavior. We can say that all these investigations are of utmost importance for education since these works provide tools for the development of the individual learning and can be used by an educator or the apprentice as the same may apply the best methodology of study according to your needs.•